The islands were discovered in 1609 by the British sea captain William Keeling
, but no settlement occurred until the early 19th century. One of the first settlers was John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish merchant; much of the island's current population is descended from the Malay workers he brought in to work his copra
plantation. The Clunies-Ross family
ruled the islands as a private fiefdom for almost 150 years, with the head of the family usually recognised as resident magistrate
. The British annexed the islands in 1857, and for the next century they were administered from either Ceylon
. The territory was transferred to Australia in 1955, although until 1979 virtually all of the island's real estate
still belonged to the Clunies-Ross family.
Home Island Beach
The islands have been called the Cocos Islands
(from 1622), the Keeling Islands
(from 1703), the Cocos–Keeling Islands
(since James Horsburgh
in 1805) and the Keeling–Cocos Islands
(19th century). Cocos
refers to the abundant coconut
trees, while Keeling
is William Keeling
, who discovered the islands in 1609.
who sailed there in the Borneo
in 1825, called the group the Borneo Coral Isles
, restricting Keeling
to North Keeling
, and calling South Keeling "the Cocos properly so called".
The form Cocos (Keeling) Islands
, attested from 1916,
was made official by the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955.
The territory's Malay name is Pulu Kokos (Keeling)
. Sign boards on the island also feature Malay translations.
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands consist of two flat, low-lying coral atolls with an area of 14.2 square kilometres (5.5 sq mi), 26 kilometres (16 mi) of coastline, a highest elevation of 5 metres (16 ft) and thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation. The climate is pleasant, moderated by the southeast trade winds
for about nine months of the year and with moderate rainfall. Tropical cyclones
may occur in the early months of the year.
Island is an atoll consisting of just one C-shaped island, a nearly closed atoll ring with a small opening into the lagoon, about 50 metres (160 ft) wide, on the east side. The island measures 1.1 square kilometres (270 acres) in land area and is uninhabited. The lagoon is about 0.5 square kilometres (120 acres). North Keeling Island and the surrounding sea to 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from shore form the Pulu Keeling National Park
, established on 12 December 1995. It is home to the only surviving population of the endemic, and endangered, Cocos Buff-banded Rail
South Keeling Islands is an atoll consisting of 24 individual islets forming an incomplete atoll ring, with a total land area of 13.1 square kilometres (5.1 sq mi). Only Home Island
and West Island
are populated. The Cocos Malays maintain weekend shacks, referred to as pondoks, on most of the larger islands.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
1889 map of South Keeling Islands
1976 map of South Keeling Islands
Islets (clockwise from north)
There are no rivers or lakes on either atoll. Fresh water resources are limited to water lenses
on the larger islands, underground accumulations of rainwater lying above the seawater. These lenses are accessed through shallow bores or wells.
Flora and fauna
Cocos (Keeling) Islands experiences tropical rainforest climate
) according to the Köppen climate classification
; the archipelago lies approximately midway between the Equator
and the Tropic of Capricorn
. The archipelago has two distinct seasons, the wet season and the dry season. The wettest month is April with precipitation totaling 262.6 millimetres (10.34 in), and the driest month is October with precipitation totaling 88.2 millimetres (3.47 in). The temperature varies a little as its location is some distance from the Equator
. The hottest month is March with an average high temperature of 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), while the coolest month is August with an average low temperature of 23.6 °C (74.5 °F).
In the 2016 census
, the population of the islands was 544 people of which 75% are Muslim; and 69.6% speak Malay rather than English at home.
The population on the two inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island (estimated population 100) and the ethnic Malays
on Home Island (estimated population 500).
Religion in Cocos Islands (2016) 
Discovery and early history
Historic compass chart of the Cocos islands
In 1825, Scottish merchant seaman Captain John Clunies-Ross
stopped briefly at the islands on a trip to India, nailing up a Union Jack
and planning to return and settle on the islands with his family in the future.
Wealthy Englishman Alexander Hare
had similar plans, and hired a captain – coincidentally, Clunies-Ross's brother – to bring him and a volunteer harem
of 40 Malay
women to the islands, where he hoped to establish his private residence.
Hare had previously served as resident of Banjarmasin
, a town in Borneo
, and found that "he could not confine himself to the tame life that civilisation affords".
Clunies-Ross returned two years later with his wife, children and mother-in-law, and found Hare already established on the island and living with the private harem. A feud grew between the two.
Clunies-Ross's eight sailors "began at once the invasion of the new kingdom to take possession of it, women and all".
After some time, Hare's women began deserting him, and instead finding themselves mates amongst Clunies-Ross's sailors.
Disheartened, Hare left the island. He died in Bencoolen
Encouraged by members of the former harem, Clunies-Ross then recruited Malays to come to the island for work and wives.
Clunies-Ross's workers were paid in a currency called the Cocos rupee
, a currency John Clunies-Ross minted himself that could only be redeemed at the company store.
1840 chart of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Annexation by the British Empire
The islands were annexed by the British Empire in 1857.
This annexation was carried out by Captain Stephen Grenville Fremantle
in command of HMS Juno
. Fremantle claimed the islands for the British Empire and appointed Ross II
In 1878, by Letters Patent
, the Governor of Ceylon
was made Governor of the islands, and, by further Letters Patent in 1886,
responsibility for the islands was transferred to the Governor of the Straits Settlement
to exercise his functions as "Governor of Cocos Islands".
The islands were made part of the Straits Settlement under an Order in Council of 20 May 1903.
Meanwhile, in 1886 Queen Victoria
had, by indenture, granted the islands in perpetuity to John Clunies-Ross.
The head of the family enjoyed semi-official status as Resident Magistrate
and Government representative.
World War I
On the morning of 9 November 1914, the islands became the site of the Battle of Cocos
, one of the first naval battles of World War I
. A landing party from the German cruiser SMS Emden
captured and disabled the wireless and cable communications station on Direction Island
, but not before the station was able to transmit a distress call. An Allied troop convoy was passing nearby, and the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney
was detached from the convoy escort to investigate.
spotted the island and Emden
at 09:15, with both ships preparing for combat. At 11:20, the heavily damaged Emden
beached herself on North Keeling Island
. The Australian warship broke to pursue Emden'
s supporting collier
, which scuttled herself, then returned to North Keeling Island at 16:00. At this point, Emden'
s battle ensign
was still flying: usually a sign that a ship intends to continue fighting. After no response to instructions to lower the ensign, two salvoes were shot into the beached cruiser, after which the Germans lowered the flag and raised a white sheet
had orders to ascertain the status of the transmission station, but returned the next day to provide medical assistance to the Germans.
Casualties totaled 134 personnel aboard Emden
killed, and 69 wounded, compared to four killed and 16 wounded aboard Sydney
. The German survivors were taken aboard the Australian cruiser, which caught up to the troop convoy in Colombo
on 15 November, then transported to Malta
and handed over the prisoners to the British Army
. An additional 50 German personnel from the shore party, unable to be recovered before Sydney
arrived, commandeered a schooner and escaped from Direction Island, eventually arriving in Constantinople
was the last active Central Powers
warship in the Indian or Pacific Ocean, which meant troopships from Australia and New Zealand could sail without naval escort, and Allied ships could be deployed elsewhere.
World War II
During World War II
, the cable station was once again a vital link. The Cocos were valuable for direction finding by the Y service
, the worldwide intelligence system used during the war.
Allied planners noted that the islands might be seized as an airfield for German
planes and as a base for commerce raiders operating in the Indian Ocean. Following Japan
's entry into the war, Japanese forces occupied neighbouring islands. To avoid drawing their attention to the Cocos cable station and its islands' garrison, the seaplane
anchorage between Direction and Horsburgh
islands was not used. Radio transmitters were also kept silent, except in emergencies.
After the Fall of Singapore
in 1942, the islands were administered from Ceylon
), and West and Direction Islands were placed under Allied
military administration. The islands' garrison initially consisted of a platoon from the British Army's King's African Rifles
, located on Horsburgh Island, with two 6-inch (152.4 mm) guns to cover the anchorage. The local inhabitants all lived on Home Island. Despite the importance of the islands as a communication centre, the Japanese made no attempt either to raid or to occupy them and contented themselves with sending over a reconnaissance aircraft about once a month.
On the night of 8–9 May 1942, 15 members of the garrison, from the Ceylon Defence Force
under the leadership of Gratien Fernando
. The mutineers were said to have been provoked by the attitude of their British officers and were also supposedly inspired by Japanese anti-British propaganda. They attempted to take control of the gun battery
on the islands. The Cocos Islands Mutiny
was crushed, but the mutineers murdered one non-mutinous soldier and wounded one officer. Seven of the mutineers were sentenced to death at a trial that was later alleged to have been improperly conducted, though the guilt of the accused was admitted. Four of the sentences were commuted, but three men were executed, including Fernando. These were to be the only British Commonwealth
soldiers executed for mutiny during the Second World War.
On 25 December 1942, the Japanese submarine I-166
bombarded the islands but caused no damage.
Later in the war, two airstrips were built, and three bomber squadrons were moved to the islands to conduct raids against Japanese targets in South East Asia and to provide support during the planned
reinvasion of Malaya
and reconquest of Singapore. The first aircraft to arrive were Supermarine Spitfire
Mk VIIIs of No. 136 Squadron RAF
They included some Liberator
bombers from No. 321 (Netherlands) Squadron RAF
(members of exiled Dutch forces serving with the Royal Air Force
), which were also stationed on the islands. When in July 1945 No. 99
and No. 356
RAF squadrons arrived on West Island, they brought with them a daily newspaper called Atoll
which contained news of what was happening in the outside world. Run by airmen in their off-duty hours, it achieved fame when dropped by Liberator bombers on POW camps over the heads of the Japanese guards.
Transfer to Australia
On 23 November 1955, the islands were transferred from the United Kingdom to the Commonwealth of Australia
. Immediately before the transfer the islands were part of the United Kingdom's Colony of Singapore
, in accordance with the Straits Settlements (Repeal) Act, 1946 of the United Kingdom
and the British Settlements Acts, 1887 and 1945, as applied by the Act of 1946.
The legal steps for effecting the transfer were as follows:
- The Commonwealth Parliament and the Government requested and consented to the enactment of a United Kingdom Act for the purpose.
- The Cocos Islands Act, 1955, authorized Her Majesty, by Order in Council, to direct that the islands should cease to form part of the Colony of Singapore and be placed under the authority of the Commonwealth.
- By the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act, 1955, the Parliament of the Commonwealth provided for the acceptance of the islands as a territory under the authority of the Commonwealth and for its government.
- The Cocos Islands Order in Council, 1955, made under the United Kingdom Act of 1955, provided that upon the appointed day (23 November 1955) the islands should cease to form part of the Colony of Singapore and be placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The reason for this comparatively complex machinery was due to the terms of the Straits Settlement (Repeal) Act, 1946. According to Sir Kenneth Roberts-Wray "any other procedure would have been of doubtful validity".
The separation involved three steps: separation from the Colony of Singapore; transfer by United Kingdom and acceptance by Australia.
H. J. Hull was appointed the first official representative (now administrator) of the new territory. He had been a lieutenant-commander in the Royal Australian Navy and was released for the purpose. Under Commonwealth Cabinet Decision 1573 of 9 September 1958, Hull's appointment was terminated and John William Stokes
was appointed on secondment from the Northern Territory police. A media release at the end of October 1958 by the Minister for Territories, Hasluck, commended Hull's three years of service on Cocos.
Stokes served in the position from 31 October 1958 to 30 September 1960. His son's boyhood memories and photos of the Islands have been published.
C. I. Buffett MBE
from Norfolk Island
succeeded him and served from 28 July 1960 to 30 June 1966, and later acted as Administrator back on Cocos and on Norfolk Island. In 1974, Ken Mullen wrote a small book
about his time with wife and son from 1964 to 1966 working at the Cable Station on Direction Island.
In the 1970s, the Australian government's dissatisfaction with the Clunies-Ross feudal style of rule of the island increased. In 1978, Australia forced the family to sell the islands for the sum of A$
6,250,000, using the threat of compulsory acquisition. By agreement, the family retained ownership of Oceania House, their home on the island. In 1983, the Australian government reneged on this agreement and told John Clunies-Ross
that he should leave the Cocos. The following year the High Court of Australia
ruled that resumption of Oceania House was unlawful, but the Australian government ordered that no government business was to be granted to Clunies-Ross's shipping company, an action that contributed to his bankruptcy.
John Clunies-Ross now lives in Perth, Western Australia
. However, some members of the Clunies-Ross family still live on the Cocos.
Extensive preparations were undertaken by the government of Australia to prepare the Cocos Malays to vote in their referendum of self-determination. Discussions began in 1982, with an aim of holding the referendum, under United Nations supervision, in mid-1983. Under guidelines developed by the UN Decolonization Committee, residents were to be offered three choices: full independence, free association, or integration with Australia. The last option was preferred by both the islanders and the Australian government. A change in government in Canberra following the March 1983 Australian elections delayed the vote by one year. While the Home Island Council stated a preference for a traditional communal consensus "vote", the UN insisted on a secret ballot. The referendum
was held on 6 April 1984, with all 261 eligible islanders participating, including the Clunies-Ross family: 229 voted for integration, 21 for Free Association, nine for independence, and two failed to indicate a preference.
In recent years a series of disputes have occurred between the Muslim and the non-Muslim population of the islands.
The current Administrator is Natasha Griggs
, who was appointed on 5 October 2017 and is also the Administrator of Christmas Island
. These two Territories comprise the Australian Indian Ocean Territories
. The Australian Government provides Commonwealth-level government services through the Christmas Island Administration and the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
As per the Federal Government's Territories Law Reform Act 1992
, which came into force on 1 July 1992, Western Australian laws are applied to the Cocos Islands, "so far as they are capable of applying in the Territory.";
non-application or partial application of such laws is at the discretion of the federal government. The Act also gives Western Australian courts judicial power over the islands. The Cocos Islands remain constitutionally distinct from Western Australia, however; the power of the state to legislate for the territory is power delegated by the federal government. The kind of services typically provided by a state government elsewhere in Australia are provided by departments of the Western Australian Government, and by contractors, with the costs met by the federal government.
There also exists a unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
with seven seats. A full term lasts four years, though elections are held every two years; approximately half the members retire each two years.
Defence and law enforcement
Defence is the responsibility of the Australian Defence Force
. There are no active military installations or defence personnel on the islands. The Administrator may request the assistance of the Australian Defence Force if required. The 2016 Australian Defence White Paper stated that the airfield in the island would be upgraded to support the RAAF
's P-8 Poseidon
maritime patrol aircraft.
Civilian law enforcement and community policing is provided by the Australian Federal Police
. The normal deployment to the island is one sergeant
and one constable
. These are augmented by two locally engaged Special Members who have police powers.
Since 1992, court services have been provided by the Western Australian Department of the Attorney-General
under a service delivery arrangement with the Australian Government. Western Australian Court Services provide Magistrates Court, District Court, Supreme Court, Family Court, Children's Court, Coroner's Court and Registry for births, deaths and marriages and change of name services. Magistrates and judges from Western Australia convene a circuit court
Home Island and West Island have medical clinics providing basic health services, but serious medical conditions and injuries cannot be treated on the island and patients are sent to Perth for treatment, a distance of 3,000 km (1,900 mi).
The population of the islands is approximately 600. There is a small and growing tourist industry focused on water-based or nature activities. In 2016, a beach on Direction Island was named the best beach in Australia by Brad Farmer
, an Aquatic and Coastal Ambassador for Tourism Australia and co-author of 101 Best Beaches 2017
Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but most food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia or elsewhere.
The Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores
, and lighterage
worker operations. Tourism employs others. The unemployment rate was 6.7% in 2011.
A 2019 study led by Jennifer Lavers from the University of Tasmania
's Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies published in the journal Scientific Reports
estimated the volume of plastic rubbish
on the Islands as around 414 million pieces, weighing 238 tonnes, 93% of which lies buried under the sand. It said that previous surveys which only assessed surface garbage probably "drastically underestimated the scale of debris accumulation". The plastic waste found in the study consisted mostly of single-use items such as bottles, plastic cutlery
, bags and drinking straws
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2017)
The Cocos Islands are strategically important because of their proximity to shipping lanes in the Indian
The United States and Australia have expressed interest in stationing surveillance drones on the Cocos Islands. Euronews
described the plan as Australian support for an increased American presence in Southeast Asia, but expressed concern that it was likely to upset Chinese officials.
James Cogan has written for the World Socialist Web Site
that the plan to station surveillance drones at Cocos is one component of former US President Barack Obama
's "pivot" towards Asia, facilitating control of the sea lanes and potentially allowing US forces to enforce a blockade against China.
After plans to construct airbases were reported on by The Washington Post
Australian defence minister Stephen Smith
stated that the Australian government views the "Cocos as being potentially a long-term strategic location, but that is down the track."
Communications and transport
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands have fifteen kilometres (9.3 miles) of highway
There is one paved airport on the West Island. A tourist bus operates on Home Island.
An interisland ferry, the Cahaya Baru, connects West, Home and Direction Islands.
There is a lagoon
anchorage between Horsburgh and Direction islands for larger vessels, while yachts have a dedicated anchorage area in the southern lee of Direction Island. There are no major seaports
on the islands.
The islands are connected within Australia's telecommunication system (with number range +61 8 9162 xxxx). Public phones are located on both West Island and Home Island. A reasonably reliable GSM mobile phone network (number range +61 406 xxx), run by CiiA (Christmas Island Internet Association), operates on Cocos (Keeling) Islands. SIM cards (full size) and recharge cards can be purchased from the Telecentre on West Island to access this service.
provides mail services with the postcode 6799. There are post offices on West Island and Home Island. Standard letters and express post items are sent by air twice weekly, but all other mail is sent by sea and can take up to two months for delivery.
is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD
) for Cocos (Keeling) Islands. It is administered by VeriSign through a subsidiary company eNIC, which promotes it for international registration as "the next .com"; .cc was originally assigned in October 1997 to eNIC Corporation of Seattle WA by the IANA. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
also uses the .cc domain, along with .nc.tr.
Internet access on Cocos is provided by CiiA (Christmas Island Internet Association), and is supplied via satellite ground station on West Island, and distributed via a wireless PPPoE-based WAN on both inhabited islands. Casual internet access is available at the Telecentre on West Island and the Indian Ocean Group Training office on Home Island.
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands have access to a range of modern communication services. Digital television stations are broadcast from Western Australia via satellite. A local radio station, 6CKI – Voice of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, is staffed by community volunteers and provides some local content.
The Cocos Islands Community Resource Centre publishes a fortnightly newsletter called The Atoll
. It is available in paper and electronic formats.
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands receives a range of digital channels from Western Australia via satellite and is broadcast from the Airport Building on the West Island on the following VHF frequencies: ABC6
There is a school in the archipelago, Cocos Islands District High School
, with campuses located on West Island (Kindergarten to Year 10), and the other on Home Island (Kindergarten to Year 6). CIDHS is part of the Western Australia Department of Education
. School instruction is in English on both campuses, with Cocos Malay teacher aides assisting the younger children in Kindergarten, Pre-Preparatory and early Primary with the English curriculum on the Home Island Campus. The Home Language of Cocos Malay is valued whilst students engage in learning English.
Although it is an Australian territory, the culture of the islands has extensive influences from Malaysia
due to its predominantly ethnic Malay population.
Aerial view of Cocos (Keeling) Islands Airport (ICAO code: YPCC).
A broadside view of the wrecked German raider Emden after her encounter with HMAS Sydney near Cocos Island. Seamen, shortly to be rescued by Sydney, crowd together on the vessel's clear end. In the foreground, several Sydney crewmen look on from her foredeck.
Prince Philip waves goodbye as he and Queen Elizabeth, accompanied by John Clunies-Ross
, return to their ship from Home Island (1954).
Queen Elizabeth at a garden party held in her honour at Home Island (1954).
English does not have de jure
status on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and in Australia, but it is the de facto
language of communication in government.
- ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Cocos (Keeling) Islands". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- ^ "Cocos (Keeling) Islands". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- ^ a b c Woodroffe, C.D.; Berry, P.F. (February 1994). Scientific Studies in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands: An Introduction. Atoll Research Bulletin. 399. Washington DC: National Museum of Natural History. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- ^ "Dynasties: Clunies-Ross". www.abc.net.au. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- ^ Horsburgh, James (1841). "Islands to the Southward and South-eastward of Java; The Keeling or Cocos Islands". The India directory, or, Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the interjacent ports of Africa and South America: comp. chiefly from original journals of the honourable company's ships, and from observations and remarks, resulting from the experience of twenty-one years in the navigation of those seas. Vol.1 (5th ed.). London: W.H. Allen and Co. pp. 141–2.
- ^ Ross, J. C. (May 1835). "The Cocos' Isles". The Metropolitan. Peck and Newton. p. 220.
- ^ Weber, Max Carl Wilhelm; Weber, Lieven Ferdinand de Beaufort, Max Wilhelm Carl (1916). The Fishes of the Indo-australian Archipelago. Brill Archive. p. 286. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- ^ https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/1a/22/b3/1a22b3506897ed6571e01f37ab80722c.jpg
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- ^ Bureau of Meteorology. "Climate statistics for Australian locations. Cocos Island Airport".
- ^ Nationaal Archief, The Hague, archive 4.VEL inventorynumber 338
- ^ Pulu Keeling National Park Management Plan. Australian Government. 2004. ISBN 0-642-54964-8.
- ^ "Gleanings in Science, Volume 2". Baptist Mission Press. 1830. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- ^ a b c d Joshua Slocum, "Sailing Alone Around the World", p. 212 Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ The Clunies-Ross Chronicle Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Morning Post (London) 20 March 1835
- ^ "BBC NEWS - Programmes - From Our Own Correspondent - The man who lost a 'coral kingdom'". Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
- ^ Keynes, Richard (2001), Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary, Cambridge University Press, pp. 413–418, archived from the original on 26 December 2016, retrieved 20 January 2009
- ^ a b c Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. p. 882
- ^ "The Cocos Islands". The Chambers's Journal. 76: 187–190. 1899. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- ^ S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. XXI, 512.
- ^ S.R.O. 1903 No. 478, S.R.O. & S.I. Rev. XXI, 515
- ^ a b Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. p. 883
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- ^ McKay, S. 2012. The Secret Listeners. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 978 1 78131 079 3
- ^ Cruise, Noel (2002). The Cocos Islands Mutiny. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. p. 248. ISBN 1-86368-310-0.
- ^ "Imperial Submarines". Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
- ^ Fail, J.E.H. "FORWARD STRATEGIC AIR BASE COCOS ISLAND". rquirk.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- ^ Colony of Singapore. Government Gazette. (1 April 1946). The Singapore Colony Order in Council, 1946 (G.N. 2, pp. 2–3). Singapore: [s.n.]. Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 SGG; White paper on Malaya (26 January 1946). The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG; Tan, K. Y. L. (Ed.). (1999). The Singapore legal system (pp. 232–233). Singapore: Singapore University Press. Call no.: RSING 349.5957 SIN.
- ^ 9 & 10 G. 6, c. 37
- ^ Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. pp. 133–134
- ^ Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. p. 134
- ^ Stokes, Tony (2012). Whatever Will Be, I'll See: Growing Up in the 1940s, 50s and 60s in the Northern Territory, Christmas and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Tony Stokes. p. 238. ISBN 9780646575643.
- ^ Ken Mullen (1974). Cocos Keeling, the Islands Time Forgot. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. p. 122. ISBN 9780207131950. OCLC 1734040.
- ^ "Cabinet papers: The last King of Cocos loses his palace". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 December 2015. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- ^ Kenneth Chen, "Pacific Island Development Plan: Cocos (Keeling) Islands- The Political Evolution of a Small Island Territory in the Indian Ocean" (1987): Mr Chen was Administrator, Cocos Islands, from December 1983 – November 1985.
- ^ "Lost in transition". www.theaustralian.com.au. 31 August 2009. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- ^ Herriman, Nicholas; Irving, David R.M.; Acciaioli, Greg; Winarnita, Monika; Kinajil, Trixie Tangit (25 June 2018). "A group of Southeast Asian descendants wants to be recognised as Indigenous Australians". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- ^ WebLaw – full resource metadata displayArchived 22 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 5 November 2006.
- ^ Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. "Territories of Australia". Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2008. As part of the Machinery of Government Changes following the Federal Election on 29 November 2007, administrative responsibility for Territories has been transferred to the Attorney General's Department.
- ^ First Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (30 January 2008). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008. The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories.
- ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Administrative Arrangements Order made on 18 September 2013" (PDF). Australian Government Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 18 September 2013. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 October 2013.
- ^ "Territories Law Reform Act 1992". Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- ^ a b Senate polling places:
- ^ a b House of Representatives polling places:
- ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Lingiari (NT)". Australian Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- ^ "2016 Defence White Paper (para. 4.66)"(PDF). defence.gov.au. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- ^ Jackson, Belinda (4 December 2016). "Cossies Beach, Cocos (Keeling) Islands: Beach expert Brad Farmer names Australia's best beach 2017". traveller.com.au. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- ^ Bonnor, James (22 August 2016). "Australia appoints Brad Farmer to beach ambassador role". www.surfersvillage.com. XTreme Video. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
- ^ "Cocos (Keeling) Islands : Region Data Summary". Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- ^ Smee, Ben (16 May 2019). "414 million pieces of plastic found on remote island group in Indian Ocean". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ^ J. L. Lavers, L. Dicks, M. R. Dicks & A. Finger (16 May 2019). "Significant plastic accumulation on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia". Scientific Reports. 9 (Article number 7102): 7102. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.7102L. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-43375-4. PMC 6522509. PMID 31097730.
- ^ McGrath, Matt (16 May 2019). "Plastic pollution: Flip-flop tide engulfs 'paradise' island". BBC News. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ^ Kahn, Jo (17 May 2019). "Tonnes of plastic waste pollute Cocos Island beaches, and what you see is only a fragment". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- ^ a b Cogan, James, "US Marines begin operations in northern Australia Archived 16 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine." World Socialist Web Site, 14 April 2012.
- ^ Whitlock, Craig, "U.S., Australia to broaden military ties amid Pentagon pivot to SE AsiaArchived 9 February 2013 at archive.today", The Washington Post, 26 March 2012.
- ^ Grubel, James, "Australia open to US spy flights from Indian Ocean." Euronews, 28 March 2012. Archived 27 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Whitlock, Craig (26 March 2012). "U.S., Australia announce deeper military ties amid Pentagon pivot to SE Asia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- ^ Hawley, Samantha. "Cocos Islands: US military base, not in our lifetime". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
- ^ Kidman, Alex, "NBN To Launch Satellites in 2015 Archived 12 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine." Gizmodo, 8 February 2012.
- ^ "The Atoll Newsletter". Shire of Cocos Keeling Islands. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- ^ "List of licensed broadcasting transmitters". ACMA. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ "West Island Mosque (Place ID 105219)". Australian Heritage Database. Department of the Environment. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- ^ Maj-General J. T. Durrant (SA Air Force, Commanding Officer, Cocos Islands), watched by Wing Commander "Sandy" Webster (Commanding Officer, 99 Squadron), Squadron Leader Les Evans (Acting Commanding Officer, 356 Squadron) and Lieutenant Commander W. van Prooijen (Commanding Officer, 321 Squadron).
Clunies-Ross, John Cecil; Souter, Gavin. The Clunies-Ross Cocos Chronicle
, Self, Perth 2009, ISBN 9780980586718
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 20:31
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.