is a political
outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of social equality
and a degree of social hierarchy
, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strongly to either the left
or the right
Usage by political parties by country
There have been centrists in both sides of politics, who serve alongside the various factions within the Liberal
parties. Centrism is represented by the moderates
in the Liberal Party and Labor Right
in the Labor Party
The Australian Democrats
is the most prominent centrist party in Australian History. The party had representation in the senate from 1977 through to 2007, frequently holding the balance of power in that time. Formed by Don Chipp
, on a promise to "Keep the Bastards Honest", it was known to have represented the "middle ground". The party regained registration in 2019.
In addition, there are a number of smaller groups that have formed in response to the bipartisan system who uphold centrist ideals. South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon
had launched his own centrist political party called the Nick Xenophon Team
(NXT) in 2014, renamed Centre Alliance
The traditional centrist party of Flanders
was the People's Union
which embraced social liberalism
and aimed to represent Dutch-speaking Belgians who felt culturally suppressed by Francophones. The New Flemish Alliance
is the largest and since 2009 the only extant successor of that party. It is, however, primarily composed of the right wing of the former People's Union, and has adopted a more liberal conservative
ideology in recent years.
Other parties in the centre of the political spectrum are the liberal Reformist Movement
and the French-speaking minority party DéFI
France has a tradition of parties that call themselves "centriste
", though the actual parties vary over time: when a new political issue emerges and a new political party breaks into the mainstream, the old centre-left party may be de facto pushed rightwards, but unable to consider itself a party of the right, it will embrace being the new centre: this process occurred with the Orléanism
, Moderate Républicanism
, Radical Republicanism
is a term only known to experts, as it is easily confused with Zentralismus ("centralism", the opposite to decentralisation/federalism), so the usual term in German for the political centre/centrism is politische Mitte
(literally "political middle", or "political centre"). Historically, the German party with the most purely centrist nature among German parties to have had current or historical parliamentary representations was most likely the social-liberal German Democratic Party
of the Weimar Republic
There existed during the Weimar Republic (and again after the Nazi period) a Zentrum
, a party of German Catholics
founded in 1870. It was called Centre Party not for being a proper centrist party, but because it united left-wing and right-wing Catholics, because it was the first German party to be a Volkspartei
) and because his elected representatives sat between the liberals (the left of the time) and the conservatives (the right of the time). However, it was distinctly right-wing conservative in that it was not neutral on religious issues (such as on secular education), being markedly against more liberal and modernist positions.
The main successor of Zentrum
after the return of democracy to West Germany in 1945, the Christian Democratic Union
, has throughout its history alternated between describing itself as right-wing or centrist and sitting on the right-wing (with the Free Democratic Party
in its social liberal moments sitting at its left, in the centre and themselves sitting at the centre, with the FDP in its classical liberal
moments sitting at its right, in the right-wing). The representatives of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
, although they have referred to themselves as "the new middle" many times since the 1990s (under influence of the Third way
of the time), however, they feel less at ease in describing their party as centrist due to their history and socialist identity.
Alliance '90/The Greens
was founded in 1993 as a merger from the East German Alliance 90
(a group of centrist/transversalist
civil rights activists) and the (West) German Greens. The latter was a coalition of various unorthodox-left politicians and more liberal "realists". This Bundestag
party also hesitates in using the term centre, although it does distance itself as well from the tag of left, which identifies it for the moment as a transversalist party. The transversalist moderation of the party and its position in the Bundestag between the Social Democrats and the Christian Democrats (while the FDP has its seats at the right of the Christian Democrats) also points somewhat to The Greens being a more or less centrist party.
In the state parliaments of specific German states there are other specifically regional parties which could be identified as centrist. The South Schleswig Voter Federation
, of the Danish and Frisian minorities in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
has currently a centrist political position, although in the past the party usually leaned to the left. In the German presidential elections of 2009
, it supported the candidates of the Social Democrats and the Greens. In Bavaria, the Free Voters
party present at the state parliament may also be seen as a centrist party.
In modern Greek politics, the roots of centrism can be traced to centrist politician and founder of the Agricultural and Labour Party
, Alexandros Papanastasiou
. In 1961, Georgios Papandreou
created along with other political leaders the coalition party of Centre Union
. Five parties were merged: Liberal Party, Progressive Agricultural Democratic Union, National Progressive Center Union, Popular Social Party into one, with strong centrist agenda opposed equally to right wing party of National Radical Union and left wing party of United Democratic Left. The Centre Union Party was the last Venizelist party to hold power in Greece. The party nominally continued to exist until 1977 (after the Junta it was known as the Center Union – New Forces
), when its successor Union of the Democratic Centre (EDIK) party was created.
Union of Centrists
was created by Vassilis Leventis
in 1992 under the title "Union of Centrists and Ecologists", though the name was changed shortly after. The Union of Centrists claims to be the ideological continuation of the old party Center Union. The party strives to become "the political continuance of the centrist expression in Greece". Leventis aimed to become part of the Venizelist legacy of some great politicians of the past, such as Eleftherios Venizelos and George Papandreou Sr. However, the party's total influence had been marginal until 2015, with 1.79% of the total votes (in the January 2015 Greek legislative election
) being its highest achievement before finally making its way to the Greek Parliament
in September 2015 with 3.43% of the total votes and 9 members elected.
The National People's Party
is a national-level political party in India, though its influence is mostly concentrated in the state of Meghalaya
. The party was founded by P A Sangma
after his expulsion from the NCP
in July 2012.
It was accorded national party status on 7 June 2019.
It is the first political party from Northeastern India
to have attained this status.
In the Republic of Ireland
, both two main political parties (Fianna Fáil
and Fine Gael
) claim the political centre ground, but seem to lean to the centre-right and be mostly made up of centre-right members.
The two parties have shared broadly similar policies in the past, with their primary division being perceived as being steeped in Irish Civil War
politics. Fine Gael is aligned to Christian democratic
parties in Europe via its membership of the European People's Party
and is described internationally as centre-right
by the likes of Reuters.
The consensus in analysis seems to be that Fianna Fáil is mostly centrist, expanding to the centre-right space and that Fine Gael is mostly centre-rightist, expanding also to the centre space.
In Israel, centrism is represented by the Yesh Atid
Party led by Yair Lapid
. The party was founded in 2013 and has remained a major player on the political scene. It served in government between 2013 and 2015 with Lapid serving as Israel's Finance Minister and a member of the Security Cabinet. In 2020, after a year of political turmoil in Israel, Yair Lapid became the Leader of the Opposition
to the fifth government of Benjamin Netanyahu.
Yair Lapid published a long political essay entitled Only the center can hold: Democracy and the battle of ideas 
in which he laid out his vision of political centrism in Israel. The essay was originally published in Hebrew in Haaretz under the title "Not, just not Bibi. In this battle of ideas the center has solutions"
In the 1980s and 1990s, there were two self-described "centre" parties, the Centre Party
and the Centre Democrats
who at some point were represented in Dutch parliament
. However these parties were considered as far right
(in the case of the Centre Democrats) or even extreme right
(in the case of the Centre Party) in their opinion about foreign immigration.
Both parties denied being racist or extremist in character. The party slogan of the Center Party was "niet rechts, niet links"
("Neither rightist nor leftist"), and in some respect could be seen as a centrist (or more correctly Third Position
) party since it borrowed ideas from the political (far) right (a tough stand on immigration combined with typical racial prejudice) and the political left (mixed economy
, green politics). However both of these two parties didn't really have a coherent ideology; they were basically one-issue parties focussed on what they perceived as mass immigration from non-European countries.
Campaign for the Norwegian Centre Party
: like its Finnish
counterparts, the party has a strong focus on decentralisation, rural and agrarian issues
Neither the Centre Democrats
(a now defunct centrist political party) nor the Liberal Alliance
(a political party founded as a centrist social liberal party, but that now is a classical liberal party), both of Denmark, are rooted in centrist agrarianism.
The Third Way
is a small centrist Palestinian political party active in Palestinian politics. Founded on 16 December 2005, the party is led by Salam Fayyad
and Hanan Ashrawi
In the January 2006 PLC elections, it received 2.41% of the popular vote and won two of the Council
's 132 seats. The party presents itself as an alternative to the two-party system of Hamas
(PO), ruling in 2007–2015, began in 2001 as a liberal conservative party, but later under the leadership of Donald Tusk
turned into typical centrist in order to attract left-leading liberal voters. Depending on the context, it is described as either Christian Democratic (it is a member of European People's Party
), conservative, liberal, or social. Its pragmatism, technocracy and lack of ideology have been nevertheless criticized and currently, under the leader Grzegorz Schetyna
announced that it is returning to the right, but with new leader Borys Budka
and as a part of Civic Coalition
it turns to progressivism again, as seen by policies proposed by their candidate, Rafał Trzaskowski
, in 2020 presidential elections. Other political groups like Polish People's Party
(PSL) may be described as centrist too (in Poland, national-moral right-wing Law and Justice
is social conservative
, usually at the same time economical left and favor protectionism
policies). Newest political party present in Polish Parliament, Poland 2050
led by Szymon Hołownia
, has been described as ideological centre with strong pragmatic influences.
The only national party that defends itself as a centrist party is Citizens
, whose platform is been increasingly perceived as right-wing by the Spanish citizens as the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas
surveys show. In April 2018 Ciudadanos obtained a 6,77, when ranging political parties from 1 to 10, where 1 was farthest left and 10 its equivalent in the right.
It first entered the Cortes Generales
In Catalonia, where the party was born, many people even consider it as an extreme right-wing party, considering its fierce "opposition to nationalism". Not even the media agree on its place and several newspapers from different ideologies manifest that Citizens is either left or right, depending on their political line. Regardless of subjective opinions, the truth is that Ciudadanos has always tried to reach agreements
with Union, Progress and Democracy
(UPyD), which Spanish voters most traditionally consider to be the closest to the centre according to several opinion polls. This popular perception was pointed out by UPyD, which positions itself simultaneously on the political centre and cross-sectionalism, thus embracing ideas across the political spectrum.
In Switzerland, the centrist parties tend to co-operate closely in Canton parliaments and municipal councils.
In the 1970s, the traditionally socialist Labour Party
moved further to the left, causing discomfort to MPs who saw themselves as belonging to the party's social democratic tendency. On 25 January 1981, leading figures from the Labour Party
, David Owen
, Shirley Williams
and Bill Rodgers
, known collectively as the "Gang of Four") launched the Council for Social Democracy, which later became the Social Democratic Party
in March, after outlining their policies in what became known as the Limehouse Declaration
. The "Gang of Four" were centrists, who had defected from the Labour Party due to what they perceived to be the influence of the Militant tendency
and the "hard left
" within the party.
After waning electoral success, the SDP merged with the Liberal Party
in 1988 to create the centrist Liberal Democrats
In the mid to late 1990s, Labour under the leadership of Tony Blair
began to move towards a centrist Third Way
policy platform, adopting the campaign name New Labour
. The New Labour era ended when Blair's successor Gordon Brown
lost the 2010 election
to the Conservatives. Brown's successor as leader, Ed Miliband
, moved the party slightly to the left of the New Labour era position. Miliband set out his stall to "redefine the political centre", with pundits declaring New Labour "dead".
The Blue Labour
movement, launched in 2009, attempted to cultivate a new path for Labour centrism that would appeal to socially conservative working class periods, and was a mild influence on Labour during Miliband's tenure. The party later moved decisively to the left when the socialist Jeremy Corbyn
became leader in 2015, as a result of the introduction of a one member one vote
system under Miliband.
In March 2011, Nick Clegg
, the-then leader of the Liberal Democrats
and Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
, stated that he believed that his party belonged to the radical centre, mentioning John Maynard Keynes
, William Beveridge
, Jo Grimond
, David Lloyd George
and John Stuart Mill
as examples of the radical centre that preceded the Liberal Democrats' establishment in 1988. He pointed to liberalism as an ideology of people and described the political spectrum and his party's position as follows: "For the left, an obsession with the state. For the right, a worship of the market. But as liberals, we place our faith in people. People with power and opportunity in their hands. Our opponents try to divide us with their outdated labels of left and right. But we are not on the left and we are not on the right. We have our own label: Liberal. We are liberals and we own the freehold to the centre ground of British politics. Our politics is the politics of the radical centre".
In the mid to late 2000s, David Cameron
also moved the Conservative Party towards the centre, allowing his party to be elected in 2010
in a coalition with the Liberal Democrats
. In the 2015 election
, the Conservatives gained a majority and the Liberal Democrats lost most of their seats. They regained a small number of seats in the 2017 election
. Cameron's successor Theresa May
used left-wing rhetoric on her appointment as Prime Minister, stating her wish to tackle social inequality, and adopted some of Ed Miliband's policies; for example, on regulating energy companies. However, the party's 2017 manifesto was seen as sharp break from the centre ground, appealing to traditionally Tory heartland issues in the aftermath of the UK's Brexit referendum
Following the Brexit referendum
, politics in the UK was seen as having reverted to traditionally polarised "left and right" politics. For the 2017 election, the group More United
was set up in the vein of the US Super PAC
model to support candidates from multiple parties who meet its values; it gave support primarily to Labour and Lib Dem MPs, as well as one Conservative. In April 2018, The Observer
newspaper reported that a group setup by Simon Franks had amassed £50 million to start a new centrist political party in the UK to field candidates at the next general election.
It has reportedly been named United for Change
The early 1990s were perhaps the high water mark of post-war centrist politics in America. Journalist and political commentator E. J. Dionne
wrote in his book Why Americans Hate Politics
, published on the eve of the 1992 presidential election
, that he believes American voters are looking for a "New Political Center" that intermixes "liberal instincts" and "conservative values". He labelled people in this center position as "tolerant traditionalists". He described them as believers in conventional social morals that ensure family stability, as tolerant within reason to those who challenge those morals and as pragmatically supportive of government intervention in spheres such as education, child care and health care
, as long as budgets are balanced.
Independent candidate H. Ross Perot
, who focused on pragmatic issues like a balanced budget and was viewed as a populist
garnered nearly 19% of the popular vote in the 1992 presidential election
, even though he ran against Bill Clinton
, a center-left Democrat,
and George H.W. Bush
, a center-right Republican.
Perot went on to form the Reform Party
and run a second time in the 1996 presidential election
, but with less success.
A late-2011 Gallup poll of Americans' attitudes towards government reported that 17% expressed conservative views, 22% expressed libertarian views, 20% expressed communitarian views, 17% expressed centrist views and 24% expressed liberal views.
, a coalition of American centrists funded by wealthy donors such as business magnate Michael Bloomberg
, former junk-bond
trader Peter Ackerman
and hedge fund
manager John H. Burbank III, launched an effort in mid-2011 to create a national "virtual primary" that would challenge the current two-party system. The group aimed to nominate a presidential ticket of centrists with names that would be on ballots in all 50 states. The group banked on broad cultural dissatisfaction with the partisan gridlock in Washington, D.C. The Christian Science Monitor
has stated that "the political climate couldn't be riper for a serious third-party alternative" such as their effort, but the "hurdles Americans Elect faces are daunting" to get on ballots.
Washington political journalist Linda Killian wrote in her 2012 book The Swing Vote
that Americans are frustrated with Congress and its dysfunction and inability to do its job. A growing number of Americans are not satisfied with the political process because a number of factors such as influx of money into politics and the influence of special interests and lobbyists. The book classifies four types of independent voters including "NPR Republicans
", "America First Democrats
", "The Facebook
Generation" and "Starbucks
Moms and Dads" who were big determinates of swing votes in the 2012 presidential election.
Political Columnist and author John Avlon
wrote in his 2005 book Independent Nation that centrism is not a matter of compromise or reading polls; rather it's an antidote to the politics of divisiveness, providing principled opposition to political extremes.
Brokerage politics: "A Canadian term for successful big tent
parties that embody a pluralistic
catch-all approach to appeal to the median Canadian voter ... adopting centrist policies and electoral coalitions
to satisfy the short-term preferences of a majority of electors who are not located on the ideological fringe."
- ^ Oliver H. Woshinsky. Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions, and Political Behavior. Oxon, England; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 141, 161.
- ^ Boswell, Jonathan (2013). Community and the Economy: The Theory of Public Co-operation. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 9781136159015.
- ^ Bobbio, Norberto; Cameron, Allan (1997).Left and Right: The Significance of A Political Distinction. University of Chicago Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-226-06245-7. ISBN 978-0-226-06245-7.
- ^ "BBC News — UK Politics — What is the Third Way?". BBC News. 27 September 1999. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- ^ Amanda Bittner; Royce Koop (1 March 2013). Parties, Elections, and the Future of Canadian Politics. UBC Press. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-7748-2411-8. Domination by the Centre The central anomaly of the Canadian system, and the primary cause of its other peculiarities, has been its historical domination by a party of the centre. In none of the other countries is a centre party even a major player, much less the dominant....
- ^ a b Marland, Alex; Giasson, Thierry; Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2012). Political Marketing in Canada. UBC Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7748-2231-2.
- ^ John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. OUP USA. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4.
- ^ Brooks, Stephen (2004). Canadian Democracy: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-19-541806-4. two historically dominant political parties have avoided ideological appeals in favour of a flexible centrist style of politics that is often labelled "brokerage politics"
- ^ Johnson, David (2016). Thinking Government: Public Administration and Politics in Canada, Fourth Edition. University of Toronto Press. pp. 13–23. ISBN 978-1-4426-3521-0. ...most Canadian governments, especially at the federal level, have taken a moderate, centrist approach to decision making, seeking to balance growth, stability, and governmental efficiency and economy...
- ^ a b Baumer, Donald C.; Gold, Howard J. (2015). Parties, Polarization and Democracy in the United States. Taylor & Francis. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-317-25478-2.
- ^ Smith, Miriam (2014). Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada: Second Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4426-0695-1. Canada's party system has long been described as a “brokerage system” in which the leading parties (Liberal and Conservative) follow strategies that appeal across major social cleavages in an effort to defuse potential tensions.
- ^ Elections Canada (2018). "Plurality-Majority Electoral Systems: A Review". Elections Canada. First Past the Post in Canada has favoured broadly-based, accommodative, centrist parties...
- ^ Andrea Olive (2015). The Canadian Environment in Political Context. University of Toronto Press. pp. 55–60. ISBN 978-1-4426-0871-9.
- ^ Amanda Bittner; Royce Koop (1 March 2013). Parties, Elections, and the Future of Canadian Politics. UBC Press. pp. 300–. ISBN 978-0-7748-2411-8.
- ^ "Liberal Party". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2015.
- ^ Graham, Ron, ed. (1998). The Essential Trudeau. McClelland & Stewart, p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7710-8591-8.
- ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2017). Canada 2017–2018. Rowman & Littlefield, p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4758-3510-6.
- ^ Ambrose, Emma; Mudde, Cas (2015). "Canadian Multiculturalism and the Absence of the Far Right". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 21 (2): 213–236. doi:10.1080/13537113.2015.1032033. S2CID 145773856.
- ^ Taub, Amanda (2017). "Canada's Secret to Resisting the West's Populist Wave". The New York Times.
- ^ Christopher Cochran (September 2010). "Left/Right Ideology and Canadian Politics". Canadian Journal of Political Science. 43 (3): 583–605. doi:10.1017/S0008423910000624. JSTOR 40983510.
- ^ "Sangma to launch his own party tomorrow". The Hindu. PTI. 4 January 2013. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- ^ "NPP first from N-E to get national party status". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 8 June 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- ^ Reporter, Staff (11 March 2021). "Makkal Needhi Maiam declares 70 candidates". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- ^ Iran Daily – Dot Coms – 05-31-07, Bertie's Challenge Archived 18 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 5th paragraph
- ^ Brown, John Murray (13 February 2009). "Irish Poll Hits Fianna Fail". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- ^ "Irish opposition party says IMF/EU deal too costly". Reuters. 12 December 2010.
- ^ "Only the center can hold: Democracy and the battle of ideas".
- ^ "אומרים שאנחנו מפלגת "רק לא ביבי". הנה מה שאנחנו באמת מאמינים בו // יאיר לפיד".
- ^ Politieke Barometer: D66 middenpartij bij uitstek. Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Stichting, Anne Frank (20 January 2011). "Kroniek extreemrechts: De Centrumpartij". annefrank.org.
- ^ Hassan, Mirza (28 June 2012). "Survey: Imran Khan most popular leader of Pakistan". TheNewsTribe.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- ^ "elections.com.pk". Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
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- ^  Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas. 27 July 2018
- ^ , El Confidencial
- ^ "Andrés Herzog sucederá a Rosa Díez al frente de UPyD" (in Spanish). Reuters. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016. En su último discurso como portavoz de UPyD, Díez reivindicó a su formación -que se define como un partido progresista situado en el centro político-, como el artífice del cambio político en España
- ^ González Almeida, José María (12 November 2013). "UPyD: La evolución de la política en España". upyd.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2016. UPyD ofrece entendimiento a través del transversalismo, que bien pueden servir sin necesidad de inclinarse a un lado o a otro, ya que todos tienen algo positivo que aportar y la formación magenta sabe bien sintetizar lo mejor de cada idea, ofreciendo un dulce cóctel al ciudadano
- ^  Europa Press
- ^ DISTRIBUCIONES DE FRECUENCIA MARGINALES DEL ESTUDIO 2909 CUESTIONARIO 0 MUESTRA 0, CIS-Centro de Estudios Sociológicos (see Question number 27) (Spanish)
- ^ digitale, WNG agence. "Es braucht eine starke liberale Kraft im Parlament – mehr denn je". fdp.ch.
- ^ The party itself rejects the left-right notion, stating on its FAQ-page that it is a centre party.
- ^ "Die CVP ist die Partei der Mitte!". cvp.ch.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". CVP Schweiz.
- ^ In urban and Protestant areas, the party tends to be more centrist than in rural, predominantly Catholic areas.
- ^ "Partei - EVP Schweiz". www.evppev.ch.
- ^ "Im Parlamentarier-Rating steht die EVP mit der sozialen Mitte alleine, da ist niemand!". evppev.ch.
- ^ The party rejects the left-right classification, but it tends to be on the centre or centre-left on social and environmental issues, centrist on economic issues and centre-right on ethical issues.
- ^ "BDP Schweiz › Köpfe". www.bdp.info.
- ^ "Smartvote Parteienporträt: Bürgerlich-Demokratische Partei (BDP), page 3" (PDF). smartvote.ch. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- ^ Ltd., Magnolia International. "Parteigeschichte". grunliberale.ch.
- ^ http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=721636456&Country=Switzerland&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure The Economist Intelligence Unit (2015). Switzerland--Country Overview. The Economist. p. 1
- ^ Peter Childs; Michael Storry (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. Routledge. p. 485. ISBN 978-1-134-75555-4.
- ^ Donald Sassoon (30 July 2010). One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. I.B.Tauris. p. 698. ISBN 978-0-85771-530-2.
- ^ Barker, Alex (26 September 2010). "Miliband declares New Labour dead". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
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- ^ Perraudin, Francis (19 December 2019). "Independent Group for Change to be disbanded". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
- ^ Schlesinger Jr., Arthur (4 April 1948). "Not Left, Not Right, But a Vital Center". New York Times.
- ^ Emery, Noemie (17 July 2006). "The Inconvenient Truth about Truman". Washington Examiner.
- ^ Zeitz, Joshua (4 November 2018). "Democrats Aren't Moving Left. They're Returning to Their Roots". Politico.
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- ^ Bartlett, Bruce (24 August 2020). "When the Republican Party Was Sane". The New Republic.
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- ^ Judas, John (19 May 1996). "The Third Rail". The New Republic.
- ^ Kazin, Michael (22 November 1998). "'Populism' By any Other Name . . ". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Funk, Tim (25 February 2016). "Bill Clinton's centrist legacy becomes an issue as his wife courts the left". Charlotte Observer.
- ^ Allen, Jonathan (1 December 2018). "As a moderate Republican and internationalist, George H.W. Bush was last of a kind". NBC News.
- ^ Ekins, Emily (29 August 2011). "Reason-Rupe Poll Finds 24 Percent of Americans are Economically Conservative and Socially Liberal, 28 Percent Liberal, 28 Percent Conservative, and 20 Percent Communitarian". Reason. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- ^ Jonsson, Patrik (29 July 2011). "Americans Elect launches centrist third-party bid amid Washington dysfunction". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- ^ Killian, Linda (February 2012). "4 Types of Independent Voters Who Could Swing the 2012 Elections". TheAtlantic.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- ^ "Independent Nation: How the Vital Center Is Changing American Politics". publishersweekly.com. Publishers Weekly. 1 February 2004. Retrieved 4 November 2017. Avlon's thesis by exploring political battlegrounds-from state primaries to presidential campaigns-in which a centrist message succeeded. To Avlon centrism is not a matter of compromise or reading polls; rather it's an antidote to the politics of divisiveness, providing principled opposition to political extremes.
- ^ Pollard, Vic (15 March 2007). "Pollard column: 'Mod squad' lockout has Parra steamed". The Bakersfield Californian. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- ^ Noor, Poppy (18 December 2019). "OK boomer: how Barack Obama became the ultimate centrist dad". The Guardian.
- ^ Kiely, Kathy; Moore, Martha (3 July 2008). "Obama faces online backlash for centrist views". ABC News.
- ^ Prell, Owen (21 July 2020). "Is America a Failed State? More Than We Realize". Medium.
- ^ Smith, Sean (15 November 2020). "Be warned Joe Biden – centrism is no longer a safe haven in politics". The Independent.
- ^ Hook, Janet (12 August 2020). "Picking Harris, Biden puts centrist stamp on Democrats' future". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Olson, Walter (16 August 2016). "Gary Johnson and the Rise of Libertarian Centrism". Reason.com. Reason Foundation. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Ali, Tariq (2015). The Extreme Centre: A Warning. Verso Books.
- Brown, David S. (2016). Moderates: The Vital Center of American Politics, from the Founding to Today. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
- Chase Sr., Richard G. (2019). We of Mind and Reason - A Treatise for the Constitutional Patriots of America. The Fourth Branch
- Media related to Centrism at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Centrism at Wikiquote
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