Chama Cha Mapinduzi
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The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; Swahili: lit. 'Party of the Revolution') is the dominant rulingparty in Tanzania and the second longest-ruling party in Africa, only after the True Whig Party of Liberia.[4][5] It was formed in 1977, following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.
Party of the Revolution
Chama Cha Mapinduzi  (Swahili)
ChairmanSamia Suluhu
Secretary-GeneralDaniel Chongolo
SpokespersonShaka Hamdu Shaka
Vice chairmanPhilip Mangula
FounderJulius Nyerere
Aboud Jumbe
Founded5 February 1977
Merger ofTANU and ASP
Student wingShirikisho la Wanafunzi wa Taasisi za Elimu ya Juu
Youth wingUmoja wa Vijana wa CCM
Women's wingUmoja wa Wanawake Tanzania
Parents' wingWazazi
Membership (2020)25.8 million[1]
IdeologySocial democracy
Democratic socialism
African nationalism[2]
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Social conservatism[3]
Third way
African socialism
Political positionCentre-left to left-wing
Left-wing to far-left
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
African affiliationFLMSA
Bunge362 / 393
Zanzibar HoR84 / 88
EALA7 / 9
SADC PF4 / 5
Pan-African Parliament4 / 5
Election symbol
A hoe and a hammer
Party website
TANU and its successor CCM have ruled Tanzania uninterruptedly since independence. The party has been described as authoritarian.[6] Since the creation of a multi-party system, CCM has won the past six general elections in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Jakaya Kikwete, its presidential candidate in 2005, won by a landslide, receiving more than 80% of the popular vote. In the 2010 election, it won 186 of the 239 constituencies, continuing to hold an outright majority in the National Assembly.[7]
The party was created on February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, through the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), the ruling party in Zanzibar.
TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has also been the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA).
From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.
Originally a champion of African socialism, upholder of the system of collectivized agriculture known as Ujamaa and firmly oriented to the left, today the CCM espouses a more social-democratic approach. CCM hopes to continue to modernize in order to ensure:
  1. Increased productivity which would boost the country's revenue
  2. Increased employment and improved management
  3. Acquisition of new and modern technology
  4. Increased and expanded local and international markets for our products, and;
  5. Improved and strengthened private sector serving as the engine of the national economy while the government sharpens its focus on provision of social services, infrastructure, security and governance of the state.
Similarly, the CCM's major foreign policy focus is economic diplomacy within the international system, and peaceful coexistence with neighbors.
Electoral performance
The CCM has a leading role in society.[8]
The party has won all presidential elections at both the national level and in Zanzibar at the autonomous level under the multi-party system: 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. It also dominates the legislature.
In the elections for Zanzibar's presidency and House of Representatives, held on 30 October 2005, incumbent president and CCM candidate Amani Abeid Karume won with 53.18% of the vote, while the party won 30 seats out of 50.
In the national elections for Tanzania's presidency and National Assembly, held on 14 December 2005, Foreign Minister and CCM candidate Jakaya Kikwete won with 80.28% of the vote. Out of the 232 seats filled through direct election, the CCM won 206.
On 31 October 2010, Jakaya Kikwete was reelected president with 62.8% of the vote, while CCM obtained 186 out of the 239 directly elected seats.
On 30 October 2015 John Magufuli of CCM won the election with 58.46% of the vote.
CCM was admitted into the Socialist International as a full member at the SI's spring congress on 4–5 February 2013.[9]
Current leaders
Top place for a chairman remains vacant following the death of former chairman John Magufuli who was elected as a Party Chairman on July 23, 2016 and took over for Jakaya Kikwete, who had been serving since November 2012.
National leaders
CCM Headquarters in the capital, Dodoma.
A mural of the party's candidates in the southern Tanzanian town of Lindi.
National Chairman
Julius Nyerere1977–1985
Ali Hassan Mwinyi1986–1995
Benjamin Mkapa1996–2005
Jakaya Kikwete2006–2016
John Magufuli2016–2021
Samia Suluhu2021-present
National Vice Chairman (Mainland)
John Malecela
Pius Msekwa
Philip Mangula2012–present
National Vice Chairman (Zanzibar)
Salmin Amour
Amani Abeid Karume? – 2012
Ali Mohamed Shein2012–present
Secretaries General
Pius Msekwa1977–1982
Rashidi Kawawa1982–1990
Horace Kolimba1990–1995
Lawrence Gama1995–1997
Philip Mangula1997–2007
Yusuf Makamba2007–2011
Wilson Mukama2011–2012
Abdulrahman Kinana2012–May 2018
Bashiru Ally2018 - April 2021
Daniel Chongolo2021 -present
Electoral history
Presidential elections
ElectionParty candidateVotes%Result
1980Julius Nyerere5,570,88395.5%Elected
1985Ali Hassan Mwinyi4,778,11495.68%Elected
1995Benjamin Mkapa4,026,42261.82%Elected
2005Jakaya Kikwete9,123,95280.28%Elected
2015John Magufuli8,882,93558.46%Elected
Bunge elections
ElectionParty leaderVotes%Seats+/–PositionOutcome
1980Julius Nyerere5,417,099100%264 / 2641stSole legal party
1985Ali Hassan Mwinyi4,768,997100%274 / 274101stSole legal party
19905,198,12097.78%264 / 264101stSole legal party
1995Benjamin Mkapa3,814,20659.22%214 / 285501stSupermajority government
20004,628,12765.19%243 / 285291stSupermajority government
2005Jakaya Kikwete7,579,89770%264 / 324211stSupermajority government
20104,641,83060.20%253 / 357111stSupermajority government
2015John Magufuli8,021,42755.04%260 / 39371stSupermajority government
2020350 / 393901stSupermajority government
  1. ^ "Kikwete deplores divisive politics". Daily News (Tanzania). 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  2. ^ "How Tanzania Got To This Point". Vice News. 2 November 2020.
  3. ^ "In 2018, authorities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest city, announced the creation of an anti-gay surveillance team with Magufuli’s support. Early in his tenure, as part of his campaign against “immoral behaviors,” Magufuli championed the decades-old rule that permanently expels school girls who get pregnant."
  4. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (26 April 2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: the roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. CiteSeerX doi​:​10.1080/02589001.2012.669566​. S2CID 17134713.
  5. ^ Manson, Katrina (30 September 2013). "Three issues loom over Tanzania's political scene". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  6. ^ Cheeseman, Nic; Matfess, Hilary; Amani, Alitalali (2021). "Tanzania: The Roots of Repression". Journal of Democracy. 32 (2): 77–89. doi​:​10.1353/jod.2021.0020​. ISSN 1086-3214.
  7. ^ Dagne, Ted (31 August 2011). "Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  8. ^ O'Gorman, Melanie (2012). "Why the CCM won't lose: The roots of single-party dominance in Tanzania". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 30 (2): 313–333. doi​:​10.1080/02589001.2012.669566​. S2CID 17134713.
  9. ^ "Decisions of the Council" (PDF). Socialist International. February 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
External links
Last edited on 21 August 2021, at 19:06
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