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Close back unrounded vowel
Not to be confused with the Armenian letter ա, or the Cyrillic letter ш.
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The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɯ⟩. Typographically a turned letter ⟨m⟩, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter ⟨u⟩ it can be considered a ⟨u⟩ with an extra "bowl".
Close back unrounded vowel
ɯ
IPA Number316
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɯ
Unicode (hex)U+026F
X-SAMPAM
Braille
Image
Audio sample
IPA: Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
Near-close
ɪʏ
Close-mid
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
Mid
ø̞
ɤ̞
Open-mid
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
Near-open
Open
aɶ
ɑɒ
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Acehnese[2]eu[ɯ]'see'Also described as closer to [ɨ].[3][4]
Azerbaijani
bahalı
[bɑhɑˈɫɯ]'expensive'
Bashkirҡыҙ/qyž[qɯð]'girl'
ChineseHokkienQuanzhou dialect/tu[tɯ]'pig'Allophone of [ɨ]. Written 'tir' in Pe̍h-ōe-jī.
Some Wu dialects/vu[vɯ]'father'
Xiang/xu[xɯ]'fire'
Chuvashыхра[ɯɣra]'garlic'
Crimean Tatar
джаным
[dʒanɯm]'please'
EnglishAfrican-American[5]
hook
[hɯ̞k]'hook'Near-close; possible realization of /ʊ/.[5]
Tidewater[6]Near-close; may be rounded [ʊ] instead.[6]
California[7]
goose
[ɡɯˑs]'goose'Corresponds to [] in other dialects.
New Zealand[8][9]
treacle
[ˈtɹ̝̊iːkɯ]'treacle'Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[8][9] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. Develops from dark L; See New Zealand English phonology
Some Philadelphia speakers[10]
plus
[pɫ̥ɯs]'plus'Used by some speakers; the exact height and backness is variable.[10] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other accents. See English phonology
South African[11]
pill
[pʰɯ̞ɫ]'pill'Near-close; possible allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[11] See South African English phonology
Estonian[12]
kõrv
[kɯrv]'ear'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid central [ɘ] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead, depending on the speaker.[12] See Estonian phonology
IrishUlster
caol
[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]'narrow'See Irish phonology
Japanese[13]空気 / kūki[kɯːki]'air'May be compressed [ɯᵝ].[14] See Japanese phonology
Korean[15]음식 飮食eumsik[ɯːmɕ͈ik̚]'food'See Korean phonology
KurdishKurmanji (Northern)
ti
[tˤɯɾʃ]'sour'See Kurdish phonology. The "i" after "t" always uses this sound if the "t" is "tˤ". However, it can also appear at other places.
Sorani (Central)ترش‎/tirš
Kyrgyzкыз/qyz[qɯz]'girl'See Kyrgyz phonology
PortugueseEuropean[16]
pegar
[pɯ̞ˈɣäɾ]'to grab'Reduced vowel. Near-close.[16] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Scottish Gaelic
caol
[kʰɯːl̪ˠ]'thin'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Tamilஅழகு/aḻagu[əɻəxɯ]'beauty'
ThaiStandard[17]ขึ้น/khuen[kʰɯn˥˩]'to go up'
Turkish[18]
sığ
[sɯː]'shallow'Described variously as close back [ɯ],[18] near-close near-back [ɯ̞][19] and close central [ɨ].[20] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen
ýaşyl
[jäːˈʃɯl]'green'
Uyghurتىلىم/tulum[tɯlɯm]'my language'In complementary distribution with /ɪ/. See Uyghur phonology
Vietnamese
tư
[tɯ]'fourth'See Vietnamese phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Agreement System in Acehnese" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  4. ^ Acehnese Coda Condition
  5. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 557.
  6. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 536.
  7. ^ Ladefoged (1999), pp. 42–43.
  8. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  9. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  10. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  11. ^ a b Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  12. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  13. ^ Labrune (2012), p. 25.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Lee (1999), p. 122.
  16. ^ a b Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  18. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  19. ^ Kılıç & Öğüt (2004)
  20. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
References
External links
List of languages with [ɯ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 13 June 2021, at 01:40
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