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Close-mid central rounded vowel
Not to be confused with Greek letter theta (θ), used in the IPA consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative.
The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɵ⟩, a lowercase barred letter o.
Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
IPA Number323
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɵ
Unicode (hex)U+0275
X-SAMPA8
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Yañalif but then denotes a sound that is different from that of the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F ƟLATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE (HTML Ɵ).
This vowel occurs in Cantonese, Dutch, French, Russian and Swedish as well as in a number of English dialects as a realization of /ʊ/ (as in foot), /ɜː/ (as in nurse) or /oʊ/ (as in goat).
This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close front rounded vowel and so is sometimes transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩.
Close-mid central protruded vowel
The close-mid central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ɵ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ɵ̫⟩ for the close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ɵʷ⟩ or ⟨ɘʷ⟩ (a close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.
Features
Occurrence
Because central rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AsturianSome Western dialects [es][2]fuöra[ˈfwɵɾɐ]'outside'Realization of ⟨o⟩ in the diphthong ⟨uo⟩. May also be realized as [ø] or [œ].
AzeriTabriz[3]göz گؤز[dʒɵz]'eye'Typically transcribed as /œ/.
ChineseCantonese/ceot7[tsʰɵt˥]'to go out'See Cantonese phonology
DutchStandard[4][5]
hut
[ɦɵt]'hut'See Dutch phonology
EnglishCardiff[6]
foot
[fɵt]'foot'More often unrounded [ɘ];[7] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
General South African[8]Younger, especially female speakers.[8] Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]. May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʊ̟⟩ or ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See South African English phonology
Received Pronunciation[9][fɵʔt]Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[10]goat[ɡɵːt]'goat'Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[11]bird[bɵːd]'bird'Corresponds to /ɝ/ in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
French[12]
je
[ʒɵ]'I'May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩ or ⟨ɵ⟩. Also described as mid [ɵ̞].[13][14] May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology
GermanSwabian[15]
wird
[ʋɵʕ̞d̥]'becomes'Allophone of /i/ before /ʁ/.[15]
Upper Saxon[16]
Wunder
[ˈv̞ɵn(d̥)oˤ]'wonder'The example word is from the Chemnitz dialect.
Hiw[17]yöykö[jɵjkɵŋ]'forget'
IrishMunster[18]
dúnadh
[ˈd̪ˠuːn̪ˠө]'closing'Allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[18] See Irish phonology
LimburgishMost dialects[19][20][21]bluts[blɵts]'bump'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩. The example word is from the Weert dialect.[19][20][21]
Maastrichtian[20]beuk[bɵːk]'books'Sometimes realized as a narrow diphthong [ɵʉ̞];[20] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩. Front [øː] in other dialects.[19][22]
Mongolian[23]өгөх/ögökh[ɵɡɵx]'to give'
NorwegianStavangersk[24]
gull
[ɡɵl]'gold'Near-close [ʉ̞] in other dialects that have this vowel.[24] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Urban East[25]
søt
[sɵːt]'sweet'Also described as front [ø̫ː];[26] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩. See Norwegian phonology
RipuarianKerkrade dialect[27]sjuts[ʃɵts]'marksman'See Kerkrade dialect phonology
Russian[28]тётя/tyotya[ˈtʲɵtʲə]'aunt'Allophone of /o/ following a palatalized consonant. See Russian phonology
Tajik[29]кӯҳ/kūh[kʰɵːh]'mountain'Merges with /u/ in central and southern dialects.
Todaபர்/pȫr[pɵːr̘]'name'
Uzbekkoʻz[kɵz]'eye'
West FrisianStandard[30][31]put[pɵt]'well'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩. See West Frisian phonology
Southwestern dialects[32]fuotten[ˈfɵtn̩]'feet'Corresponds to [wo] in other dialects.[32] See West Frisian phonology
XumiLower[33]ľatsö[RPʎ̟ɐtsɵ]'to filter tea'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩.[33]
Upper[34]htö[htɵ]'way to do things'Allophone of /o/ after alveolar consonants; may be realized as [o] or [ɤ] instead.[34]
Close-mid central compressed vowel
Close-mid central compressed vowel
ø̈
ɘ͡β̞
ɘᵝ
ɵ͍
As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ø], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɘ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɘ] and labial compression) and ⟨ɘᵝ⟩ ([ɘ] modified with labial compression).
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
SwedishCentral Standard[35]
full
[fø̈lː]'full'More often described as mid [ɵ̞ᵝ].[36][37] See Swedish phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ García, Fernando Álvarez-Balbuena (1 September 2015). "Na frontera del asturllionés y el gallegoportugués: descripción y exame horiométricu de la fala de Fernidiellu (Forniella, Llión). Parte primera: fonética". Revista de Filoloxía Asturiana. 14 (14). ISSN 2341-1147.
  3. ^ Mokari & Werner (2016).
  4. ^ van Heuven & Genet (2002).
  5. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92–93)
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  8. ^ a b Lass (2002), pp. 115-116.
  9. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library.
  10. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  11. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  12. ^ "english speech services | Le FOOT vowel". 15 January 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  13. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  14. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 84.
  15. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 237.
  16. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  17. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  18. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000).
  19. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  20. ^ a b c d Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  21. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  22. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  23. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  24. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 19.
  25. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  26. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  27. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16). The source describes this vowel as the same as the short u in Standard Dutch lucht, which is close-mid central [ɵ] (van Heuven & Genet (2002)).
  28. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  29. ^ Ido (2014), pp. 91–92.
  30. ^ Sipma (1913), pp. 6, 8, 10.
  31. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 11.
  32. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)
  33. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  34. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.
  35. ^ Andersson (2002), p. 272.
  36. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  37. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɵ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 31 May 2021, at 01:37
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