Civil service reform in developing countries Civil service reform
is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service
, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods
and services, with increased accountability
. Such actions can include data gathering and analysis, organizational restructuring
, improving human resource management
, enhancing pay
while assuring sustainability
under overall fiscal
constraints, and strengthening measures for performance management
, public participation
, and combating corruption
The academic literature
on civil service reform has provided arguments and counterarguments clarifying how several approaches to reform affect the overall performance of the civil service. The increasing availability of empirical data
allows to test the effectiveness
of specific reforms in a given context. While designing effective civil service reforms is a tremendously complex task considering that the right mix of corruption control and performance improvements may vary greatly across and within countries, empirical
as well as qualitative research
can contribute to the body of evidence-based knowledge on civil service reforms in developing countries.
Approaches to civil service reform
The influence of Weberian bureaucracy Max Weber
's model of the ideal type of public administration
has been an influential approach to civil service reforms in the 20th century.
type of administration contrasts with the patrimonial
type in its underlying organizing principles. Weber’s organization of the public administration relies on a clearly defined hierarchical structure with a system of subordination and supervision, a division of labor and specified positions with assigned responsibilities.
Contrary to the patrimonial system in which there is no distinction between private and public domains, the Weberian bureaucracy
is defined by its impersonal and impartial character. Civil servants operate according to a set of rules and procedures they must observe.
Impartiality is in part attained through the professionalization of the civil service and meritocratic
recruitment through competitive examinations. For full-time and professionalized civil servants, public office-holding becomes a 'vocation'.
principles have served as foundations for civil service reforms in developing countries. Scholars and policymakers have been interested in identifying the specific features that determine bureaucratic efficiency and corruption and the mechanisms through which these features increase effectiveness and restrict corrupt behaviour in the civil service.
found that meritocratic recruitment of public officials in particular is associated with lower corruption levels. There are several ways in which meritocratic recruitment and promotion can restrict corrupt behaviour. To begin with, administering entry examinations and educational attainment requirements enable the selection of competent civil servants. As a matter of fact, a study by the IMF
shows that better-educated civil servants are related to lower levels of corruption, better performance including better public finance management and higher tax revenue
mobilization as well as higher economic growth
Furthermore, the internal promotion and career stability of merit-recruited civil servants create a sense of shared commitment to the 'vocation' of office-holding that establishes 'esprit de corps'
, making it harder for corruption to occur.
suggests that a professional merit-based civil service preempts corruption not necessarily through the selection of capable officials but rather through the appointment of civil servants whose interests differ from politicians'. Misaligned interests create a coordination problem which prevents corrupt practices and instead introduces a system of mutual monitoring.
Employment and pay reforms
During the 1980s, developing countries subject to structural adjustment
programs (SAPs) experienced fiscal austerity notably manifested through pressures to reduce the public wage bill. R. Klitgaard
raised concerns that falling civil service wages could exacerbate bureaucratic inefficiencies and corruption.
Low public sector wages have been associated with lower performance and motivation.
Salaries below opportunity cost
can induce civil servants to opt for potentially harmful adaptive strategies and seek opportunities for own-account activities. Public officials may ask for compensation through informal or illegal means and these coping strategies compromise the efficiency and honesty of civil service organizations.
Given these arguments, increasing public officials' wages and other employment benefits has been an important aspect of the civil service reform agenda in developing countries.
Economic models based on the early work of Becker
have had a particular influence on the policy debate.
models of corruption in the civil service provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between public service pay and corruption. The shirking model (Shapiro-Stiglitz
) is centred on the choice public officials who have the opportunity to be corrupt must make. These rational utility-maximizing
agents decide to engage in morally hazardous
behaviour based on a cost-benefit analysis
equating the expected returns to corruption (bribes
) to the costs of being corrupt (penalties, potential foregone future earnings).
Corruption is detected with a certain probability and is punished by job loss or other penalties. The model predicts that, all else equal
, higher wages can deter corruption by increasing the value of behaving honestly. However, when bribes are high and punishment and the probability of detection are low, substantial increases in public official's wages may be required to preempt bribery. Another model explaining bureaucratic corruption, the fair-wage model, makes a distinction between need-based and greed-based corruption. According to this theory, public officials are not necessarily driven by greed but find corruption tempting when their salaries do not allow to meet subsistence levels. 'Fairness' is also determined by other factors, such as the salaries of peers within the civil service, private sector wages, social expectations and the status of civil servants.
The perception of not being paid a fair wage increases corruptibility and also reduces the moral costs of corruption.
This model therefore suggests that even modest increases in salaries ensuring 'fair wages' can reduce civil servants' propensity to solicit and accept bribes.
The theoretical linkage between public salary increases and corruption remains ambiguous. In a context of constrained government fiscal resources, the question of cost-effectiveness
to design optimal wage policies arises. A cross-country study by Van Rijckeghem and Weder endeavours to find empirical support for the fair-wage and efficiency wage hypotheses.
The authors conclude that relative government wages are negatively and significantly correlated with measures of corruption but that eradicating corruption would necessitate unrealistic increases in relative wages. These correlations, however, cannot be interpreted as evidence of a causal relationship going from public sector wages to corruption. Causality may run in the reverse
direction, pervasive corruption has been shown to reduce tax revenue collection and public expenditures.
Poor public finance performance and strong budgetary pressures due to corruption may in turn sustain low civil service salaries. This endogeneity
problem complicates the understanding of the relationship between pay reforms and corruption.
Klaus Abbink also tests the fair salary hypothesis in a laboratory experimental setting.
The controlled environment in this experiment allows to isolate and identify the impact of 'fair income' considerations on corrupt behaviour. He finds that public officials in two treatments with different perceptions of 'fairness' behave similarly in a bribery game. In other words, high relative public officials salaries do not alter decisions to be corrupt through fairness considerations. These experimental results substantiate Van Rijckeghem and Weder's findings and cast doubt on the cost-effectiveness of increasing public salaries to combat corruption.
Di Tella and Schargrodsky provide additional evidence with their micro-empirical analysis on wages and auditing
during a crackdown on corruption in Buenos Aires, Argentina
They argue that wage increases can be effective only when combined with intermediate levels of monitoring intensity (the probability of detection in the shirking model). They test their hypotheses using variations in audit intensity during the crackdown on corruption in public hospitals and find that procurement officers’ wages alone have no statistically significant effect on corruption but detect a negative relationship when wages are interacted with audit intensity. The authors make the case that higher wages and monitoring (“carrots and sticks”) should be used simultaneously to act as an effectual anti-corruption strategy.
The literature on public officials' salaries and corruption offers mixed or inconclusive evidence
and seems to indicate that pay increases is a necessary but insufficient condition for curbing corruption.
Wage hikes could also have varying effects depending on whether reforms focus on base-salary (unconditional) increases or performance-related pay increases.
Following the dissatisfaction with centralized
forms of governance
, decentralization of public service provision to sub-national
governments became a global trend, particularly in developing countries. Decentralization
is the transfer of authority
, resources and responsibilities from higher to lower levels of government.
Scott and Rao
distinguish three types of decentralization:
- Administrative decentralization refers to the ability of local governments to hire, fire and set terms of reference for their own employees and on the human resource management and government organization framework.
- Under Political or Democratic Decentralization, power is transferred to lower levels of government, public officials are elected by local citizens and are accountable to citizens rather than to the central government.
- Fiscal Decentralization involves assigning responsibilities for expenditures and revenues to local governments. The degree of fiscal decentralization varies according to local governments' ability to raise revenues and the extent to which they are given autonomy in allocating their expenditures.
Countries differ in their degree of administrative, political and fiscal decentralization. For instance, in China
there is a devolution of administrative and fiscal responsibilities but no political decentralization whereas it is the opposite in India
There are several theoretical arguments supporting that decentralization can improve governance and reduce corruption. To begin with, decentralization is believed to bring the government closer to its citizens and to improve the allocation of resources at the local level.
The optimal output level of a local public good (at which citizens' marginal benefit
equals marginal cost
of providing the good) varies across localities because of differences in preferences and costs. Considering that sub-national governments have better information about the preferences and circumstances of their constituencies, they can tailor the provision of public goods according to these preferences, thereby increasing efficiency and total welfare.
This idea goes back to F. Hayek's
argument in his essay "The Use of Knowledge in Society
" (1945). Hayek asserts that since knowledge is decentralized ("the knowledge of the particular circumstances of time and place"),
it follows that decisions and control over resources should be decentralized (a necessary although not sufficient condition for achieving optimal allocation).
However, principal-agent models
demonstrate there can be tradeoffs in transferring decision-making
responsibilities. Under these theoretical frameworks, central public officials are assumed to be public-spirited principals and local officials act as self-interested agents. On the one hand, public good
delivery can be better adapted to local needs but on the other hand, the decisions are made by agents
whose interests differ from the principal
. Delegating authority
can result in 'control loss' or 'abuse of power'. Decentralization can be more effective than centralized decision-making if the gains from adaptability can outweigh the control loss. The overall effects of decentralization on governance and welfare
will therefore depend on the degree to which the principal's and agent's interests are opposed and the principal's ability to exert control over the agent's actions.
It has also been argued that decentralization can enhance accountability in the service delivery mechanism. Local governments' proximity makes it more feasible for citizens to monitor and hold public officials accountable. The accountability mechanisms work through political decentralization. In a functional local democracy, local elections constitute an 'incomplete contract' enabling citizens to remove non-performing local officials from office.
However, as Bardhan and Mookherjee argue, local democracy may not operate effectively in practice in developing countries and may be captured by local elites.
Furthermore, decentralization can reduce corruption by creating horizontal competition between local governments. Tiebout
make the case in a 1956 paper
that residents' and factors of production's mobility across localities can reduce the monopoly power exercised by local public officials with respect to regulations and bribes. Fiscal and political decentralization encourages inter-jurisdictional competition that pressures sub-national governments to efficiently deliver local public goods. If citizens are dissatisfied with their local government's performance, they can move to other regions, thereby decreasing tax revenues in less efficient jurisdictions. A similar argument concerning the relationship between a decentralized bureaucratic structure and bribe payments has been explored in the academic literature. Rose-Ackerman
suggests that a decentralized civil service can reduce bribery since competition
between public officials would bid down bribe payments.
Vishny and Shleifer further develop this argument, they build a model where citizens and businesses require more than one service or good from several public officials. If government services are substitutes, then the competitive regime still applies. However, when government services are complementary and in the case of a decentralized bureaucratic structure, firms or citizens are facing several independent bureaucrats. Decentralization might therefore lead to a lack of coordination among bribe-seeking bureaucrats and a "Tragedy of the Commons
" outcome where public officials ask bribe payments that are too high, thereby increasing the burden that corruption imposes on firms and citizens.
Diaby and Sylwester empirically test these hypotheses in a cross-country regression and find that bribe payments are higher under a more decentralized bureaucratic structure.
Yet Fisman and Gatti detect a strong negative correlation between fiscal decentralization (as measured by subnational share of total government spending) and corruption.
Treisman (2000) examines correlations between eight different measures of decentralization with various measures of corruption and service delivery performance. The same measure of fiscal decentralization used by Fisman and Gatti appears not to be significantly correlated with corruption measures.
Decentralization is a complex process which manifests itself in various forms. The design and impetus for decentralization are specific to each country, which complicates comparisons of a single conception of decentralization. The literature on decentralization experiences in several developing countries suggests the effects of decentralization on public sector performance and corruption are likely to be ambiguous and highly context-specific.
The empirical work appears to be inconclusive as various types of decentralization were examined using different measures. What's more, measuring corruption as bribery without paying attention to special interest capture
may provide an inaccurate assessment of the impact of decentralization. As Bardhan and Mookherjee argue, bribery may decrease while being replaced by local elite capture as a result of decentralization.
Treisman purports that the theoretical and empirical arguments about decentralization and governance refer to specific types of decentralization. He identifies five types: structural, decision, resource, electoral and institutional decentralization and develops arguments clarifying how each type affects the quality of government.
While some types of decentralization can improve governance and reduce corruption, others can undermine government performance, this can in part explain the mixed empirical evidence on the effects of decentralization.
Top-down performance monitoring
Rather than structuring rewards and penalties for corrupt behaviour, another approach to civil service reform seeks to increase the probability that corrupt activity will be observed. Theoretically, monitoring can reduce information asymmetries
so that the principal can induce the agent to choose the optimal level of effort and the optimal degree of corrupt activity. As the agent compares his expected payoff of being honest to that of being corrupt, increasing the probability of getting caught and punished will deter corrupt behaviour.
Civil service auditing by the principal or third parties serves an accountability
function. The inherent conflict of interest as well as the lack of oversight require independent third parties to certify the reliability of financial reporting, performance results and compliance to rules.
Auditors can help exercise oversight by evaluating the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of government services.
must rely on efficiency measures and pre-determined criteria and benchmarks to assess public servant's performance and the impact of government's programs. Performance auditing can also help detect corruption in public entities. Audits highlight irregularities and areas of inefficiencies that may indicate the existence of corruption. Based on suspicious circumstances, auditors can identify illegal behaviour and collect evidence on misdeeds which can subsequently be used to prosecute public servants at fault. As previously mentioned, successful detection efforts by performance auditing can have a deterrent effect on corrupt activities.
Auditing and prosecution were important elements in Justice Plana's campaign to curb corruption in the Bureau of Internal Revenue in the Philippines. Appointed as the new Commissioner of the corrupt Bureau of Internal Revenue, Justice Plana's anti-corruption strategy focused on implementing a new performance evaluation system, gathering information on corruption through intelligence agents and audits and effectively prosecuting corrupt tax officers.
While Justice Plana's campaign was a multi-faceted approach, the higher monitoring intensity combined with a highly credible threat of punishment were particularly successful in deterring corrupt behaviour in the Bureau of Internal Revenue. According to Professor Magtolis-Briones, the threat of being detected and prosecuted decidedly lead officials to reconsider their decisions to engage in corrupt activities.
In Georgia, the success of anti-corruption reforms especially relied on top-down monitoring and prosecution but Schueth warns about the potential abuses of monitoring when fighting corruption.
The crackdown on corruption in the tax agency involved coercion such as the use of extra-legal surveillance systems to ensure public officials' observance of the new procedural codes.
Laboratory experiments provide evidence on the impact monitoring.
In a controlled bribery experiment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Armantier and Boly observed that monitoring and punishment can be an effective anti-corruption policy. The researchers had two treatments, low monitoring and high monitoring. While the 'low monitoring' treatment proved effective in curbing bribery, they could not detect significant treatment effects on bribery in the 'high monitoring' treatment. The authors suggest that high monitoring intensity can crowd out intrinsic motivations to behave honestly.
Serra compare the effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up monitoring in a laboratory bribery game between public officials and private citizens.
The experimental results suggest that top-down auditing is ineffective in deterring bribery, this may be especially true in weak institutional environments. However, the researcher found that combining formal top-down auditing and bottom-up monitoring created an accountability mechanism that was effective in curbing corruption.
Bottom-up Monitoring and reforms
An alternative approach to improving governance and combating corruption that has gained prominence in recent years is encouraging grassroots participation by community members in local monitoring to induce bottom-up pressures for reform. The 2004 World Development Report: Making Services Work for Poor People
is centred on this grassroots approach to development. Community participation is now considered an important component of reforms aiming to improve public service delivery and corruption at the local level.
Bottom-up models of governance involve community members participating in the service provision process by allowing them to monitor public officials, to have a say in policymaking, and keep service providers accountable to incentivize them to deliver public goods and services efficiently.
argues that community members, as beneficiaries of public goods and services, will have more incentives to monitor and ensure that governments programs are successful compared to indifferent central bureaucrats. In particular, project involving local citizens will be more likely to succeed since community participation helps sustain efforts towards the long-term continuation of projects necessary to keep them effective.
Nevertheless, B. Olken
contends that grassroots monitoring for public goods and services may be impaired by a free-rider problem
and suggests that government provision of private goods (subsidized food or health care) may generate more incentives to monitor service provision as each community member has a personal interest in securing the effective delivery of goods and in minimizing extortion by public officials. Stiglitz indeed recognizes that grassroots monitoring of public good delivery is in itself a public good and that as such, it is under-provided.
A bottom-up project, the Citizen Report Card (CRC), pioneered by the NGO Public Affairs Center
(PAC) was implemented in 1993 in Bangalore
. This project aimed at gathering local citizens' feedback on civil service performance and publicizing the results through the media, thereby exerting public pressures for the public service to improve its performance and launch reforms.
In 1993, the report cards revealed low levels of citizens' satisfaction with service providers, and the expectation was that report cards would serve as an accountability mechanism that would bring forward issues of service provision quality and corruption levels in the public service. While this initiative did raise awareness on such issues, there was some but not dramatic improvement in service delivery quality between 1994 and 1999. However, the difficulty of measuring improvements in service quality other than through subjective measures restricts opportunities to rigorously evaluate this bottom-up initiative.
in Porto Alegre
is known among scholars and policymakers as an enduring example of bottom-up reforms.
Participatory budgeting allows citizens to voice their demands regarding service delivery improvements, and through negotiations to influence budget funds allocation at the municipality level. This project was initiated in 1989, and is said to have improved access to and the quality of public service provision, especially for lower segments of society.
For instance, 27,000 new public housing units were created in 1989 (compared to only 1,700 in 1986), the number of schools quadrupled between 1986 and 1997 while the share of Porto Alegre's budget going to education and health went from 13% in 1985 to about 40% in 1996.
Participatory budgeting still has to address some limitations, including lack of representation of the poorest, but its success has led other municipalities in Brazil and public entities in other countries to adopt this initiative.
Evidence on reform effectiveness in developing countries
Base salary increases for police officers in Ghana
In 2010, the Ghanaian government implemented a civil service salary reform, the Single Spine Salary Structure (SSSS) to mitigate pay disparities in the public service. Police officers
were the first beneficiaries of this new salary structure as the police service has historically been the least well-paid of public services in Ghana
. Their wages unilaterally doubled in an attempt to increase their living standards
to reduce bribery
(fair-wage hypothesis). Foltz and Opoku-Agyemang assess the impact of this salary reform using a difference-in-difference
analysis taking advantage of the exogenous change induced by the policy.
While police officers' wages doubled, the salaries of other civil servants in Ghana and police officers in Burkina Faso
stayed the same. The researchers identified two groups, the Ghanaian policemen who received the treatment (higher wages) and the control group consisting of other civil servants (Ghanaian custom officers and Burkinabé policemen) whose wages did not increase.
Using data on bribes paid from 2,100 truck trips between Ghana and Burkina Faso, Foltz and Opoku-Agyemang can observe the differences in interactions with truck drivers between the treated and the control group before the salary reform (2006-2010) and after the salary reform (2010-2012). If we assume group differences would have stayed constant in the absence of the reform (parallel trend assumption), the difference-in-difference coefficient estimate measures the causal impact of the salary increase on Ghanaian police officers' propensity to ask for bribes. The results suggest that the salary reform counterintuively increased police officers' efforts to extort bribes, the value of the bribes and the total amount truck drivers had to pay on the road.
This evidence goes against theoretical arguments on pay reforms in the civil service. Foltz and Opoku-Agyemang posit that these results could be due to the lack of enforcement of anti-corruption laws. Without changing the environment and other incentives facing civil servants, it appears that increasing wages may not have the predicted effects on corruption.
Pay for performance reforms for tax collectors in Pakistan
Corruption in tax administration has particularly detrimental effects on tax revenue collection, fiscal balance and overall economic performance.
Khan, Khwaja and Olken implemented a large-scale randomized experiment in Punjab
to assess the impact of performance-based payment schemes for tax collectors.
In collaboration with the Punjab provincial government, they randomly allocated tax officials in the provincial urban property tax department into four groups, a control group and three treatment groups corresponding to different pay-for-performance designs.
The three treatment groups differed in the degree to which tax officers' pay was based on revenue collection performance and on other subjective evaluations from taxpayers and the tax department. The 'Revenue' treatment provided incentives depending only on revenue collection exceeding a benchmark while the 'Revenue Plus' scheme tied salaries to tax collection performance as well as accuracy of tax assessment and taxpayers' satisfaction. The last treatment 'Flexible Plus' added several criteria set by the tax department to determine wages. After two fiscal years, Khan, Khwaja and Olken found that across the three treatment groups, tax revenues increased by 9 log points on average which is equivalent to 46% higher growth of revenues compared to the control group.
The 'Revenue' scheme was the most effective in increasing tax collection but the researchers found no effects on accuracy of tax assessment or the satisfaction of taxpayers. They note that pay-for-performance schemes may have tradeoffs: giving excessive incentives to tax officers might increase their bargaining power with taxpayers and lead to more extortion and taxpayers' dissatisfaction. However, Khan, Khwaja and Olken point out that the benefits of pay-for-performance contracts outweigh their costs and suggest they can effective in increasing tax revenue collection.
Random audits in Brazilian municipalities
In 2003, the federal government of Brazil created the Controladoria Geral da União
(CGU) charged with corruption prevention and internal control. The CGU launched an anti-corruption program, Programa de Fiscalização por Sorteios Públicos (Monitoring Program with Public Lotteries), which consists in randomly selecting municipalities for audits and publicly disseminating the findings. As of 2015, 12 years after the beginning of the reform, there have been 2,241 audits in 1,949 municipalities.
Researchers Avis, Ferraz and Finan exploited the random selection to measure the impact of this anti-corruption program. While some municipalities had been audited several times in the past (treatment group), others were being audited for the first time (control group). Since the municipalities were randomly selected, comparing corruption levels among municipalities in the control and treatment group can provide causal estimates of the effects of the reform.
Based on audit reports, they estimate that 30% of the federal funds transferred to municipalities were stolen. However, they find that corruption levels were 8% lower in municipalities that had previously undergone government audits, thereby suggesting that random audits can be an effective policy against corruption. The researchers posit that random audits can reduce corruption by increasing public officials' perceived probability of being detected. They observed that audits also generated spillover effects, neighbouring municipalities were also affected, having an additional neighbour audited decreased their corruption levels by 7.5%.
The local media played a role in disseminating information about other municipalities' audit outcomes.
Avis et al. identify several mechanisms through which the audits led to lower local corruption. First, the new program introduce a system of political accountability whereby local citizens can punish dishonest incumbents or reward those who are honest. Audits may have also altered the types of candidates who enter into politics. What's more, negative audit results can generate reputational costs and potential legal punishments.
Monitoring a road building project in Indonesia
The Kecamatan Development Project (KDP) is an Indonesian government program, financed by the World Bank which funds village-level small-scale infrastructure programs. Benjamin Olken
implemented a randomized experiment in which he randomly assigned 608 villages into groups with different audit probabilities prior to the start of a nationwide infrastructure project.
A random sample of villages were informed that the project would be audited by an audit agency once completed. This increased the probability of detection from 4% to 100%. The audit results were publicly disseminated by the auditors during village meetings. Olken also designed experiments to increase local members' participation in 'accountability meetings' where officials in charge of the road-building project expose how the budget will be spent.
To assess the impact of both monitoring mechanisms, the researcher uses a quantitative measure of corruption levels based on engineers' assessment of the quantity of materials used to build the roads and estimated costs. The discrepancies between project’s official costs reported by village project leaders and the costs estimated by independent engineers measures missing expenditures which are used as a proxy for corruption in Olken's study. It was estimated that on average 24% of materials were missing based on road samples, suggesting that part of the project funds were diverted. Olken finds that increasing the probability of external audits significantly reduced missing expenditures (by 8%), and that this approach to fighting corruption is cost-effective.
Top-down audits were more effective when village elections were close, which implies that local level accountability can be effective in restraining corrupt behaviour. However, the interventions to increase grassroots participation did not have any significant effects on missing funds.
Challenges and barriers to effective civil service reforms
dynamics condition the success of civil service reforms. North
et al. argue that some developing countries function as 'limited access orders' in which elites
exclude broad cross-sections of society to maintain an equilibrium that enables them to extracts rents.
In such an equilibrium, political elites have no incentives to break down their patronage networks and introduce meritocratic
recruitment reforms in the civil service as it would threaten their position and reduce their opportunities for rent-seeking
. The clientelist
system on the contrary can be a powerful mechanism through which elites maintain this 'limited access order'. Considerably depending on clientelist and patronage
networks increases the costs of implementing public sector reforms. Elites will therefore be likely to oppose reforms as they stand to lose the most.
What's more, civil service reforms are costly to implement in the short-term while their benefits will be manifested and reaped in the future. Governments are thus unwilling to make such unappealing investment. The long-term nature of reforms and the reluctance to initiate, gather and maintain support for reforms prevent their implementation in the first place. In a background paper for the 2011 World Bank Development Report,
de Weijer and Pritchett appraise that it would take about 20 years to witness improvements in the functional capability of the state. In almost every countries, this exceeds the average duration of a term of office, political incumbents would have no incentives to incur the costs to carry out reforms while the benefits will accrue to future incumbents.
In addition, bureaucratic inertia and resistance to change should not be overlooked. Bureaucrats may be disinclined to accept changes brought by civil service reforms. This is especially true in countries where bureaucrats depend on informal or illegal channels to complement their meager salaries.
Institutional structures or types of political regimes also matter for reform implementation and success. In a democratic regime, political incumbents may see it in their interests to initiate bureaucratic reforms if voters value and acknowledge the public benefits of reforms.
However, demand for civil service reforms remains weak in developing countries. Even if bureaucratic corruption is condemned across countries, the internal demand for anti-corruption reforms is undermined by a collective action problem
. Indeed, Persson, Rohstein and Teorell argue that civil service reforms have failed as a result of their mischaracterization of corruption.
Most approaches to civil service reform rely on principal-agent frameworks that assume that 'principled principals' are public-spirited and will always take on the task to fight corruption and improve bureaucratic performance. However, the authors contend that, in contexts where corruption is pervasive, actors will not necessarily respond to incentives aiming at altering their behaviour but instead behave based on the extent to which corruption is the expected behaviour in society.
Sources for further research
Data and diagnostics
- Abdollahian, Mark, Michael Baranick, Brian Efird, and Jacek Kugler, 2006. Senturion A Predictive Political Simulation Model. Center for Technology and National Security Policy. National Defense University . https://web.archive.org/web/20090110102241/http://www.ndu.edu/ctnsp/Def_Tech/DTP%2032%20Senturion.pdf
- Global Integrity, 2007. Global Integrity Report. https://web.archive.org/web/20080308204055/http://report.globalintegrity.org/
- International Budget Project, 2006. Open Budget Initiative. Washington, DC. http://www.openbudgetindex.org/
- Hood, Christopher, Craig Beeston and Ruth Dixon. 2007. "Rating the Rankings: Assessing International Rankings of Public Service Performance". Paper prepared for the IPMN Workshop, ‘Ranking and Rating Public Services’, Worcester College, Oxford, 7-9 August 2007
- Polimap, undated. PolicyMaker 2.3 Software Computer-Assisted Political Analysis. https://web.archive.org/web/20080924111810/http://polimap.books.officelive.com/default.aspx
- Transparency International, 2007. Corruption Perceptions Index. https://web.archive.org/web/20060619145956/http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
- Wescott, C. 2003, “Measuring Governance in the Asia Pacific Region and its relevance for tax administrators”, in Asia-Pacific Tax Bulletin (APTB), Vol 9, No. 2, February 2003 https://web.archive.org/web/20110526041753/http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/ibfd/unpan008618.pdf
- World Bank, 2008. Governance Matters. https://web.archive.org/web/20080627121548/http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.asp
- World Bank, 2007. “Actionable Governance Indicators”. http://intresources.worldbank.org/INTANTICORRUPTION/Resources/AGICGAC.ppt[permanent dead link]
- World Bank, 2007. Country Policy And Institutional Assessments 2007 Assessment Questionnaire, pp. 39–40.
- World Bank. 2005. Public Financial Management—Performance Measurement Framework. Washington: PEFA Secretariat. https://web.archive.org/web/20080828204751/http://www.pefa.org/pfm_performance_frameworkmn.php
- World Bank, 2002. Monitoring Comprehensive Reform Programs: The example of Albania. http://go.worldbank.org/DLSI6GXH20
Structure of the public sector
- OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 1996. "Civil Service Legislation Contents Checklist." SIGMA Papers No. 5. Paris:
- OECD/SIGMA. https://web.archive.org/web/20061007062027/http://www.sigmaweb.org/dataoecd/53/23/1819160.pdf
- OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 1996. "Civil Service Legislation: Checklist On Secondary Legislation (and other Regulatory Instruments)" SIGMA Papers No. 14. Paris: OECD/SIGMA. https://web.archive.org/web/20061007062027/http://www.sigmaweb.org/dataoecd/53/23/1819160.pdf
- Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore and Hazel M. McFerson, 2008. Public Management in Global Perspective. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 70–123 .
- Wescott, Clay. 2006. “Decentralization Policy and Practice in Viet Nam: 1991-2001”, in Paul Smoke, Eduardo Gomez and George Peterson, eds. Decentralization in Asia and Latin America: A Comparative Interdisciplinary Perspective, Edward Elgar Press, Northampton, Mass. https://web.archive.org/web/20071016175431/http://www.e-elgar.co.uk/bookentry_main.lasso?id=3595
- Wescott, Clay. 2005. "Improving Road Administration in the Asia-Pacific Region: some Lessons from Experience" in Kidd J B & Richter F-J (eds). Infrastructure and Productivity in Asia: Political, Financial, Physical and Intellectual Capital underpinnings, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 123–43.
- Wilson, James Q, 1989. Bureaucracy. NY: Basic Books, pp. 154–75.
- World Bank, 2000. Architecture of the Public Sector. http://go.worldbank.org/MJA3YIX2E0
- Victor Lapuente and Marina Nistotskaya, "To The Short-Sighted Victor Belong the Spoils: Politics and Merit Adoption in Comparative Perspective," Governance 22.3 (July 2009): 431-458
- Christopher Hood; B. Guy Peters (14 January 2004). Reward for High Public Office: Asian and Pacific Rim States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-33072-2.
- Mintzberg, Henry. 1996. “Managing Government, Governing Management”. Harvard Business Review. May–June. 
- Perry, James L and Annie Hondeghem, eds. 2008. “Symposium on Public Service Motivation.” International Public Management Journal, 11 (1), pp. 3–167. https://web.archive.org/web/20080924084423/http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10967494
- Rath, Tom, 2007. Strengths Finder 2.0. NY: Gallup Press. https://web.archive.org/web/20081223024417/http://www.strengthsfinder.com/
- Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore and Hazel M. McFerson, 2008. Public Management in Global Perspective. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 175–247, 293-322.
- Wescott, Clay and Brinkerhoff, J. (eds), 2006. Converting Migration Drains into Gains Harnessing the Resources of Overseas Professionals. Manila: Asian Development Bank. https://web.archive.org/web/20070913232725/http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Converting-Migration-Drains-Gains/
- Wescott, Clay. 2006. "Adapting Asia - Pacific Public Administration to a Globalizing World: Some Lessons From Experience", in Ali Farazmand and Jack
- Pinkowski, eds. Handbook of Globalization, Governance, and Public Administration. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Taylor and Francis: 491-518. http://www.routledge.com/books/Handbook-of-Globalization-Governance-and-Public-Administration-ISBN 978-0-8493-3726-0
- World Bank, 2008. Using Training to Build Capacity for Development. Independent Evaluation Group. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/ieg/training/
- World Bank, 2000. Personnel Management. http://go.worldbank.org/MJA3YIX2E0
- Allen, Richard, Richard Hemming, and Barry H. Potter, eds. 2013. The International Handbook of Public Financial Management. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9780230300248
- Department for International Development (United Kingdom). 2009. Review of Public Financial Management Reform Literature. Evaluation Report EV698. https://www.sida.se/contentassets/377f0f9cea2f409fbb0a387378e4499e/public-financial-management-reform-literature-review_3154.pdf
- Fritz, Verena, Marijn Verhoeven and Amra Avenia. 2017. Political Economy of Public Financial Management Reforms: Experiences and Implications for Dialogue and Operational Engagement. Washington: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/28887
- Hove, M. R., and Wynne, A. 2010. The Experience of Medium Term Expenditure Framework and Integrated Financial Management Information System Reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Is the Balance Sheet? Occasional Paper No. 9. African Capacity Building Foundation. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/5986/WDR%202004%20-%20English.pdf?sequence=1
- Piatti, Moritz, Ali Hashim, and Clay Wescott. 2017. Using Financial Management Information Systems (FMIS) for Fiscal Control: Applying a Risk-Based Approach for Early Results in the Reform Process. Paper presented at the IPMN 2017 Conference on Reform, Innovation and Governance: Improving Performance and Accountability in the Changing Times, Shanghai, China. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321919931_Title_Using_Financial_Management_Information_Systems_FMIS_for_Fiscal_Control_Applying_a_Risk-Based_Approach_for_Early_Results_in_the_Reform_Process_1
- Porter, D., M. Andrews, J. Turkowitz and C. Wescott, 2012. Managing Public Finance and Procurement in Fragile and Conflicted Settings, International Public Management Journal, 14:4, 369-394. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2011.656049
- Wescott, Clay, 2009. World Bank Support for Public Financial Management and Procurement: From Theory to Practice. In Governance. 22, 1: 139-153. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0491.2008.01425.x
- Wescott, Clay G. 2011. Recent innovations in public financial management and procurement in Asia Pacific. In Ari-veikko Anttiroiko and S.J. Bailey, eds. Innovation in public governance in Asia. Amsterdam: IOS Press. https://www.iospress.nl/book/innovations-in-public-governance/
- Wescott, Clay. 2013. "World Bank Support for Supreme Audit and other Accountability Institutions". In Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Internationale Organisation Oberster Rechnungskontrollbehörden (INTOSAI), eds. Supreme Audit Institutions—Accountability for Development. Berlin: GIZ and INTOSAI. http://www.nomos-shop.de/Deutsche-Gesellschaft-f%C3%BCr-Internationale-Zusammenarbeit-GIZ-GmbH-Internationale-Organisation-Oberster-Rechnungskontrollbeh%C3%B6rden-/productview.aspx?product=22048&pac=weco
- Bräutigam, D. & Knack, S. 2004. “Foreign Aid, Institutions, and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, Volume 52, Number 2, January. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/loi/edcc
- Campos, J. Edgardo and Sanjay Pradhan, 2007. The Many Faces of Corruption. Washington, DC: World Bank. 
- Ear, Sophal. 2007. "Does Aid Dependence Worsen Governance?" International Public Management Journal, 10 (3): 259–286. https://web.archive.org/web/20080924084423/http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10967494
- Wescott, C. 2003. “Combating Corruption in Southeast Asia”, in Kidd J B & Richter F-J, eds. Fighting Corruption In Asia: Causes, Effects and Remedies. Singapore, World Scientific Press, https://web.archive.org/web/20080608232116/http://www.worldscibooks.com/eastasianstudies/5169.html
- Robert Williams and Robin Theobald, Eds. 1986. The Politics of Corruption (4 vol). Northampton, Mass.: Elgar Reference Collection.
Issues for reform
- Batley, Richard and George A. Larbi, 2004. Changing Role of Government The Reform of Public Services in Developing Countries. Basingstoke Hampshire (UK): Palgrave Macmillan.
- Cheung, Anthony B. L., 2005. "The Politics of Administrative Reforms in Asia: Paradigms and Legacies, Paths and Diversities". Governance April 2005 - Vol. 18 Issue 2: 257-282.
- K. Jenkins; Kate Jenkins; William Plowden (1 January 2008). Governance and Nationbuilding: The Failure of International Intervention. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84720-171-3.
- Christopher Pollitt; Geert Bouckaert (2004). Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-19-926849-8.
- Schedler, Kuno and Isabella Proeller, eds. 2007. Cultural Aspects of Public Management reform. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI. http://books.emeraldinsight.com/display.asp?ISB=9780762314003
- Schick, Allen. 1998. ‘Why most developing countries should not try New Zealand’s reforms’, The World Bank Research Observer, 13(1):123–31. http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/1/123
- Wescott, Clay. 2007. “E-Government And The Applications Of Technology To Government Services” in Dennis A. Rondinelli and John M. Heffron, eds. Globalization In Transition: Forces Of Adjustment In The Asia Pacific Region. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Reinner. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/Other/UNPAN025160.pdf
- Wescott, Clay. 1999. Guiding principles on civil service reform in Africa: an empirical review. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. Volume 12, Number 2 (Online). Available: http://zerlina.emeraldinsight.com/vl=812030/cl=21/nw=1/rpsv/cw/www/mcb/09513558/v12n2/contp1-1.htm[permanent dead link]
- World Bank, 2008. Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Support. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTPUBSECREF/Resources/psr_eval.pdf
- World Bank, 2000. “Common Problems”. http://go.worldbank.org/MJA3YIX2E0
Engaging support for reform
- Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. 2017. Building State Capability—Evidence, Analysis, Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/building-state-capability-9780198747482?cc=us&lang=en&
- Arthur Fisher Bentley (1908). The Process of Government; a Study of Social Pressures. University of Chicago Press.
- Norma M. Riccucci and Frank J. Thompson, 2008. “The New public management, homeland security and the politics of civil service reform” Public Administration Review. September/October: 877-890. https://web.archive.org/web/20080918093020/http://www.aspanet.org/scriptcontent/index_par.cfm
- Migliorisi, Stefano and Clay Wescott. 2011. A Review of World Bank Support for Accountability Institutions in the Context of Governance and Anticorruption. IEG Working Paper. Washington: Independent Evaluation Group, World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26685
- Wescott, Clay. 2003. “In Asia, the Web is routing Power to the People”, International Herald Tribune, October 29. https://web.archive.org/web/20070622213742/http://www.commondreams.org/scriptfiles/views03/1029-10.htm
- World Bank, 2000. Engaging Support for reform. http://go.worldbank.org/MJA3YIX2E0
- ^ "Civil service reform - GSDRC". GSDRC. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- ^ a b Simone, Bunse; Verena, Fritz (2012-08-01). "Making public sector reforms work : political and economic contexts, incentives, and strategies": 1–54.
- ^ "From Old Public Administration to the New Public Service". UNDP. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- ^ Udy, Stanley H. (1959). ""Bureaucracy" and "Rationality" in Weber's Organization Theory: An Empirical Study". American Sociological Review. 24 (6): 791–795. doi:10.2307/2088566. JSTOR 2088566.
- ^ a b c Dahlström, Carl; Lapuente, Victor; Teorell, Jan (2009). "Bureaucracy, Politics and Corruption". Rochester, NY. SSRN 1450742.
- ^ a b Rauch, James E.; Evans, Peter B. (2000-01-01). "Bureaucratic structure and bureaucratic performance in less developed countries". Journal of Public Economics. 75 (1): 49–71. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.203.288. doi:10.1016/S0047-2727(99)00044-4. ISSN 0047-2727.
- ^ "Degrees of Development- Finance & Development, March 2013". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
- ^ Barbara, Nunberg (1989-12-31). "Public sector pay and employment reform : a review of World Bank experience": 1.
- ^ Klitgaard, Robert (1989-04-01). "Incentive myopia". World Development. 17 (4): 447–459. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(89)90254-4. ISSN 0305-750X.
- ^ Chew, David C.E. (1990-07-01). "Internal adjustments to falling civil service salaries: Insights from Uganda". World Development. 18 (7): 1003–1014. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(90)90082-9. ISSN 0305-750X.
- ^ Mukherjee. "Civil Service Pay and Reward"(PDF).
- ^ Becker, Gary S.; Stigler, George J. (1974-01-01). "Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers". The Journal of Legal Studies. 3 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1086/467507. ISSN 0047-2530. S2CID 155014876.
- ^ a b c "Do higher salaries lower petty corruption? A policy experiment on West Africa's highways - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
- ^ Gong, Ting; Wu, Alfred M. (2012-10-08). "Does Increased Civil Service Pay Deter Corruption?: Evidence from China". Rochester, NY. SSRN 2158530.
- ^ a b Klaus, Abbink (2000). "Fair Salaries and the Moral Costs of Corruption".
- ^ a b "Corruption and the Rate of Temptation : Do Low Wages in the Civil Service Cause Corruption?". IMF. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
- ^ Tanzi, Vito; Davoodi, Hamid R. (2000-11-01). "Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances". Rochester, NY. SSRN 880260.
- ^ Di Tella, Rafael; Schargrodsky, Ernesto (2003-04-01). "The Role of Wages and Auditing during a Crackdown on Corruption in the City of Buenos Aires". The Journal of Law and Economics. 46 (1): 269–292. doi:10.1086/345578. ISSN 0022-2186. S2CID 222323278.
- ^ "What is the evidence of the impact of increasing salaries on improving the performance of public servants? Is it time to give pay a chance? - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
- ^ "Combatting Corruption Among Civil Servants (2017)". iie. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
- ^ Hasnain, Zahid; Manning, Nick; Pierskalla, Jan Henryk (2012). "Performance-related Pay in the Public Sector: A Review of Theory and Evidence". World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. Policy Research Working Papers. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-6043. hdl:10986/6046. S2CID 53373847.
- ^ Bank, World (1999). "World Development Report 1999/2000".
- ^ "Decentralization and Power Shift: An Imperative for Good Governance | UNDP". www.ombudsman.gov.ph. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- ^ "Decentralisation and local government - GSDRC". GSDRC. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- ^ "Fiscal Decentralization". www1.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- ^ a b c Bardhan, Pranab; Mookherjee, Dilip (2006). "Decentralization, Corruption and Government Accountability: An Overview".
- ^ Azfar, O; Kähkönen, S; Lanyi, A; Meagher, P; Rutherford, Diana (2004-01-01). "Decentralization, Governance and Public Services: The Impact of Institutional Arrangements". Devolution and Development: Governance Prospects in Decentralizing States.
- ^ Oates, Wallace E (1999). "An Essay on Fiscal Federalism". Journal of Economic Literature. 37 (3): 1120–1149. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.195.449. doi:10.1257/jel.37.3.1120. ISSN 0022-0515.
- ^ Hayek, F. A. (1945). "The Use of Knowledge in Society". The American Economic Review. 35 (4): 519–530. JSTOR 1809376.
- ^ Melumad, Nahum; Mookherjee, Dilip; Reichelstein, Stefan (1997-06-01). "Contract Complexity, Incentives, and the Value of Delegation". Journal of Economics & Management Strategy. 6 (2): 257–289. doi:10.1111/j.1430-9134.1997.00257.x. ISSN 1530-9134.
- ^ a b Bardhan, Pranab; Mookherjee, Dilip (2000). "Corruption and Decentralization of Infrastructure Delivery in Developing Countries".
- ^ Tiebout, Charles M. (1956-10-01). "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures". Journal of Political Economy. 64 (5): 416–424. doi:10.1086/257839. ISSN 0022-3808. S2CID 10281240.
- ^ Rose-Ackerman, Susan (2013-10-22). Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. Academic Press. ISBN 9781483289069.
- ^ Shleifer, A.; Vishny, R. W. (1993-08-01). "Corruption". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 599–617. doi:10.2307/2118402. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118402.
- ^ Diaby, Aboubacar; Sylwester, Kevin (2014-09-01). "Bureaucratic competition and public corruption: Evidence from transition countries". European Journal of Political Economy. 35: 75–87. doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2014.04.002. ISSN 0176-2680.
- ^ Raymond, Fisman; Roberta, Gatti (2000). "Decentralization and Corruption : Evidence across Countries".
- ^ a b Treisman, Daniel (2000). "Decentralization and the Quality of Government". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- ^ a b Klitgaard, Robert (1988). "Chapter 3: Policy Measures". Controlling Corruption. University of California Press.
- ^ "The Role of Auditing in Public Sector Governance". na.theiia.org. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- ^ Warring, Colleen; Morgan, Stephen (2009). "Public Sector Performance Auditing in Developing Countries" (PDF).
- ^ Magtolis-Briones, Leonor (1979). "Negative Bureaucratic Behaviour and Development:The Case of the Bureau of Internal Revenue" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-04-28.
- ^ Schueth, Samuel (2012-03-01). "Apparatus of capture: Fiscal state formation in the republic of Georgia". Political Geography. 31 (3): 133–143. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2011.11.004. ISSN 0962-6298.
- ^ Armantier, Olivier; Boly, Amadou (2011-12-01). "A controlled field experiment on corruption". European Economic Review. 55 (8): 1072–1082. doi:10.1016/j.euroecorev.2011.04.007. ISSN 0014-2921.
- ^ Serra, D. (2011-06-09). "Combining Top-Down and Bottom-Up Accountability: Evidence from a Bribery Experiment". Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. 28 (3): 569–587. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.594.1995. doi:10.1093/jleo/ewr010. ISSN 8756-6222.
- ^ Bank, The World (2003-09-30). "World Development Report 2004 : Making services work for poor people - Overview": 1–36.
- ^ a b c d Olken, Benjamin (2007). "Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia". Journal of Political Economy. 115 (2): 200–249. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.144.6583. doi:10.1086/517935.
- ^ a b Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). "Participation and Development: Perspectives from the Comprehensive Development Paradigm". Review of Development Economics. 6 (2): 163–182. doi:10.1111/1467-9361.00148. ISSN 1363-6669. S2CID 154314088.
- ^ Adikeshavalu, Ravindra (2004-06-01). "An assessment of the impact of Bangalore citizen report cards on the performance of public agencies": 1–25.
- ^ Paul, Samuel. "Making Voices: The Report Card on Bangalore's Public Services" (PDF). Public Affairs Center, Bangalore, India.
- ^ a b "Participatory budgeting of Porto Alegre: a discussion in the light of the principle of democratic legitimacy and of the criterion of governance performance - Semantic Scholar". S2CID 16591284.
- ^ Bhatnagar; et al. "Participatory Budgeting in Brazil" (PDF).
- ^ D., Larbi, M. (2007). The Implementation of the Single Spine Salary Structure (Ssss) in Ghana (Thesis). University of Ghana.
- ^ Ajaz, Tahseen; Ahmad, Eatzaz (2010). "The Effect of Corruption and Governance on Tax Revenues". The Pakistan Development Review. 49 (4): 405–417. doi:10.30541/v49i4IIpp.405-417. JSTOR 41428665.
- ^ a b Khan, Adnan Q.; Khwaja, Asim I.; Olken, Benjamin A. (2016). "Tax Farming Redux: Experimental Evidence on Performance Pay for Tax Collectors" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Economics. 131 (1): 219–271. doi:10.1093/qje/qjv042. S2CID 12043117.
- ^ a b Avis, Eric; Ferraz, Claudio; Finan, Frederico (July 2016). "Do Government Audits Reduce Corruption? Estimating the Impacts of Exposing Corrupt Politicians" (PDF). NBER Working Paper No. 22443. doi:10.3386/w22443.
- ^ North, Douglass C.; Wallis, John Joseph; Webb, Steven B.; Weingast, Barry R. (2007-11-09). "Limited Access Orders In The Developing World :A New Approach To The Problems Of Development" (PDF). Policy Research Working Papers. doi:10.1596/1813-9450-4359. hdl:10986/7341. ISSN 1813-9450. S2CID 10695345.
- ^ Geddes, Barbara (1991). "A Game Theoretic Model of Reform in Latin American Democracies". The American Political Science Review. 85 (2): 371–392. doi:10.2307/1963165. JSTOR 1963165.
- ^ Lant, Pritchett; Frauke, de Weijer (2011). "Fragile States : Stuck in a Capability Trap?".
- ^ Rose-Ackerman, Susan; Palifka, Bonnie J. (March 2016). "Domestic Conditions for Reform". Domestic Conditions for Reform (Chapter 13) - Corruption and Government. pp. 415–445. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139962933.015. ISBN 9781139962933.
- ^ Persson, Anna; Rothstein, Bo; Teorell, Jan (2012-09-07). "Why Anticorruption Reforms Fail-Systemic Corruption as a Collective Action Problem". Governance. 26 (3): 449–471. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0491.2012.01604.x. ISSN 0952-1895.
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 18:26
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.