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Close back rounded vowel
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is u.
Close back rounded vowel
u
IPA Number308
Encoding
Entity (decimal)u
Unicode (hex)U+0075
X-SAMPAu
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial').
[u] alternates with labio-velar approximant [w] in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [u̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [w] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
Close back protruded vowel
The close back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨u⟩ (the convention used in this article). As there is no dedicated IPA diacritic for protrusion, the symbol for the close back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨u̫⟩. Another possible transcription is ⟨uʷ⟩ or ⟨ɯʷ⟩ (a close back vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AfrikaansStandard[2]
boek
[bu̜k]'book'Only weakly rounded.[3] See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicStandard[4]جنوب‎/ǧanuub[d͡ʒaˈnuːb]'south'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[5]դուռ/dur[dur]'door'
BavarianAmstetten dialect[6]und[und̥]'and'Contrasts close [u], near-close [], close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ] back rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded [ä].[6]
Bulgarian[7]луд/lud[ɫut̪]'crazy'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[8]
suc
[s̺uk]'juice'See Catalan phonology
ChineseMandarin[9][10] / tǔ[tʰu˨˩˦]'earth'See Standard Chinese phonology
Cantonese[11] / fū[fuː˥]'man'See Cantonese phonology
Shanghainese[12]/ku[ku˩]'melon'Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.[12]
Chuvashурам[ur'am]'street'
DanishStandard[13][14]
du
[tu]'you'See Danish phonology
DutchStandard[15][16]
voet
[vut]'foot'Somewhat fronted in Belgian Standard Dutch.[16]
EnglishAustralian[17]
book
[buk]'book'Also described as near-close near-back [ʊ];[18][19] corresponds to [ʊ] in other accents. See Australian English phonology
Cape Flats[20]May be advanced to [ʉ], or lowered and unrounded to [ɤ].[20] See South African English phonology
Cultivated South African[21]
boot
[bu̟ːt]'boot'Typically more front than cardinal [u]. Instead of being back, it may be central [ʉː] in Geordie and RP, and front [] in Multicultural London. See English phonology and South African English phonology
General American[22]
Geordie[23]
Multicultural London[24]
Received Pronunciation[25]
Welsh[26][27][28]
Pakistani[29][buːʈ]
Greater New York City[buːt][30]
New Zealand[31][32]
treacle
[ˈtɹ̝̊iːku]'treacle'Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[31][32] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
Estonian[33]
sule
[ˈsule̞]'feather' (gen. sg.)See Estonian phonology
Finnish[34][35]
kukka
[ˈkukːɑ]'flower'See Finnish phonology
Faroese[36]
gulur
[ˈkuːlʊɹ]'yellow'See Faroese phonology
French[37][38][u]'where'See French phonology
Georgian[39]და/guda[ɡudɑ]'leather bag'
GermanStandard[40][41]
Fuß
[fuːs]'foot'See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[42]
Stunde
[ˈʃtundə]'hour'The usual realization of /ʊ/ in Switzerland, Austria and partially also in Western and Southwestern Germany (Palatinate, Swabia).[42] See Standard German phonology
GreekModern Standard[43][44]που / pou[pu]'where'See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[45]
út
[uːt̪]'way'See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[46][47]
þú
[θ̠u]'you'See Icelandic phonology
Indonesian[48]Standard Indonesian
unta
[unta]'camel'See Indonesian phonology
Italian[49]
tutto
[ˈt̪ut̪t̪o]'all', 'everything'See Italian phonology
Kaingang[50]nduki[ˈndukːi]'in the belly'
Korean / nun[nuːn]'snow'See Korean phonology
Kurdish[51][52][53]Kurmanji (Northern)çû[t͡ʃʰuː]'wood'See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central)چوو/çû
Palewani (Southern)
LatinClassical[54]
sus
[suːs]'pig'
Limburgish[55][56]sjoen[ʃu̟n]'beautiful'Back[56] or near-back,[55] depending on the dialect. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[57]zub[z̪up]'tooth'
Luxembourgish[58]Luucht[luːχt]'air'See Luxembourgish phonology
MalayStandard Malaysianubat[u.bät]'medicine'See Malay phonology
Mongolian[59]үүр/üür[uːɾɘ̆]'nest'
Persianدور/dur[duɾ]'far'See Persian phonology
Polish[60]
buk
[buk]'beech tree'Also represented orthographically by ⟨ó⟩. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[61]
tu
[ˈtu]'you'See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[62]
unu
[ˈun̪u]'one'See Romanian phonology
Russian[63]узкий/uzkiy/uzkij[ˈus̪kʲɪj]'narrow'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[64]дуга / duga[d̪ǔːɡä]'rainbow'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Shiwiar[65][example needed]
Spanish[66]
curable
[kuˈɾäβ̞le̞]'curable'See Spanish phonology
Sotho[67]
tumo
[tʼumɔ]'fame'Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.[67] See Sotho phonology
Swahiliubongo[ubongo]'brain'
ThaiStandard[68]ชลบุรี/chonburi[tɕ͡ʰōn.bū.rīː] (help·info)'Chonburi'
Turkish[69][70]
uzak
[uˈz̪äk]'far'See Turkish phonology
Udmurt[71]урэтэ/urėtė[urete]'to divide'
Ukrainian[72]рух/rukg[rux]'motion'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[57][73]žuk[ʒuk]'beetle'See Upper Sorbian phonology
Urduدُور‎/dur[duɾ]'far'See Urdu phonology
Welshmwg[muːɡ]'smoke'See Welsh phonology
Yoruba[74]itọju[itɔju]
ZapotecTilquiapan[75]gdu[ɡdu]'all'
Close back compressed vowel
Close back compressed vowel
ɯᵝ
Audio sample
source · help
Some languages, such as Japanese and Swedish, have a close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial.[76] Only Shanghainese is known to contrast it with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close back vowel, but the height of both vowels varies from close to close-mid.[12]
There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɯ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɯ] and labial compression) or ⟨ɯᵝ⟩ ([ɯ] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨u͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ChineseShanghainese[12]/tub[tɯᵝ˩]'capital'Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.[12]
Japanese[77]空気 / kūki[kɯ̟ᵝːki]'air'Near-back; may be realized as central [ɨᵝ] by younger speakers.[77] See Japanese phonology
Lizu[78][Fmɯ̟ᵝ][clarification needed]'feather'Near-back.[78]
Norwegian[79][80]
mot
[mɯᵝːt]'courage'The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel can be diphthongized to [ɯᵝə̯].[81] See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[82][83]
oro
[²ɯᵝːrɯᵝː]'unease'Often realized as a sequence [ɯᵝβ̞] or [ɯᵝβ][82] (hear the word: [²ɯᵝβrɯᵝβ]). See Swedish phonology
See also
Citations
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Donaldson (1993), pp. 2, 5.
  3. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 5.
  4. ^ Thelwall & Sa'Adeddin (1990), p. 38.
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  7. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  8. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  9. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 110–111.
  10. ^ Duanmu (2007), pp. 35–36.
  11. ^ Zee (1999), pp. 59–60.
  12. ^ a b c d e Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328–329.
  13. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  14. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  16. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  17. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007), p. 344.
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  19. ^ Lindsey (2012).
  20. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  21. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  22. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  23. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), p. 268.
  24. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  25. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  26. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  27. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  28. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  29. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1007.
  30. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English. chpt. 17.
  31. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  32. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  33. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  34. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  35. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  36. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74.
  37. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  38. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  39. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  40. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 87, 107.
  41. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  42. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  43. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 28.
  44. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  45. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  46. ^ Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  47. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  48. ^ "Indonesian Alphabet and Pronunciation". mylanguages.org. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  49. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  50. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  51. ^ Thackston (2006a), p. 1.
  52. ^ Khan & Lescot (1970), pp. 8-16.
  53. ^ Fattah describes the sound as being voyelle longue centrale arrondie (p. 116).
  54. ^ Wheelock's Latin (1956).
  55. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  56. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  57. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 600.
  58. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  59. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  60. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  61. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  62. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  63. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 67.
  64. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  65. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  66. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  67. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  68. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  69. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  70. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  71. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 64, 68.
  72. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  73. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  74. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  75. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.
  76. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 295.
  77. ^ a b Okada (1999), p. 118.
  78. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 78.
  79. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  80. ^ While Vanvik (1979) does not describe the exact type of rounding of this vowel, some other sources (e.g. Haugen (1974:40) and Kristoffersen (2000:16)) state explicitly that it is compressed.
  81. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  82. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  83. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
References
External links
List of languages with [u] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 13 June 2021, at 01:43
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