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Chibchan languages
For other uses, see Chibcha language (disambiguation).
The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The name is derived from the name of an extinct language called Chibcha or Muysccubun, once spoken by the people who lived on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense of which the city of Bogotá was the southern capital at the time of the Spanish Conquista. However, genetic and linguistic data now indicate that the original heart of Chibchan languages and Chibchan-speaking peoples might not have been in Colombia, but in the area of the Costa Rica-Panama border, where the greatest variety of Chibchan languages has been identified.
Chibchan
Geographic
distribution
Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia
Linguistic classificationMacro-Chibchan ?
Chibchan
ISO 639-5cba
Glottologchib1249
External relations
A larger family called Macro-Chibchan, which would contain the Misumalpan languages, Xinca, and Lenca, was found convincing by Kaufman (1990).[1]
Pache (2018) suggests a distant relationship with the Macro-Jê languages.[2]
Language contact
Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Andaki, Barbakoa, Choko, Duho, Paez, Sape, and Taruma language families due to contact.[3]
Classification
The extinct languages of Antioquia, Old Catío and Nutabe have been shown to be Chibchan (Adelaar & Muysken, 2004:49). The language of the Tairona is unattested, apart from a single word, but may well be one of the Arwako languages still spoken in the Santa Marta range. The Zenú aka Sinú language of northern Colombia is also sometimes included, as are the Malibu languages, though without any factual basis.
Adolfo Constenla Umaña argues that Cueva, the extinct dominant language of Pre-Columbian Panama long assumed to be Chibchan based on a misinterpreted Kuna vocabulary, was actually Chocoan, but there is little evidence.
The Cofán language (Kofán, Kofane, A'i) of Ecuador and Colombia has been erroneously included in Chibchan due to borrowed vocabulary.
Jolkesky (2016)
Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[3]
(† = extinct)
Chibcha
Varieties
Below is a full list of Chibchan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[4]
Rama group
Guatuso group
Talamanca group
Dorasque group
Guaymi group
Cuna group
Antioquia group
Chibcha group
Motilon group
Arhuaco (Arwako) group
Paya group
Paya / Poyuai / Seco - language spoken on the Guayape River and between the Patuca River and Sico River, Honduras.
Proto-language
Pache (2018) is the most recent reconstruction of Proto-Chibchan.[2] Other reconstructions include Holt (1986).[5]
Constenla (1981)
Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Constenla (1981):[6]
Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Constenla (1981)
glossProto-Chibchan
arm, hand, shoulder*ˈkuíkI, *ˈkuí-
ashes*bur-, *buˈrṹ
at, in*skA; *ki; *sə
at, in, towards*ka
big (size or quantity)*təˈĩ
bird*dù
blood*ApÍ
boat, craft*huˈLù
body*AˈpÀ
bone*ˈkàrə
breasts*kAʔ
breast*ˈtsúʔ, *ˈtsúʔtsú
brother*səˈkə
brother-in-law*ˈuba; *ˈduáʔ
butterfly*kuA-, *kuAʔ-
cedar (several trees of the Cedrela genus)*uˈru
ceiba*puLí, *puLíkI
child, young of an animal, egg*əˈrə̀
child, young of an animal*ˈuÁʔ-
cloth*ˈsuá-
cloud*ˈbõ̀, *bo-
cockroach*ˈsóx-
cocoa*kə́ˈhùʔ
come*ˈda-; *ˈdI-
cook*ˈdu-
cotton*suˈhí
cough, catarrh*ˈtóʔ
crocodile*ˈkú-
cultivated field*ˈtÌ
curassow (Crax rubra)*ˈdubÍ
deer*ˈsur, *ˈsurĩ̀
diminutive*-ˈaːrə
dog*ˈto
dove (common ground dove)*ˈÚtu-
dry*diˈsə-
dry season*ˈduá-
eagle, hawk*ˈpṹ
ear*ˈkuhkə́, *ˈkuhkuə́
eat, drink*ˈga-
egg, sprout, suckling*ˈpú
emerald toucanet*dəˈkər̃ə́
enter*ˈdok-
excrement*ˈgã́
eye*úb
face*uˈbə́
father*ˈkáka
feline*dəbə̃́; *kuLÁʔ
find*ˈkũ
finger, hand*ˈkU
firewood, fire, coal, live coal*ˈgÌ
first person prefix*də̃-
fish*ˈuA; *dibÃ̀
five*sAkẽ́
flesh*gAtA
fly*ˈkulu
foot*sAˈkə̃
four*bəhˈke
fruit*ubə́
give birth*ˈgU-
gnat (jején)*buˈr̃ṹʔ
go*ˈdA-
grease*ˈkiə́
grind*ˈuʔ
grindstone, to sharpen*ˈiáʔ
grow, widen*təˈlə-
guan (bird)*ˈkũ̀
hand*AtA; *guLÀ
head, hair*ˈtsã̀
house*ˈhu
how many*ˈbi
hunger*bAˈLi
I*ˈda
jocote (Spondias purpurea), jobo (Spondias mombin)*bəˈrə́ʔ
kill*ˈguə
know, see*sũ
lake*iAˈbÁ
laugh*ˈhaĩ
laurel (Cordia alliodora)*ˈBúʔ
leaf*ˈkə́
leg*kəˈrə
liquid*dí; *ˈli
lizard*ulíʔ
louse*ˈkṹ
maize*ˈIBI
make*gU
mayo (tree)*bèk
monkey: howler monkey*úriʔ
monkey: spider monkey*dõ̀, *do-
monkey: white-faced monkey*hòkI
moon, month*siˈhíʔ
mother-in-law*ˈgAkA
mouse*ˈsuhkÌ
mouth*ˈkahkə
mud*ˈdÚ; *oˈr̃i
name*ˈhaká
nape, neck*duˈkurə
neck*ˈgala
net*kAˈlÁʔ
nose*dəˈIkI
now*ˈBə
old*AˈkÍkI; *tAˈlá
one*ˈé ?
otter*doʔ
paca (Agouti paca)*ˈkuri
peachpalm (Bactris gasipaes, Guilelma utilis)*ˈsúbaʔ
peccary (Tayassu pecari spiradens)*siˈdĩ́ʔ
peel, undress*ˈsu-
person*ApÍ-
place, time, environment, land*ˈká
plant*ˈdi
poró tree, elequeme tree (synonyms)*baˈlò
pot, vessel, jar*ˈũ
pumpkin, squash*Apì
rattle, maraca, colander, gourd cup (= object elaborated from a gourd)*ˈtã́
reed*kəˈru
rotten*ˈdṹ
sand*ˈu; *ˈuBA
say*ˈguA-; *ˈgI
sea*dAgÌ
second person prefix*bi-
see*ˈguəkI
seek*ˈdí
seed, plant*ˈpkua
seize, hold*kaLUh-
seven*ˈkúh-
shark*tAˈLì
shrimp*ˈkUs
sing*ˈtA
six*ˈted
skin, bark*hukə́
sleep*kAp-
small*ˈ¢id
smell, odor*hALÀ
snake*tAkAbÌ
soil, earth, dirt, clay*ˈtÁBA
son*gAbÀ
spider*óhk
squirrel*kudã́
star*bÌ-
stick (a spear), insert, put in*ˈtsã
stone*ˈhákI
sun*dì; *ˈka; *dui
sweet*bəˈlóʔ
tail*ˈduhkI
tapir*dAĩ́ʔ
take*ˈgúʔ
tear*ˈubə́diə
that*ˈhéʔ; *ˈse; *ˈkue; *ˈdiÀ
third person*i-; *A
this*ˈdi-; *ˈhíʔ
three*ˈbai
tobacco*ˈdu, *ˈduə̀
tongue*pkúʔ, *ˈpkuə́
tooth*ˈtu; *aˈkə
toucan sp.*Biˈli
tray (made of wood, used to wash)*kuˈLIʔ
transitive verb marker*Bə-
tree*ˈkàr; *kaˈri
tree, trunk of a tree, wood*ˈkarə́
tuber*ˈtuʔ
turtle*kuÌ; *uˈli
two*ˈbU
uncle*kəˈru
vulva*ˈkÍ
water*ˈdíʔ
we (inclusive)*ˈsẽ́ʔ
weep*ˈbo
what*ˈhi
where*biə
white*buLu
wind*ˈBur-
with*uA; *tÁ
woodpecker*soˈr̃o
woods, firewood*ˈbUʔ
work*hiBA
worm*ˈgĩ́
you (sg.)*ˈbáʔ
yucca*ˈik
Proto-Chibchan horticultural vocabulary (Constenla 2012):[7]
Pache (2018)
Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Pache (2018):[2]
Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Pache (2018)
glossProto-Chibchan
all*ᵐbaⁿd-; *pii-ⁿda
allative/dative*ka
angry*uⁿdu
arm, wing, shoulder*kwik
armadillo*ⁿduʔ
ashes*ᵐbũⁿd(ũ)
aspect, imperfective*-e
aspect, perfective*-o
back*ⁿda(kiⁿd) ~ *ta(kiⁿd); *ᵑga(ⁿda)
bad*ᵑgwahⁿd; *saⁿd(a)
basket, mochila*si
bat*(ⁿdu-)ku(ⁿd)
to bathe, swim*hauᵐb ~ *aᵐbuʔ
to be*ⁿda(i) ~ *ta(i)
beam of light, heat*ᵐbaʔ
beautiful*ⁿdu
bee, honey*La
bee, wasp*ᵐbuⁿd(u)
to begin, start, first*pahⁿd-
belly*ita ~ *iⁿda ~ *iaⁿd
big*ᵐbuⁿdi ~ *kuⁿdi ~ *kuiⁿd(i); *ᵐbu-ⁿda
bile, gall, bitter*hakiʔ
bird, dove*ⁿdu(ⁿd)
blood*hapi ~ *apiʔ
to blow, fly*kuʔ
body*apa
bone, strong, hard*kãⁿd-
bone, hard*ⁿdaⁿdi ~ ⁿdaiⁿd- / saⁿdi ~ *saiⁿd-
breast, teat*kãʔ; *ʦuʔ
breath, wind*ᵐbuⁿd-
brother*ⁿdaᵐba; *ⁿdaka / *saka
brother-in-law*(ⁿd-)uᵐba
butterfly, hat*kwahkwah
calabash*ⁿdãᵐbã / *sãᵐbã; *taukaʔ
to catch, grasp*ka
cedar*uⁿdu
chicha*ᵐba
chicken*aʦa-kaⁿda
child*ᵑgwaʔ
child, small*ʦu
clay, mud*(taBi-)ⁿda
cloud, fog*ᵐba-
coal, hot coal*kuⁿda
cold, cold substance*ⁿdaᵐba-
cold*ʦãĩh
to come*ⁿda
comitative*ⁿda ~ *ta; *uˈa; *ᵐba
to cook*Li; *ⁿdu
cosmos (sky, day, time, space, earth, place)*kaʔ(k)
creeping animal*ⁿda(ⁿd) / *sa(ⁿd)
to dance*kwi
dark*tuⁿdi ~ *tuiⁿd
dative*ia
diarrhea*ᵑga-ⁿdi(a)
to do, make
dog*tau
dove*ⁿdu-ᵐba(ⁿd)
dry*ⁿdiⁿda / *ⁿdisa; *puⁿd-
dust*kaʔ(k)-puⁿd-
earth, floor, mud*taB(a)
to eat*kuⁿdi ~ *kuiⁿd
egg, offspring*La
eight*hap-
to enter*ⁿdaʔ-u
excrement*ᵑga
exterior*ᵐbaⁿd(a) ~ *ᵐbat(a)
face*ᵑgwa(k)
face, eye, fruit*uᵐba
father*ka(ka)
father, uncle, ancestor*ⁿdũ(-i)
feather, wing, arm, hand*ᵑgak
feline*ⁿdaᵐba; *ku(ⁿd-)
field for cultivation*tai
fireplace*ᵑga-u (ka[k])
firewood*ᵑgi
fish*ᵑgwa ~ *uᵑg
flea*ᵐbak-
foot, root*kihʦa ~ *kihsa
four*ᵐbahka(i)
friend, other*pai
full*(hi-)iⁿda ~ *(hi-)ita
to go*ᵐb-; *ⁿdaʔ ~ *taʔ
god, wind*siᵐba
to grow*kuH ~ *ᵐbuH
hair, head*ʦa
hand*haⁿd- ~ *hat-
hand, arm*ᵑguⁿdaʔ
hand, finger*kuuʔ
to hear*kuh
heart, liver, center*ᵐbihⁿda ~ *ᵐbihta; *taH(ᵐba)
to holler*ᵐbau(ⁿd) ~ *kau(ⁿd)
house*hu
how much, how many*ᵐbi-
human being*ᵐbaⁿdi ~ *ᵐbaiⁿd
hummingbird*ᵐbiʦi ~ *ᵐbisi
hunger*ᵐbaⁿdi
I*ⁿdaH(ⁿd)
instrumental/locative*ⁿdi
jealous*ᵐbau(ⁿd)
to kill*ᵑgua
to know*ᵑgw-
lake, rain[*ⁿdi-ɡwa]
to laugh*haⁿd
leaf*ka
lightning*Guⁿdi ~ *GuiHⁿd
lip*uk-ⁿda
liquid*ⁿdiʔ-a
liver*haiⁿd
locative*ⁿda ~ *ta; *ki; *ʦika ~ *tsaik
to look for, look after*ⁿdi
louse*kũʔ
maize*aiB ~ aBi
manioc*i(k)
meat, flesh*ᵑgaʔⁿda ~ *ᵑgaʔta; *sih
monkey*huⁿdĩ ~ uⁿdĩʔ
moon*siʔ
mosquito*ʦuiⁿd
mother-in-law, daughter-in-law*ᵑgak
mouth*kah-ka
mouth, vagina*ʦipi
name*haka ~ *akaʔ
nape*ⁿdu-kuⁿd(a) / *ⁿdu-kus(a)
neck*ᵑgaⁿda
net*kaⁿdaʔ
new*(a-)ᵐbihⁿd- ~ *(a-)ᵐbiht-
night, dark*ʦii
nine, ten*uk(a)
nominalizer*-ᵐba; *-ⁿd-; *-ka
nose*ⁿdii(k)
(older) sibling, (older) sister*ᵑgwi
only*ᵐbii
open*kah
pale*siʔ-kwa
palm*huka
path*hi
to peel*suʔ
possessed*-i
post, pole*ʦauⁿd ~ *tsuⁿda
pot*hũ
prick, sting, point*ⁿduk / *suk
pumpkin, squash*apii(s)
to put*eʔ
raptor*pũʔ
rattle*taʔ
raw*tah(-ka)
red, yellow, ripe*taʔBa
relational element*ⁿd(i)-; *ʦ(i)-
rodent, large*kuⁿdi ~ *kuiⁿd
rodent, small*suh(-kui)
rope, string*ki
round*ᵐbiⁿd(i)
salt*ⁿdaᵑg
sand*uB(V)(-ta)
to scratch, rub*ʦuH
to see*su
seed*ⁿduⁿd-
seed, fruit*kwa
seven*kuh
side*suuⁿd
to sit (singular)*ʦaʔ
six*taiⁿd-
skin*huka ~ *huBa ~ kuaʔ
to sleep*kap-
small*Buⁿd-; *ʦiⁿd(a)
smell*Laʔ
snake*takaᵐb- ~ *taᵐbak
soft*ʦiⁿdi
son, child*ᵑgaᵐba
to sow*ⁿdihk-
spoon, ladle*ʦuiⁿd ~ *ʦuⁿdi
to stand (singular)*ⁿdu-
stick, bone, tree*kaⁿd- ~ *kat-
stomach*ⁿduaᵐbih
stone*hak ~ *kaʔ
sun, day*ⁿdi
sun, year*ⁿdu-
to swallow, drink, eat*-hu ~ *-uʔ
sweet potato*Baiʔ
tail*ᵐbaⁿd(a)-; *ⁿduh(k)
to take*ᵑgu
to take out, pick up*hapi ~ *apiʔ
tasty*ᵐbaⁿd-
tear*uᵐba ⁿdiʔa
that*a
this*hi ~ *iʔ
three*ᵐbãʔ(ĩ)
throat*ᵐbi-ⁿdaʔ
throat, hole*kuHⁿdi ~ *kuiHⁿd ~ *BuHⁿdi
tobacco*ⁿdua
tongue*kuʔ(-Ba)
tooth (molar)*haka
tooth*ⁿduʔ
turkey, large galliform bird*(ᵑg)uⁿd-
to turn around*ᵐbuⁿd- ~ *kuⁿd-
turtle*kwi
to twist*ᵐbu
two*ᵐbuuʔ
up, sky*ᵐbii
urine*huʦi ~ *huiʦ
valency-reducer*a-; *aʔ-; *aⁿd-
to walk*ⁿdai
to wash*suh(k)
to watch*ᵑguⁿda ~ *ᵑgwaⁿd
water, river*ⁿdiʔ
to wear*(ⁿd)iˈa
white, morning*ᵐbuⁿd(u)
who, someone*ⁿdi
wind*ᵐbuⁿd-kaⁿd(a)
woman (adult)*ᵐbuⁿdi ~ *ᵐbuiⁿd ~ *ᵑguⁿdi ~ *ᵑguiⁿd
woman (young)*ᵐbus-
worm*ᵑgi
wound, trace*saⁿda
to wrap*ᵐbaʔk
you*ᵐbaʔ
young, sprout*pu
References
  1. ^ Kaufman, Terrence (1990). "Language History in South America: What we know and how to know more". In Payne, Doris L. (ed.). Amazonian Linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 13–74. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  2. ^ a b c Pache, Matthias J. 2018. Contributions to Chibchan Historical Linguistics. Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit Leiden.
  3. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  5. ^ Holt, Dennis. 1986. The Development of the Paya Sound-System. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
  6. ^ Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1981). Comparative Chibchan Phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
  7. ^ Constenla Umaña, Adolfo. 2012. Chibchan languages. In Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona (eds.), The Indigenous Languages of South America: A Comprehensive Guide, 391-440. Berlin: Mouton.
Bibliography
External links
Wiktionary has a list of reconstructed forms at Appendix:Proto-Chibchan reconstructions
Comparative Chibchan phonology — 1981 dissertation by Adolfo Constenla.
Last edited on 21 March 2021, at 18:13
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