Reference management software Reference management software
, citation management software
, or bibliographic management software
is software for scholars and authors to use for recording and utilising bibliographic citations
(references) as well as managing project references either as a company or an individual.
Once a citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies
, such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays. The development of reference management packages has been driven by the rapid expansion of scientific literature
These software packages normally consist of a database
in which full bibliographic references can be entered, plus a system for generating selective lists of articles in the different formats required by publishers and scholarly journals
. Modern reference management packages can usually be integrated with word processors
so that a reference list
in the appropriate format is produced automatically as an article is written, reducing the risk that a cited source is not included in the reference list. They will also have a facility for importing the details of publications from bibliographic databases
Reference management software does not do the same job as a bibliographic database
, which tries to list all articles published in a particular discipline or group of disciplines. Such bibliographic databases are large and have to be housed on major server
installations. Reference management software collects a much smaller database, of the publications that have been used or are likely to be used by a particular author or group, and such a database can easily be housed on an individual's personal computer
Apart from managing references, most reference management software also enables users to search references from online libraries. These online libraries are usually based on Z39.50
public protocol. Users just need to specify the IP address, database name and keywords to start a Z39.50 search. It is quicker and more efficient than a web browser. However, Z39.50 is a little out of date. Some popular scientific websites, such as Google Scholar
, IEEE Xplore
, do not support the Z39.50 protocol.
Reference management software among legal scholars
A comparison of usage of RefWorks
, Endnote, and Zotero among the legal scholars at the Oxford University Law Faculty was performed by survey. 0% of survey participants used RefWorks; 40% used Endnote; 17% used Zotero, mostly research students. The difficulty of using RefWorks, Endnote, and Zotero by Oxford legal scholars was estimated by the author as well. A comparison of these tools for legal scholars was made across several usage scenarios, including: installing and setting up OSCOLA citation style
; building a personal legal bibliographic library and using extracting metadata from legal bibliographic databases; generating footnotes and bibliographies for academic publications; using and modifying OSCOLA citation style.
Reference management in Wikipedia
, which runs on MediaWiki software, has built-in tools for the management of references. These tools - in many ways - have the function of reference-management software, in that they:
- automatically number the references
- generate the reference list
- set up links between the component of the citation in the text and the reference list
stores various attributes of scientific journals and journal articles in the main, item, namespace of Wikidata.
Unlike traditional reference-management tools, MediaWiki does not store references in a database constructed to facilitate ease of citation.
- ^ Francese, Enrico (2013). "Usage of Reference Management Software at the University of Torino". JLIS.it. University of Florence. 4 (1). doi:10.4403/jlis.it-8679. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- ^ Meredith, Sandra (2013-01-21). "Critical review of referencing software when used with OSCOLA". European Journal of Law and Technology. 4 (1). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2184098. ISSN 2042-115X.
- ^ "Help:Sources - Wikidata".
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 15:30
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