en.m.wikipedia.org
Close-mid front unrounded vowel
"/e/" redirects here. For the operating system, see /e/ (operating system).
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.
Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA Number302
Encoding
Entity (decimal)e
Unicode (hex)U+0065
X-SAMPAe
Braille
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
For the close-mid front unrounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[2]
bed
[bet]'bed'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid [ɛ̝].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicStandardمَجۡر۪ىٰهَا‎‎/maǧrēhā[mad͡ʒ.reː.haː]See imalah
Azerbaijani
ge
[ɟeˈd͡ʒæ]'night'
BavarianAmstetten dialect[3][example needed]
Breton[4]daneg[ˈdãːnek]'the Danish language'Unstressed /ɛ/ can be mid [ɛ̝] or close-mid [e] instead.[4]
Catalan[5]
més
[mes]'more'See Catalan phonology
ChineseShanghainese[6]/kè[ke̠ʔ˩]'should'Near-front; realization of /ɛ/, which appears only in open syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]), which appears only in closed syllables.[6]
Chuvashэрешмен[erɛʃ'mɛnʲ]'spider'
DanishStandard[7][8]
hæl
[ˈheːˀl]'heel'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
DutchBelgian[9]
vreemd
[vreːmt]'strange'In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
EnglishAustralian[10]
bed
[bed]'bed'See Australian English phonology
New Zealand[11]The height varies from near-close in broad varieties to mid in the Cultivated variety.[11] See New Zealand English phonology
General American[12]
may
[meː]'may'Most often a closing diphthong [eɪ].[12]
General Indian[13]
General Pakistani[14]Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Geordie[15]
Scottish[16]
Singaporean[17]
Ulster[18]Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Some Cardiff speakers[19]
square
[skweː]'square'More often open-mid [ɛː].[19]
Yorkshire[20]
play
[ple̞ː]'play'
Scottish[16]
bit
[bë̞ʔ]'bit'Near-front,[16] may be [ɪ] (also [ə]) instead for other speakers.
Cockney[21]
bird
[bɛ̝̈ːd]'bird'Near-front; occasional realization of /ɜː/. It can be rounded [œ̝ː] or, more often, unrounded central [ɜ̝ː] instead.[21] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩.
Estonian[22]
keha
[ˈkeɦɑ̝ˑ]'body'See Estonian phonology
French[23][24]
beauté
[bot̪e]'beauty'See French phonology
GermanStandard[25][26]
Seele
[ˈzeːlə]'soul'See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[27]
Jäger
[ˈjeːɡɐ]'hunter'Outcome of the /ɛː–eː/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[27] See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[28]
Bett
[b̥et]'bed'Common realization of /ɛ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[28] See Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[28]Contrasts with the open-mid [ɛ].[28] See Standard German phonology
GreekSfakian[29][example needed]Corresponds to mid [] in Modern Standard Greek.[30] See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[31]כן‎/ken[ke̞n]'yes'Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
HindustaniHindiके/ke[ke]'of'See Hindustani phonology
Urduکے‎/ke
Hungarian[32]
hét
[heːt̪]'seven'Also described as mid [e̞ː].[33] See Hungarian phonology
ItalianStandard[34]
stelle
[ˈs̪t̪elle]'stars'See Italian phonology
Korean메아리 / meari[meɐɾi]'echo'See Korean phonology
LimburgishMost dialects[35][36][37]leef[leːf]'dear'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuaniantėtė[t̪eːt̪eː]'father''Tete' and 'tėtis' are more commonly used than 'tėtė.'
Malaykecil[kə.t͡ʃel]'small'Allophone of /i/ in closed-final syllables. May be [ɪ] or [] depending on the speaker. See Malay phonology
Malayalamചെവി[ȶ͡ɕeʋi]'ear'See Malayalam phonology
Norwegian
le
[leː]'laugh'The example word is from Urban East Norwegian.[38][39] See Norwegian phonology
Persianسه/se[se]'three'
Polish[40]
dzień
[d͡ʑeɲ̟]'day'Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[41]
mesa
[ˈmezɐ]'table'See Portuguese phonology
Russian[42]шея/sheja/sheya[ˈʂejə]'neck'Close-mid [e] before and between soft consonants, mid [e̞] after soft consonants.[42] See Russian phonology
Saterland Frisian[43]tään[te̠ːn]'thin'Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨eː⟩ is actually near-close [e̝ː].[43]
Slovene[44]
sedem
[ˈsèːdəm]'seven'See Slovene phonology
Sotho[45]
ho jwetsa
[hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈]'to tell'Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[45] See Sotho phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[46][47]
se
[s̪eː]'see'Often diphthongized to [eə̯] (hear the word: [s̪eə̯]). See Swedish phonology
Tahitianvahine[vahine]'woman'
Tamilசெவி[ȶ͡ɕeʋi]'ear'See Tamil phonology
Welshchwech[χweːχ]'six'See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[48][example needed]
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  6. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  7. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  9. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  10. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  11. ^ a b Gordon & Maclagan (2004), p. 609.
  12. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  13. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  14. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  15. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  16. ^ a b c Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  17. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  18. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  19. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  20. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 179.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 305.
  22. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  23. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  24. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  25. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  26. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  27. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64–65.
  28. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  29. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  30. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  31. ^ Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  32. ^ Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  33. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  34. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  35. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  36. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  37. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  38. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13-14.
  39. ^ Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  40. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  41. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  42. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 41, 44.
  43. ^ a b Peters (2019), p. ?.
  44. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 137.
  45. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  46. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  47. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  48. ^ Bamgboṣe (1966), p. 166.
References
External links
List of languages with [e] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 20 June 2021, at 05:48
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit