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Close-mid back unrounded vowel
The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns." This symbol is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender, but some texts[2] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.
Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA Number315
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ
Unicode (hex)U+0264
X-SAMPA7
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top; this symbol was in turn derived from and replaced the inverted small capital A, ⟨Ɐ⟩, that represented the sound before the 1928 revision to the IPA.[3] The symbol was ultimately revised to be ⟨⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gammaɣ⟩.[4] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤLATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Aklanonsaeamat[saɤamat]'thanks'
Bashkirтуғыҙ/tuğïð[tuˈʁɤð] (help·info)'nine'
ChineseSouthern Min/ô[ɤ˧]'oyster'
EnglishCape Flats[5]
foot
[fɤt]'foot'Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[5] See South African English phonology
South African[6]Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[6] See South African English phonology
Estonian[7]
kõrv
[kɤrv]'ear'Can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[7] See Estonian phonology
Gayo[8]kule[kuˈlɤː]'tiger'Close-mid or mid; one of the possible allophones of /ə/.[8]
Iaai[9]löö[lɤː]'banana leaf'
IrishUlster[10]
Uladh
[ɤl̪ˠu]'Ulster'See Irish phonology
Kaingang[11]mo[ˈᵐbɤ]'tail'Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][12]
KoreanGyeongsang dialect거기/geogi[ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ]'there'See Korean phonology
Northern TiwaTaos dialectmânpəumán[ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄]'it was squeezed'May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Scottish Gaelic
doirbh
[d̪̊ɤrʲɤv]'difficult'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Thai[13]/thoe[tʰɤː]'you'
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1912). The principles of the International Phonetic Association. Paris, Association Phonétique Internationale. pp. 10.
  4. ^ Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
  5. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  6. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  7. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  8. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  9. ^ Maddieson & Anderson (1994), p. 164.
  10. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  11. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  12. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  13. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɤ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 21:55
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