en.m.wikipedia.org
Close-mid central unrounded vowel
The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwaə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.
Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
IPA Number397
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɘ
Unicode (hex)U+0258
X-SAMPA@\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ɘ̞⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.
Conversely, ⟨ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a raising diacritic ⟨ə̝⟩ to denote the close-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ə̝͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ə⟩ is undefined for rounding).
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AzerbaijaniTabriz[3]qız / قیز[ɡɘz]'girl'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩.
Cotabato Manobo[4][example needed]May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Chuvash
чĕлхе
[t͡ɕɘlɣɛˈ]'language, tongue'
DinkaLuanyjang[5]ŋeŋ[ŋɘ́ŋ]'jawbone'Short allophone of /e/.[5]
EnglishAustralian[6][7]
bird
[bɘːd]'bird'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[8][bɚ̝ːd]Rhotacized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.
Cardiff[9]
foot
[fɘt]'foot'Less often rounded [ɵ];[10] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[11]
bit
[bɘt]'bit'Merger of /ə/ and /ɪ/ found in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[12]
nut
[nɘt]'nut'Some dialects.[12] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[13]
kõrv
[kɘrv]'ear'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[13] See Estonian phonology
IrishMunster[14]
sáile
[ˈsˠɰaːlʲə̝]'salt water'Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[14] See Irish phonology
Jebero[15]ɨ[sh/x][e/ï][k/c/q][ˈiʃɘk]'bat'
Kaingang[16]me[ˈᵐbɘ]'tail'Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[17]
Kalagan Kaagan[18][miˈwə̝ːʔ]'lost'Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[18]
Kensiu[19][ɟɚ̝h]'to trim'Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.[19]
Kera[20][t͡ʃə̝̄wā̠a̠]'fire'Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[20]
Korean[21]/ŏŏleun[ə̝ːɾɯ̽n]'adult'May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See Korean phonology
Lizu[22][Fkə̝][clarification needed]'eagle'Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[22]
Mapudungun[23]
elün
[ë̝ˈlɘn]'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[24]
үсэр
[usɘɾɘ̆]'jump'
Mono[25]dœ[də̝]'be (equative)'May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[25]
Polish[26]
mysz
[mɘ̟ʂ] (help·info)'mouse'Somewhat fronted;[26] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Polish phonology
RomanianMoldavian dialect[27]
casă
[ˈkäsɘ]'house'Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Shiwiar[28][example needed]
Temne[29]pər[pə̝́r]'incite'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[29]
Vietnamese[30]
v
[vɘ˨˩ˀ]'wife'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
XumiUpper[31][LPmɘ̃dɐ]'upstairs'Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[31] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[32]
ZapotecTilquiapan[33]ne[nɘ]'and'Most common realization of /e/.[33]
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. ^ Mokari & Werner (2016).
  4. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  5. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  6. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  7. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  8. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  10. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  11. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  12. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  13. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  14. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  15. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  16. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  17. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  18. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  19. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  20. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  21. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  22. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  23. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  24. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  25. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  26. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ⟨ɨ⟩ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ].
  27. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  28. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  29. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  30. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  31. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  32. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  33. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)
References
External links
List of languages with [ɘ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 30 May 2021, at 07:29
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit