The name Abyla
has been said to have been a Punic
name ("Lofty Mountain"
or "Mountain of God
") for Jebel Musa
the southern Pillar of Hercules
The name of the mountain was in fact Habenna
" or "Stele
") or ʾAbin-ḥīq
, "Rock of the Bay"), in reference to the nearby Bay of Benzú
The name was hellenized
variously as Ápini
: Ἄπινι), Abýla
(Ἀβλύξ), and Abílē Stḗlē
(Ἀβίλη Στήλη, "Pillar of Abyla")
and in Latin
as Mount Abyla (Abyla Mons
) or the Pillar of Abyla (Abyla Columna
The settlement below Jebel Musa was later renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers"
: Ἑπτάδελφοι, translit. Heptádelphoi
: Septem Fratres
In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers" (Castellum ad Septem Fratres
This was gradually shortened to Septem
) or, occasionally, Septum
These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta
and Arabic Sabtan
), which themselves became Ceuta
) and Spanish
Phoenician archeological site, dated to the 7th century BC, next to the Cathedral of Ceuta
, probably invited by Count Boniface
as protection against the empress dowager
, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa. Their king Gaiseric
focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage
; although the Romans eventually accepted his conquests and he continued to raid them anyway, he soon lost control of Tingis and Septem in a series of Berber revolts. When Justinian
decided to reconquer the Vandal lands
, his victorious general Belisarius
continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost
of the Byzantine Empire
around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, however, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis.
, less capable successors, and overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated. It is likely that its count
) was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom
in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb
around 710. Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain
concerning Count Julian
of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick
's court. Allegedly with Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad
took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his master Musa bin Nusayr
fell afoul of a jealous caliph
, who stripped them of their wealth and titles.
After the death of Julian, sometimes also described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers
, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta. It was then destroyed during their great revolt
against the Umayyad Caliphate
around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam
His great-grandson briefly allied his tribe with the Idrisids
, but Banu Isam rule ended in 931 when he abdicated in favor of Abd ar-Rahman III
, the Umayyad caliph of Cordoba
. Ceuta reverted to Moorish Andalusian
rule in 927 along with Melilla
, and later Tangier
, in 951.
Chaos ensued with the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Following this, Ceuta and Muslim Iberia were controlled by successive North African dynasties. Starting in 1084, the Almoravid
Berbers ruled the region until 1147, when the Almohads
conquered the land. Apart from Ibn Hud
's rebellion in 1232, they ruled until the Tunisian Hafsids
established control. The Hafsids' influence in the west rapidly waned, and Ceuta's inhabitants eventually expelled them in 1249. After this, a period of political instability persisted, under competing interests from the kingdoms of Fez
as well as autonomous rule under the native Banu al-Azafi
. The Fez finally conquered the region in 1387, with assistance from Aragon
1572 depiction of Ceuta
On the morning of 21 August 1415, King John I of Portugal
led his sons and their assembled forces in a surprise assault that would come to be known as the Conquest of Ceuta
. The battle was almost anti-climactic, because the 45,000 men who traveled on 200 Portuguese ships caught the defenders of Ceuta off guard and only suffered eight casualties. By nightfall the town was captured. On the morning of 22 August, Ceuta was in Portuguese hands. Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches
was asked to hoist what was to become the flag of Ceuta
, which is identical to the flag of Lisbon
, but in which the coat of arms derived from that of the Kingdom of Portugal
was added to the center; the original Portuguese flag and coat of arms
of Ceuta remained unchanged, and the modern-day Ceuta flag features the configuration of the Portuguese shield
John's son Henry the Navigator
distinguished himself in the battle, being wounded during the conquest. The looting of the city proved to be less profitable than expected for John I; he decided to keep the city to pursue further enterprises in the area.
Possession of Ceuta would indirectly lead to further Portuguese expansion
. The main area of Portuguese expansion, at this time, was the coast of the Maghreb
, where there was grain, cattle, sugar, and textiles, as well as fish, hides, wax, and honey.
Ceuta had to endure alone for 43 years, until the position of the city was consolidated with the taking of Ksar es-Seghir
(1471) by the Portuguese.
In the 1540s the Portuguese began building the Royal Walls of Ceuta
as they are today including bastions, a navigable moat and a drawbridge. Some of these bastions are still standing, like the bastions of Coraza Alta, Bandera and Mallorquines.
Luís de Camões
lived in Ceuta between 1549 and 1551, losing his right eye in battle, which influenced his work of poetry Os Lusíadas
In 1578 King Sebastian of Portugal
died at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir
(known as the Battle of Three Kings) in what is today northern Morocco, without descendants, triggering the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis
. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henry
, succeeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders. When the cardinal-king died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of King Manuel I of Portugal
claimed the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza
, António, Prior of Crato
, and Philip II of Spain (Uncle of former King Sebastian of Portugal
), who would go on to be crowned King Philip I of Portugal
in 1581, uniting the two crowns and overseas empires known as the Iberian Union
which allowed the two kingdoms to continue without being merged.
Fort of the Desnarigado, built in the 19th century. It houses a museum.
Bastion of la Coraza Alta on the shore of the Playa del Chorrillo beach.
The city was attacked by Moroccan forces under Moulay Ismail
during the Siege of Ceuta (1694–1727)
. During the longest siege in history, the city underwent changes leading to the loss of its Portuguese character. While most of the military operations took place around the Royal Walls of Ceuta
, there were also small-scale penetrations by Spanish forces at various points on the Moroccan coast, and seizure of shipping in the Strait of Gibraltar.
A street in Ceuta, c. 1905–1910
In July 1936, General Francisco Franco
took command of the Spanish Army of Africa
and rebelled against the Spanish republican government; his military uprising led to the Spanish Civil War
of 1936–1939. Franco transported troops to mainland Spain in an airlift using transport aircraft supplied by Germany
. Ceuta became one of the first casualties of the uprising: General Franco's rebel nationalist forces seized Ceuta, while at the same time the city came under fire from the air and sea forces of the official republican government.
The Llano Amarillo
monument was erected to honor Francisco Franco
, it was inaugurated on 13 July 1940. The tall obelisk has since been abandoned, but the shield symbols of the Falange
and Imperial Eagle remain visible.
When Spain recognized the independence of Spanish Morocco
in 1956, Ceuta and the other plazas de soberanía
remained under Spanish rule. Spain considered them integral parts of the Spanish state, but Morocco has disputed this point.
On 5 November 2007, King Juan Carlos I
visited the city, sparking great enthusiasm from the local population and protests from the Moroccan government.
It was the first time a Spanish head of state had visited Ceuta in 80 years.
Map of Ceuta (Perejil islet
is just off the coast, in the upper left of this map)
Perspective view of the Strait of Gibraltar
facing eastwards; Spain and Gibraltar
on the left; Morocco and Ceuta on the right. The vertical dimension is exaggerated by a factor of 3.
Important Bird Area
Ceuta has a maritime-influenced Subtropical/Mediterranean climate
, similar to nearby Spanish and Moroccan cities such as Tarifa
The average diurnal temperature variation
is relatively low; the average annual temperature is 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) with average yearly highs of 21.4 °C (70.5 °F) and lows of 15.7 °C (60.3 °F) though the Ceuta weather station has only been in operation since 2003.
Ceuta has relatively mild winters for the latitude, while summers are warm yet milder than in the interior of Southern Spain, due to the moderating effect of the Straits of Gibraltar. Summers are very dry, but yearly precipitation is still at 849 mm (33.4 in),
which could be considered a humid climate if the summers were not so arid.
Due to its small population, Ceuta elects only one member of the Congress of Deputies
, the lower house of the Spanish legislature. As of the November 2019 election, this post is held by María Teresa López of Vox
Ceuta is subdivided into 63 barriadas
("neighborhoods"), such as Barriada de Berizu, Barriada de P. Alfonso, Barriada del Sarchal, and El Hacho.
Dispute with Morocco
The government of Morocco has repeatedly called for Spain to transfer the sovereignty of Ceuta and Melilla
, along with uninhabited islets such as the islands of Alhucemas, Velez and the Perejil island
, drawing comparisons with Spain's territorial claim to Gibraltar
. In both cases, the national governments and local populations of the disputed territories reject these claims by a large majority.
The Spanish position states that both Ceuta and Melilla are integral parts of Spain, and have been since the 16th century, centuries prior to Morocco's independence from France in 1956, whereas Gibraltar, being a British Overseas Territory
, is not and never has been part of the United Kingdom.
Morocco has claimed the territories are colonies.
One of the chief arguments used by Morocco to reclaim Ceuta comes from geography, as this exclave
, which is surrounded by Morocco and the Mediterranean Sea, has no territorial continuity with the rest of Spanish territory.
This argument was originally developed by one of the founders of the Moroccan Istiqlal Party
, Alal-El Faasi, who openly advocated the Moroccan conquest of Ceuta and other territories under Spanish rule.
On 21st December 2020, following the affirmations of the Moroccan Prime Minister, Saadeddine Othmani
stating that Ceuta and Melilla "are Moroccan as the Sahara [is]", Spain urgently summoned the Moroccan ambassador to convey that Spain expects all its partners to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its territory in Africa and asked for explanations of Othmani's words.
A sign welcoming visitors to Ceuta, showing the flags of Ceuta, Spain and the European Union
The official currency of Ceuta is the euro
. It is part of a special low tax zone in Spain.
Ceuta is one of two Spanish port cities on the northern shore of Africa, along with Melilla
. They are historically military strongholds, free ports
, oil ports, and also fishing ports.
Today the economy of the city depends heavily on its port (now in expansion) and its industrial and retail centers. Ceuta Heliport
is now used to connect the city to mainland Spain by air. Lidl
and El Corte Inglés
(hardware) have branches in Ceuta. There is also a casino
. Border trade between Ceuta and Morocco is active because of advantage of tax-free status. Thousands of Moroccan women are involved in porter trade daily. Moroccan dirham
is actually used in such trade, despite the fact that prices are marked in euro.
A single road border checkpoint to the south of Ceuta near Fnideq allows for cars and pedestrians to travel between Morocco and Ceuta. An additional border crossing for pedestrians also exists between Benzú and Belyounech on the northern coast. The rest of the border is closed and inaccessible.
There is a bus service throughout the city, and while it does not pass into neighboring Morocco, it services both frontier crossings.
The following hospitals are located within Ceuta:
- University Hospital of Ceuta, established in 2010, 252 beds
- Primary Care Emergency Services Jose Lafont
- Ceuta Medical Center
- Spanish Military Hospital (500 beds in 1929, 2020 listed as a clinic)
Due to its location, Ceuta is home to a mixed ethnic and religious population. The two main religious groups are Christians and Muslims. As of 2006 approximately 50% of the population was Christian and approximately 48% Muslim.
However, by 2012, the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Roman Catholic
was 68.0%, while the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Muslim was 28.3%.
Remains of the Late Roman Christian Basilica and Necropolis of Ceuta dated to the mid-4th century CE
or the beginning of the 5th century CE
is, by far, the largest religion in Ceuta. In 2019, the proportion of Ceutans that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was 60.0%,
The next largest religion was Islam (36.7%).
Primary and secondary education is possible only in Spanish however a growing number of schools are entering the Bilingual Education Program.
, Ceuta attracts African migrants who try to use it as an entry to Europe. As a result, the enclave is surrounded by double fences that are 6 m (20 ft) high and hundreds of migrants congregate near the fences waiting for a chance to cross them. The fences are regularly stormed by migrants trying to claim asylum once they enter Ceuta.
Notable people from Ceuta
- Francisco Lesmes (1924–2005) and Rafael Lesmes (1926–2012) brothers and Spanish footballers.
- José Martínez Sánchez (born 1945 in Ceuta), nicknamed Pirri, a retired Spanish footballer, mainly played for Real Madrid, appearing in 561 competitive games and scoring 172 goals
- José Ramón López (born 1950) a sprint canoer, silver medallist at the 1976 Summer Olympics
- Miguel Bernardo Bianquetti (born 1951 in Ceuta), known as Migueli, a Spanish retired footballer, 391 caps for FC Barcelona and 32 for Spain
- Nayim (born 1966 in Ceuta) a retired Spanish footballer; he scored a last-minute goal for Real Zaragoza in the 1995 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final.
- Lorena Miranda (born 1991 in Ceuta) a Spanish female water polo player, silver medallist at the 2012 Summer Olympics.
- Anuar Tuhami (born 1995 in Ceuta) a Spanish-Moroccan footballer, played one game for Morocco
Twin towns and sister cities
- ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
- ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
- ^ Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier (2008). "The Spanish–Moroccan border complex: Processes of geopolitical, functional and symbolic rebordering". Political Geography. 27 (3): 301–321. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.12.004.
- ^ Verónica Rivera (December 2006). "IMPORTANCIA Y VALORACIÓN SOCIOLINGÜÍSTICA DEL DARIJA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA PÚBLICA EN CEUTA" [Importance and Socio-Linguistic Valuation of Darija in the Context of Public Secondary Education in Ceuta]. Revista Electrónica de Estudios Filológicos (in Spanish) (12). ISSN 1577-6921.
- ^ Fernández García, Alicia (2016). "Nacionalismo y representaciones lingüísticas en Ceuta y en Melilla". Revista de Filología Románica. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 33 (1): 23–46. doi:10.5209/RFRM.55230. ISSN 0212-999X.
- ^ a b Lipiński (2004), p. 422–425.
- ^ Ptolemy, Geography, IV.i.5.
- ^ In, e.g., Pomponius Mela.
- ^ Walter E. Kaegi (4 November 2010). Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-521-19677-2.
- ^ A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature. 2. John Kitto, William Lindsay Alexander. 1864. p. 350.
- ^ Mommsen, Theodore, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, s.v. "Africa".
- ^ Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Bernard Lewis; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1994), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, E.J. Brill, p. 690.
- ^ López de Coca Castañer, José Enrique (1998). "Granada y la expansión portuguesa en el Magreb extremo". Historia. Instituciones. Documentos. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla (25): 351. ISSN 0210-7716.
- ^ Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol.1, Chap.10 "The Expansion"
- ^ "Ceuta". fortified-places.com. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- ^ *Kamen, Henry (1999). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780300078008.
- ^ Griffin, H (2010). Ceuta Mini Guide. Mirage. ISBN 978-0-9543335-3-9. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- ^ "History of Ceuta". Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- ^ "Franco monument now part of a rubbish dump in Ceuta". Archived from the original on 7 December 2012.
- ^ "Resistir en el monte del Renegado". El País. 22 March 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Ceuta y Melilla son España, dice Juan Carlos I; Sebta y Melilia son nuestras, responde Mohamed VI". Blogs.periodistadigital.com. 22 February 1999. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Muslim Holiday in Ceuta and Melilla". Spainforvisitors.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- ^ "Public Holidays and Bank Holidays for Spain". Qppstudio.net. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- ^ "Turismo. Ceuta, cuatro mundos por descubrir". abcViajes. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
- ^ H. Micheal Tarver; Emily Slape, eds. (25 July 2016). The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. I. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-61069-422-3.
- ^ "Ceuta". BirdLife Data Zone. BirdLife International. 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- ^ "Ceuta, Spain – Climate Summary". weatherbase. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- ^ a b c "Valores climatológicos normales. Ceuta" [Normal climate values. Ceuta]. AEMET (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- ^ "Monthly Averages for Ceuta, Spain". Weather.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- ^ "Ceuta Monthly Climate Averages". World Weather Online. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- ^ "Valores extremos. Ceuta – Selector" [Extreme values. Ceuta – Selector]. AEMET (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- ^ "Ley Orgánica 1/1995, de 13 de marzo, Estatuto de Autonomía de Ceuta" (in Spanish). Noticias.juridicas.com. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "La población de Ceuta aumenta en un 0,2% con respecto a 2017". El Faro de Ceuta. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- ^ "Resultados Electorales en Ceuta: Elecciones Municipales 2011 en EL PAÍS" (in Spanish). EDICIONES EL PAÍS S.L. 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- ^ "Ceuta Votes for Far-Right Vox Party in Spanish General Elections". Morocco World News. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- ^ "El servicio de Policia de Barriadas podria funcionar a partir del 15 de septiembre" [The Police Service of Barriadas could work from September 15]. El Pueblo de Ceuta (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Map of Ceuta". planetware.
- ^ "Códigos postales de Ceuta en Ceuta". Codigo-postal.info. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ * François Papet-Périn, "La mer d'Alboran ou Le contentieux territorial hispano-marocain sur les deux bornes européennes de Ceuta et Melilla". Tome 1, 794 p., tome 2, 308 p., thèse de doctorat d'histoire contemporaine soutenue en 2012 à Paris 1-Sorbonne sous la direction de Pierre Vermeren.
- ^ Tremlett, Giles (12 June 2003). "A rocky relationship | World news | guardian.co.uk". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ Gold, Peter (2000). Europe or Africa? A contemporary study of the Spanish North African exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. Liverpool University Press. pp. XII–XIII. ISBN 0-85323-985-1.
- ^ Castan Pinos, J. (2014) 'The Spanish-Moroccan relationship: combining bonne entente with territorial disputes', in K. Stoklosa (ed.) Living on the border. European Border Regions in Comparison (p. 103). Abingdon: Routledge.
- ^ Castan Pinos, J. (2014) La Fortaleza Europea: Schengen, Ceuta y Melilla. Ceuta: Instituto de Estudios Ceutíes, p. 61 ISBN 978-84-92627-67-7
- ^ elDiario.es (21 December 2020). "España convoca a la embajadora de Marruecos por unas declaraciones de su primer ministro sobre Ceuta y Melilla". ElDiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- ^ AfricaNews (22 December 2020). "Moroccan Ambassador to Spain summoned over calls for territorial sovereignty talks". Africanews. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- ^ a b "Economic Data of Ceuta, de ceutna digital". Ceuta.es. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ O'Reilly, Gerry; O'Reilly, J. G. (1994). IBRU, Boundary and Territory Briefing. Ceuta and the Spanish Sovereign Territories: Spanish and Moroccan. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781897643068. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- ^ "Morocco 'mule women' in back-breaking trade from Spain enclave". 6 October 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- ^ "The economics of exclaves". 24 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Moroccan women used as 'mules' to avoid tariffs | DW | 11.05.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- ^ Google Maps
- ^ "Hospitals in Ceuta". Hospitals Worldguide. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- ^ "Hospital Universitario de Ceuta". Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- ^ Port Directory of Principal Foreign Ports. 1929.
- ^ "Military Medicine in Spain". Military Medicine. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- ^ Roa, J. M. (2006). "Scholastic achievement and the diglossic situation in a sample of primary-school students in Ceuta". Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. 8 (1).
- ^ "Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España". lavanguardia.com. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- ^ "Languages Across Europe – Spanish". BBC. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2018.
- ^ Sayahi, Lotfi (2011). "Spanish in Contact with Arabic". In Díaz-Campos, Manuel (ed.). The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics. Chichester, UK: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 476–477. doi:10.1002/9781444393446.ch22. ISBN 978-1-4051-9500-3.
- ^ Roa-Venegas, José María (2006). "Scholastic Achievement and the Diglossic Situation in a Sample of Primary-School Students in Ceuta". Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. 8 (1): 3, 12 – via ResearchGate.
- ^ Villada, Fernando. "Ceuta huellas del cristianismo en Ceuta". academia.edu. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Tingis". Newadvent.org. 1 July 1912. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- ^ "Diocese of Ceuta". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.[self-published]
- ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Cadiz". Newadvent.org. 1 November 1908. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
- ^ "Ceuta: Multicultural city". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- ^ a b Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Sociological Research) (October 2019). "Macrobarómetro de octubre 2019, Banco de datos - Document 'Población con derecho a voto en elecciones generales y residente en España, Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 20. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- ^ "Hundreds of migrants storm fence to reach Spanish enclave of Ceuta". BBC. 17 February 2017.
- ^ IMDb Database retrieved 10 May 2021
- ^ IMDb retrieved 19 October 2017
- ^ "Vuelve 'El Nene'". Interviu (in Spanish). 14 January 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- ^ "Listado de corporaciones locales españolas hermanadas con Europa" (PDF). Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces.
- ^ Corrales, Carlos (5 August 2012). "Ceuta y Algeciras, tres lustros como ciudades hermanadas". Europa Sur.
- ^ Durio, Pablo Manuel (19 September 2009). "Cádiz tiene ya una familia más que numerosa". Diario de Cádiz.
- ^ "Ceuta, Melilla profile". BBC News. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- ^ Parodi, Luis (27 November 2007). "Vivas visitará el jueves la Casa de Ceuta en Cádiz antes de regresar". El Pueblo de Ceuta.
- Bonney, Thomas George; et al. (1907), The Mediterranean: Its Storied Cities and Venerable Ruins, New York: James Pott & Co.
- Cauvin, Joseph; et al., eds. (1843), "Abila", Lempriere's Classical Dictionary..., London: Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans.
- Dyer, Thomas H. (1873), "Septem Fratres", A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography..., II, London: John Murray, p. 965.
- Lipiński, Edward (2004), Itineraria Phoenicia, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, No. 127, Studia Phoenicia, Vol. XVIII, Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, ISBN 9789042913448.
- Smedley, Edward; et al., eds. (1845), "Mauritania", Encyclopaedia Metropolitana..., XXII, London: B. Fellowes & al., pp. 48–49.
- Smith, Philip (1854), "Abyla", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography..., London: Walton & Maberly.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ceuta
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ceuta
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 14:01
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.