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Close-mid front rounded vowel
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨ø⟩, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, borrowed from Danish, Norwegian, and Faroese, which sometimes use the letter to represent the sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.
Close-mid front rounded vowel
ø
IPA Number310
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ø
Unicode (hex)U+00F8
X-SAMPA2
Braille
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close front rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Close-mid front compressed vowel
The close-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ø⟩, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨e͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [e] and labial compression) or ⟨eᵝ⟩ ([e] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ø͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
For the close-mid front compressed vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close front compressed vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Features
Occurrence
Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AsturianSome Western dialects [es][2]fuöra[ˈfwøɾɐ]'outside'Realization of ⟨o⟩ in the diphthong ⟨uo⟩. May also be realized as [ɵ] or [œ].
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3][example needed]Contrasts close [y], near-close [ø̝], close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ] front rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded [ä].[3] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩.
Northern[4][example needed]Allophone of /e/ before /l/.[4]
Breton[5]eur[øːʁ]'hour'
DanishStandard[6]
købe
[ˈkʰøːpə]'buy'Also described as near-close [ø̝ː].[7] See Danish phonology
DutchStandard Belgian[8][9]
neus
[nøːs]'nose'Also described as central [ɵː].[10] In the Standard Northern variety, it is diphthongized to [øʏ̯].[9][11] See Dutch phonology
Many accents[9]Present in many Eastern and Southern varieties.[12] See Dutch phonology
EnglishBroad New Zealand[13][14]
bird
[bøːd]'bird'Possible realization of /ɵː/. Other speakers use a more open vowel [ø̞ː ~ œː].[13][15] See New Zealand English phonology
Cardiff[16]Lower [ø̞ː ~ œː] in other southern Welsh accents. It corresponds to mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] in other Welsh accents and in RP.[17][18][19]
Port Talbot[20]
Geordie[21][22]Can be mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː] instead.[21]
South African[23]Used in General and Broad accents; may be mid [ø̞ː] instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː].[23] See South African English phonology
Estonian[24]
köök
[køːk]'kitchen'See Estonian phonology
FaroeseSuðuroy dialect[25]
bygdin
[ˈpɪktøn]'bridges'Realization of unstressed /i/ and /u/.[25] The stressed vowel typically transcribed with ⟨øː⟩ in IPA transcriptions of Faroese is open-mid [œː].[26] See Faroese phonology
French[27][28]
peu
[pø]'few'See French phonology
GermanStandard[29][30]
schön
[ʃøːn] (help·info)'beautiful'See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[31]
Hölle
[ˈhølə]'hell'Common realization of /œ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[31] See Standard German phonology
Hungarian[32]
nő
[nøː]'woman'See Hungarian phonology
Iaai[33]møøk[møːk]'to close eyes'
Kurdish[34]Palewani (Southern)سۆر/sôr[søːɾ]'wedding'See Kurdish phonology
Lemerig[35]lēlqö[lɪlk͡pʷøŋ]'forget'
LimburgishMost dialects[36][37]beuk[ˈbø̌ːk]'beech'Central [ɵː] in Maastricht;[38] the example word is from the Hamont-Achel dialect.
LombardLombardy [39]nöf / noeuv[nøːf]'new'One of the phonetic pronunciations of the classic lombard ortography trigraph 'oeu', along with [ø], modern ortography uses 'ö' to distinguish it from the [œ] phonem that is rendered by letter 'œ'.
Low German[40]sön / zeun[zøːn]'son'May be realized as a narrow closing diphthong in certain dialects.[40]
Löyöp[41]nö‑qöy[nø k͡pʷøj]'place haunted by spirits'
Luxembourgish[42]blöd[bløːt]'stupid'Occurs only in loanwords.[42] See Luxembourgish phonology
PortugueseMicaelense[43]
boi
[bø]'ox'Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[44]
dou
[d̪øw]'I give'
RipuarianKerkrade[45]meusj[ˈmøːʃ]'sparrow'See Kerkrade dialect phonology
Cologne[46]Mösch[møɕ]'sparrow'Can also appear long, as in pröve [pʁøː¹və] 'test'.
Saterland Frisian[47]Göäte[ˈɡøːtə]'gutter'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʏ/ ([ʏ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩ is actually near-close [ø̝ː].[47]
West FrisianHindeloopers[48]beuch[bøːx][translation needed]Diphthongized to [øy̑] in Standard West Frisian.[48] See West Frisian phonology
Close-mid front protruded vowel
Close-mid front protruded vowel
ø̫
øʷ
Catford notes[full citation needed] that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as the Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).
As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨øʷ⟩ or ⟨eʷ⟩ (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.
For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩, see near-close front protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨ø⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Acoustically, the sound is in between the more typical compressed close-mid front vowel [ø] and the unrounded close-mid front vowel [e].
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Norwegian[49][50]
søt
[sø̫ːt]'sweet'The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as central [ɵː].[51] See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[52]
öl
[ø̫ːl̪] (help·info)'beer'May be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ García, Fernando Álvarez-Balbuena (2015-09-01). "Na frontera del asturllionés y el gallegoportugués: descripción y exame horiométricu de la fala de Fernidiellu (Forniella, Llión). Parte primera: fonética". Revista de Filoloxía Asturiana. 14 (14). ISSN 2341-1147.
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Rowley (1990), p. 422.
  5. ^ Ternes (1992), pp. 431, 433.
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  7. ^ Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48).
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1999), p. 74.
  9. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–134.
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven (1999), p. 76.
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 133–135.
  13. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 607.
  14. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  15. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 591.
  16. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  18. ^ Tench (1990), p. 136.
  19. ^ Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  20. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 375.
  22. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  23. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 116.
  24. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  25. ^ a b Þráinsson (2004), p. 350.
  26. ^ Peterson (2000), cited in Árnason (2011:76)
  27. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  28. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  29. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  30. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 95, 107.
  31. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  32. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  33. ^ Maddieson & Anderson (1994), p. 164.
  34. ^ Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8-16.
  35. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  36. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  37. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  38. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  39. ^ Loporcaro, Michele (2015). Vowel Length from Latin to Romance. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0-19-965655-4.
  40. ^ a b Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  41. ^ François (2013), p. 226.
  42. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  43. ^ Variação Linguística no Português Europeu: O Caso do Português dos Açores (in Portuguese)
  44. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e outros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  45. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  46. ^ Neuer kölnischer Sprachschatz (1956), p. 627.
  47. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  48. ^ a b van der Veen (2001), p. 102.
  49. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  50. ^ While Vanvik (1979) does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Haugen (1974:40)) state explicitly that it is protruded.
  51. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17, 33–35, 37, 343.
  52. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 140-141.
References
External links
List of languages with [ø] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 18:14
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