Central and Eastern Europe
Sub-regions of Europe according to Eurovoc
The pre-1989 "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders.
The term CEE
includes the Eastern Bloc
) countries west of the post-World War II
border with the former Soviet Union; the independent states in former Yugoslavia (which were not considered part of the Eastern bloc); and the three Baltic states
(which chose not to join the CIS
with the other 12 former republics of the USSR).
The CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European Union
(EU): the eight first-wave accession countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004 (Estonia
, Czech Republic
, and Slovenia
), the two second-wave accession countries that joined on 1 January 2007 (Romania
) and the third-wave accession country that joined on 1 July 2013 (Croatia
). According to the World Bank
2008 analysis, the transition to advanced market economies is over for all 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.
The CEE countries include the former socialist states, which extend west of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova; south of Finland and the Baltic Sea
; north of Greece; and east of Austria, Italy, and Germany:
According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
, "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) is an OECD term for the group of countries comprising Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and the three Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania."
- ^ Inotai, András (Autumn 2009). "BUDAPEST—Ghost of Second-Class Status Haunts Central and Eastern Europe". Europe's World.
- ^ Z. Lerman, C. Csaki, and G. Feder, Agriculture in Transition: Land Policies and Evolving Farm Structures in Post-Soviet Countries, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD (2004), see, e.g., Table 1.1, p. 4.
- ^ J. Swinnen, ed., Political Economy of Agrarian Reform in Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot (1997).
- ^ Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, World Bank, Washington (2008), p. 42
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "CEE countries". 9 August 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Directorate, OECD Statistics. "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) Definition". stats.oecd.org.
- ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently (this note self-updates) recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
- ^ "UNECE Homepage". www.unece.org.
Last edited on 29 April 2021, at 12:56
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