Colorado is bordered by Wyoming
to the north, Nebraska
to the northeast, Kansas
to the east, Oklahoma
to the southeast, New Mexico
to the south, Utah
to the west, and touches Arizona
to the southwest at the Four Corners
. Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains
, high plains
, and desert lands. Colorado is one of the Mountain States
and is a part of the western
is the capital
and most populous city
in Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans
, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is occasionally used.
Colorado is a comparatively wealthy state, ranking eighth in household income in 2016,
and 11th in per capita income in 2010.
Major parts of the economy include government and defense, mining, agriculture, tourism, and increasingly other kinds of manufacturing. With increasing temperatures and decreasing water availability, Colorado's agriculture, forestry and tourism economies are expected to be heavily affected by climate change
Colorado is notable for its diverse geography
, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, and deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress
defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado
exclusively by lines of latitude
, stretching from 37°N
latitude, and from 102°02′48″W
from the Washington Meridian
After 160 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now officially defined by 697 boundary markers
and 697 straight boundary lines
, and Utah
are the only states that have their borders defined solely by straight boundary lines with no natural features.
The southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument
The Four Corners Monument
, located at the place where Colorado, New Mexico
, and Utah
meet, is the only place in the United States where four states meet.
A view of the arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado.
A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains
of the High Plains
, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from roughly 3,350 to 7,500 feet (1,020 to 2,290 m).
The Colorado plains are mostly prairies but also include deciduous forests
, and canyons. Precipitation
averages 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 mm) annually.
Eastern Colorado is presently mainly farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns. Corn
, and oats
are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator
. Irrigation water is available from both surface and subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, and a few other streams. Subterranean water is generally accessed through artesian wells
. Heavy usage of these wells for irrigation purposes caused underground water reserves to decline in the region. Eastern Colorado also hosts a considerable amount and range of livestock, such as cattle ranches and hog farms.
Roughly 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor
between Cheyenne, Wyoming
, and Pueblo, Colorado
. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado. The "Front Range" includes Denver
, Fort Collins
, Loveland, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Greeley, and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado (which is not considered the "Front Range") are the cities of Grand Junction
, and Montrose
The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 53 true peaks with a total of 58 that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher in elevation above sea level, known as fourteeners
These mountains are largely covered with trees such as conifers
up to the tree line
, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet (3,658 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado. Above this tree line only alpine vegetation grows. Only small parts of the Colorado Rockies are snow-covered year-round.
The summit of Mount Elbert
at 14,440 feet (4,401.2 m) elevation in Lake County
is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River
flows out of Yuma County, Colorado
, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas
, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet (1,011 m) elevation. This point, which is the highest low elevation point of any state,
is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia.
Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado
. The North Park is drained by the North Platte River
, which flows north into Wyoming and Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado
, which is drained by the Colorado River. The South Park of Colorado
is the region of the headwaters
of the South Platte River.
South Central region
The high desert lands that make up the San Luis Valley in Southern Colorado.
Colorado Western Slope
The Colorado National Monument near Grand Junction is made up of high desert canyons and sandstone rock formations.
The Western Slope area of Colorado includes the western face of the Rocky Mountains and all of the state to the western border. This area includes several terrains and climates from alpine mountains to arid deserts. The Western Slope includes many ski resort towns in the Rocky Mountains and towns west of the mountains. It is less populous than the Front Range but includes a large number of national parks and monuments.
From west to east, the land of Colorado consists of desert lands, desert plateaus, alpine mountains, National Forests, relatively flat grasslands, scattered forests, buttes, and canyons in the western edge of the Great Plains
. The famous Pikes Peak
is located just west of Colorado Springs
. Its isolated peak is visible from nearly the Kansas border on clear days, and also far to the north and the south.
The northwestern corner of Colorado is a sparsely populated region, and it contains part of the noted Dinosaur National Monument
, which not only is a paleontological
area, but is also a scenic area of rocky hills, canyons, arid desert, and streambeds. Here, the Green River briefly crosses over into Colorado. Desert lands in Colorado are located in and around areas such as the Pueblo
, Canon City
, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
, San Luis Valley
, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument
, Hovenweep National Monument
, Ute Mountain
, Grand Junction
, Colorado National Monument
, and other areas surrounding the Uncompahgre Plateau
and Uncompahgre National Forest
The Western Slope of Colorado is drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries (primarily the Gunnison River
, Green River
, and the San Juan River
), or by evaporation in its arid areas. The Colorado River flows through Glenwood Canyon
, and then through an arid valley made up of desert from Rifle
, through the desert canyon of De Beque Canyon
, and into the arid desert of Grand Valley
, where the city of Grand Junction is located. Also prominent in or near the southern portion of the Western Slope are the Grand Mesa
, which lies to the southeast of Grand Junction; the high San Juan Mountains, a rugged mountain range; and to the west of the San Juan Mountains, the Colorado Plateau
, a high arid region that borders Southern Utah.
Grand Junction, Colorado
is the largest city on the Western Slope. Grand Junction and Durango are the only major centers of television broadcasting
west of the Continental Divide in Colorado, though most mountain resort communities publish daily newspapers. Grand Junction is located along Interstate 70
, the only major highway in Western Colorado. Grand Junction is also along the major railroad of the Western Slope, the Union Pacific
. This railroad also provides the tracks for Amtrak
's California Zephyr
passenger train, which crosses the Rocky Mountains between Denver and Grand Junction via a route on which there are no continuous highways.
Great Kiva at Chimney Rock in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. It is said to have been built by the Ancient Pueblo peoples.
The U.S. relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River
and south of 42nd parallel north
and west of the 100th meridian west
as part of its purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty
of 1819. The treaty took effect February 22, 1821. Having settled its border with Spain, the U.S. admitted the southeastern portion of the Territory of Missouri
to the Union
as the state of Missouri
on August 10, 1821. The remainder of Missouri Territory, including what would become northeastern Colorado, became unorganized territory, and remained so for 33 years over the question of slavery
. After 11 years of war, Spain finally recognized the independence of Mexico with the Treaty of Córdoba
signed on August 24, 1821. Mexico eventually ratified the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1831. The Texian Revolt
of 1835–36 fomented a dispute between the U.S. and Mexico which eventually erupted into the Mexican–American War
in 1846. Mexico surrendered its northern territory to the U.S. with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
at the conclusion of the war in 1848.
Most American settlers
traveling overland west to the Oregon Country
, the new goldfields of California, or the new Mormon
settlements of the State of Deseret
in the Salt Lake Valley
, avoided the rugged Southern Rocky Mountains
, and instead followed the North Platte River
and Sweetwater River
to South Pass (Wyoming)
, the lowest crossing of the Continental Divide
between the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Central Rocky Mountains. In 1849, the Mormons of the Salt Lake Valley organized the extralegal State of Deseret
, claiming the entire Great Basin
and all lands drained by the rivers Green
, and Colorado
. The federal government of the U.S. flatly refused to recognize the new Mormon government, because it was theocratic
and sanctioned plural marriage
. Instead, the Compromise of 1850
divided the Mexican Cession
and the northwestern claims of Texas into a new state and two new territories, the state of California
, the Territory of New Mexico
, and the Territory of Utah
. On April 9, 1851, Mexican American
settlers from the area of Taos
settled the village of San Luis
, then in the New Mexico Territory
, later to become Colorado's first permanent Euro-American settlement
The Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores
In 1862, a force of Texas cavalry invaded the Territory of New Mexico
and captured Santa Fe
on March 10. The object of this Western Campaign
was to seize or disrupt the gold fields of Colorado and California and to seize ports on the Pacific Ocean for the Confederacy. A hastily organized force of Colorado volunteers force-marched from Denver City, Colorado Territory
, to Glorieta Pass
, New Mexico Territory, in an attempt to block the Texans. On March 28, the Coloradans and local New Mexico volunteers stopped the Texans at the Battle of Glorieta Pass
, destroyed their cannon and supply wagons, and dispersed 500 of their horses and mules.
The Texans were forced to retreat to Santa Fe. Having lost the supplies for their campaign and finding little support in New Mexico, the Texans abandoned Santa Fe and returned to San Antonio
in defeat. The Confederacy made no further attempts to seize the Southwestern United States.
In 1864, Territorial Governor John Evans
appointed the Reverend John Chivington
as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers with orders to protect white settlers from Cheyenne
warriors who were accused of stealing cattle. Colonel Chivington ordered his men to attack a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped along Sand Creek. Chivington reported that his troops killed more than 500 warriors. The militia returned to Denver City in triumph, but several officers reported that the so-called battle was a blatant massacre of Indians at peace, that most of the dead were women and children, and that bodies of the dead had been hideously mutilated and desecrated. Three U.S. Army inquiries condemned the action, and incoming President Andrew Johnson
asked Governor Evans for his resignation, but none of the perpetrators was ever punished. This event is now known as the Sand Creek massacre
In the midst and aftermath of the Civil War, many discouraged prospectors returned to their homes, but a few stayed and developed mines, mills, farms, ranches, roads, and towns in Colorado Territory. On September 14, 1864, James Huff discovered silver near Argentine Pass
, the first of many silver strikes. In 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad
laid its tracks west to Weir, now Julesburg
, in the northeast corner of the Territory. The Union Pacific linked up with the Central Pacific Railroad
at Promontory Summit, Utah
, on May 10, 1869, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad
. The Denver Pacific Railway
reached Denver in June the following year, and the Kansas Pacific
arrived two months later to forge the second line across the continent. In 1872, rich veins of silver were discovered in the San Juan Mountains
on the Ute Indian
reservation in southwestern Colorado. The Ute people were removed from the San Juans the following year.
The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville
in 1878 triggered the Colorado Silver Boom
. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act
of 1890 invigorated silver mining, and Colorado's last, but greatest, gold strike at Cripple Creek
a few months later lured a new generation of gold seekers. Colorado women were granted the right to vote on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the second state to grant universal suffrage
and the first one by a popular vote
(of Colorado men). The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado, but the state slowly and steadily recovered. Between the 1880s and 1930s, Denver's floriculture industry developed into a major industry in Colorado.
This period became known locally as the Carnation Gold Rush
Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries
Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party
met in Denver in 1908. By the U.S. Census in 1930
, the population of Colorado first exceeded one million residents. Colorado suffered greatly through the Great Depression
and the Dust Bowl
of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II
boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. The United States Census Bureau
estimated that the population of Colorado exceeded five million in 2009.
From the 1940s and 1970s, many protest
movements gained momentum in Colorado, predominantly in Denver. This notably included the Chicano Movement
, a civil rights
and social movement of Mexican Americans
emphasizing a Chicano
identity that is widely considered to have begun in Denver.
The First National Chicano Liberation Youth Conference was held in Colorado in March 1969.
In 1967, Colorado was the first state to loosen restrictions on abortion
when governor John Love
signed a law allowing abortions in cases of rape, incest, or threats to the woman's mental or physical health. Many states followed Colorado's lead in loosening abortion laws in the 1960s and 1970s.
Since the late 1990s, Colorado has been the site of multiple major mass shootings
, including the infamous Columbine High School massacre
in 1999 which made international news, where Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold
killed 12 students and one teacher, before committing suicide.The incident has since been spawned many copycat incidents
On July 20, 2012, a gunman killed 12 people
in a movie theater in Aurora
. The state responded with tighter restrictions on firearms, including introducing a limit
On March 22, 2021, a gunman killed 10 people
, including a police officer, in a King Soopers
supermarket in Boulder
of Colorado is more complex than states outside of the Mountain States
region. Unlike most other states, southern Colorado is not always warmer than northern Colorado. Most of Colorado is made up of mountains, foothills, high plains, and desert lands. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. Northeast, east, and southeast Colorado are mostly the high plains, while Northern Colorado is a mix of high plains, foothills, and mountains. Northwest and west Colorado are predominantly mountainous, with some desert lands mixed in. Southwest and southern Colorado are a complex mixture of desert and mountain areas.
The climate of the Eastern Plains is semiarid
(Köppen climate classification
) with low humidity and moderate precipitation, usually from 15 to 25 inches (380 to 640 millimeters) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool, clear nights, which give this area a great average diurnal temperature range
. The difference between the highs of the days and the lows of the nights can be considerable as warmth dissipates to space during clear nights, the heat radiation not being trapped by clouds. The Front Range urban corridor, where most of the population of Colorado resides, lies in a pronounced precipitation shadow
as a result of being on the lee
side of the Rocky Mountains.
In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and often 100 °F (38 °C).
On the plains, the winter lows usually range from 25 to −10 °F (−4 to −23 °C). About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes from thunderstorms, which can be severe, and from major snowstorms that occur in the winter and early spring. Otherwise, winters tend to be mostly dry and cold.
In much of the region, March is the snowiest month. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month overall. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to Chinook winds
which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures of 70 °F (21 °C) or higher in the winter.
The average July temperature is 55 °F (13 °C) in the morning and 90 °F (32 °C) in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 18 °F (−8 °C) in the morning and 48 °F (9 °C) in the afternoon, although variation between consecutive days can be 40 °F (20 °C).
Front Range foothills
Just west of the plains and into the foothills, there are a wide variety of climate types. Locations merely a few miles apart can experience entirely different weather depending on the topography. Most valleys have a semi-arid climate not unlike the eastern plains, which transitions to an alpine climate
at the highest elevations. Microclimates also exist in local areas that run nearly the entire spectrum of climates, including subtropical highland (Cfb/Cwb
), humid subtropical (Cfa
), humid continental (Dfa/Dfb
), Mediterranean (Csa/Csb
) and subarctic (Dfc
Snow highlights the rugged mountains, as well as the urban and agricultural landscapes of the Colorado plains
Extreme weather changes are common in Colorado, although a significant portion of the extreme weather occurs in the least populated areas of the state. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental Divide in the spring and summer, yet are usually brief. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the Divide and across the eastern Plains, especially the northeast part of the state. Hail is the most commonly reported warm-season severe weather hazard, and occasionally causes human injuries, as well as significant property damage.
The eastern Plains are subject to some of the biggest hail storms in North America.
Notable examples are the severe hailstorms that hit Denver on July 11, 1990
and May 8, 2017, the latter being the costliest ever in the state.
The Plains are also susceptible to occasional floods and particularly severe flash floods, which are caused both by thunderstorms and by the rapid melting of snow in the mountains during warm weather. Notable examples include the 1965 Denver Flood
the Big Thompson River
flooding of 1976 and the 2013 Colorado floods
. Hot weather is common during summers in Denver. The city's record in 1901 for the number of consecutive days above 90 °F (32 °C) was broken during the summer of 2008. The new record of 24 consecutive days surpassed the previous record by almost a week.
The Yampa River
However, some of the mountainous regions of Colorado receive a huge amount of moisture from winter snowfalls. The spring melts of these snows often cause great waterflows in the Yampa River
, the Colorado River
, the Rio Grande, the Arkansas River, the North Platte River, and the South Platte River.
Water flowing out of the Colorado Rocky Mountains is a very significant source of water for the farms, towns, and cities of the southwest states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, as well as the Midwest, such as Nebraska and Kansas, and the southern states of Oklahoma and Texas. A significant amount of water is also diverted for use in California; occasionally (formerly naturally and consistently), the flow of water reaches northern Mexico.
Köppen climate types in Colorado showing half the state to be cold semi-arid, and the remainder to be a mix of other types.
EPA map of changing snowpack levels in Colorado and New Mexico.
"Colorado's climate is changing. Most of the state has warmed one or two degrees (F) in the last century. Throughout the western United States
, heat waves
are becoming more common, snow
is melting earlier in spring, and less water flows through the Colorado River.
and recent droughts
in the region have killed many trees by drying out soils, increasing the risk of forest fires, or enabling outbreaks of forest insects. In the coming decades, the changing climate is likely to decrease water availability and agricultural yields in Colorado, and further increase the risk of wildfires
The highest official ambient air temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 115 °F (46.1 °C) on July 20, 2019, at John Martin Dam
. The lowest official air temperature was −61 °F (−51.7 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell
Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Colorado cities
On August 22, 2011, a 5.3 magnitude earthquake
occurred 9 miles (14 km) west-southwest of the city of Trinidad
There were no casualties and only a small amount of damage was reported. It was the second-largest earthquake in Colorado's history. A magnitude 5.7 earthquake was recorded in 1973.
In early morning hours of August 24, 2018, four minor earthquakes rattled Colorado, ranging from magnitude 2.9 to 4.3.
Colorado has recorded 525 earthquakes since 1973, a majority of which range 2 to 3.5 on the Richter scale.
A gray wolf killed in the Colorado Rockies held up by Breckenridge taxidermist Edwin Carter, ca. 1890–1900.
A process of extirpation by trapping and poisoning of the gray wolf
) from Colorado in the 1930s saw the last wild wolf in the state shot in 1945.
A wolf pack recolonized Moffat County, Colorado
in northwestern Colorado in 2019. Cattle
farmers have expressed concern that a returning wolf population potentially threatens their herds.
While there is fossil evidence of Harrington's mountain goat
in Colorado between at least 800,000 years ago and its extinction with megafauna
roughly 11,000 years ago, the mountain goat
is not native to Colorado but was instead introduced to the state over time during the interval between 1947 and 1972. Despite being an artificially-introduced species, the state declared mountain goats a native species in 1993.
In 2013 and 2014, an unknown illness killed nearly mountain goat kids. The reappearance of the illness in Fall 2019 and the lack of human congestion due to the COVID-19 pandemic
spurred Colorado Parks and Wildlife
to investigate the cause of the disease beginning in August 2020.
The native population of pronghorn
in Colorado has varied wildly over the last century, reaching a low of only 15,000 individuals during the 1960s. However, conservation efforts succeeded in bring the stable population back up to roughly 66,000 by 2013.
The population was estimated to have reached 85,000 by 2019 and had increasingly more run-ins with the increased suburban housing along the eastern Front Range. State wildlife officials suggested that landowners would need to modify fencing in order to allow the greater number of pronghorn to move unabated through the newly developed land.
Pronghorns are most readily found in the northern and eastern portions of the state, with some populations also in the western San Juan Mountains.
Colorado population density map
According to the 2010 United States Census
, Colorado had a population of 5,029,196. Racial composition of the state's population was:
Colorado racial breakdown of population
People of Hispanic and Latino American
(of any race made) heritage made up 20.7% of the population.
According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German
(22%) including of Swiss and Austrian
(18%), Irish (12%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry
are especially numerous in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties), and Eastern parts/High Plains.
Colorado has a high proportion of Hispanic
, mostly Mexican-American
, citizens in Metropolitan Denver, Colorado Springs, as well as the smaller cities of Greeley and Pueblo, and elsewhere. Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos
, the descendants of the early settlers of colonial Spanish origin. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Colorado's population as 8.2% Hispanic and 90.3% non-Hispanic white.
The Hispanic population of Colorado has continued to grow quickly over the past decades. By 2019, Hispanics
made up 22% of Colorado's population, and Non-Hispanic Whites
made up 70%.
Spoken English in Colorado has many Spanish idioms.
Colorado also has some large African-American communities located in Denver, in the neighborhoods of Montbello, Five Points, Whittier, and many other East Denver areas. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Mongolian
, Southeast Asian
, and Japanese
descent. The highest population of Asian Americans can be found on the south and southeast side of Denver, as well as some on Denver's southwest side. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.
There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth rate of 14.6 per thousand.) In 2007, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 59.1% of all the births.
Some 14.06% of those births involved a non-Hispanic white person and someone of a different race, most often with a couple including one Hispanic. A birth where at least one Hispanic person was involved counted for 43% of the births in Colorado.
As of the 2010 Census
, Colorado has the seventh highest percentage of Hispanics (20.7%) in the U.S. behind New Mexico
(26.5%), and Florida
(22.5%). Per the 2000 census, the Hispanic population is estimated to be 918,899 or approximately 20% of the state total population. Colorado has the 5th-largest population of Mexican-Americans
, behind California, Texas, Arizona, and Illinois
. In percentages, Colorado has the 6th-highest percentage of Mexican-Americans, behind New Mexico, California, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada.
In 2011, 46% of Colorado's population younger than the age of one were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic
origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic
group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
Colorado is generally considered among the healthiest states by behavioral and healthcare researchers. However, there is a stratification of health metrics with wealthier counties such as Douglas
performing significantly better relative to southern, less wealthy counties such as Huerfano
and Las Animas
According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US.
As of 2018, 24% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 17% in 2004.
Street art in Denver
Arts and film
There are also a number of established film festivals in Colorado, including Aspen Shortsfest
, Boulder International Film Festival
, Castle Rock Film Festival
, Denver Film Festival
, Festivus Film Festival
(ended in 2013), Mile High Horror Film Festival
, Moondance International Film Festival
, Mountainfilm in Telluride
, Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival
, and Telluride Film Festival
Many notable writers have lived or spent extended periods of time in Colorado. Beat Generation
writers Jack Kerouac
and Neal Cassady
lived in and around Denver for several years each.
Irish playwright Oscar Wilde
visited Colorado on his tour of the United States in 1882, writing in his 1906 Impressions of America
was "the richest city in the world. It has also got the reputation of being the roughest, and every man carries a revolver
was named America's Foodiest Town 2010 by Bon Appétit
Boulder, and Colorado in general, is home to a number of national food and beverage companies, top-tier restaurants and farmers' markets. Boulder, Colorado
also has more Master Sommeliers
per capita than any other city, including San Francisco and New York. Denver
is known for steak, but now has a diverse culinary scene with many restaurants.
Wine and beer
include award-winning varietals that have attracted favorable notice from outside the state.
With wines made from traditional Vitis vinifera
grapes along with wines made from cherries, peaches, plums and honey, Colorado wines have won top national and international awards for their quality.
Colorado's grape growing regions contain the highest elevation vineyards
in the United States,
with most viticulture
in the state practiced between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (1,219 and 2,134 m) above sea level
. The mountain climate
ensures warm summer days and cool nights. Colorado is home to two designated American Viticultural Areas
of the Grand Valley AVA
and the West Elks AVA
where most of the vineyards in the state are located. However, an increasing number of wineries are located along the Front Range
In 2018, Wine Enthusiast Magazine
named Colorado's Grand Valley AVA
in Mesa County, Colorado, as one of the Top Ten wine travel destinations in the world.
Marijuana and hemp
Colorado is open to cannabis (marijuana)
With the adoption of their 64th state amendment
in 2013, Colorado became the first state in the union to legalize
(2013), and recreational
(2013) use of marijuana. Colorado's marijuana industry sold $1.31 billion worth of marijuana in 2016 and $1.26 billion in the first three-quarters of 2017.
The state generated tax, fee, and license revenue of $194 million in 2016 on legal marijuana sales.
Colorado regulates hemp
as any part of the plant with less than 0.3% THC.
Amendment 64, adopted by the voters in the 2012 general election, forces the Colorado state legislature to enact legislation governing the cultivation, processing and sale of recreational marijuana and industrial hemp.
On April 4, 2014, Senate Bill 14–184 addressing oversight of Colorado's industrial hemp program was first introduced, ultimately being signed into law by Governor John Hickenlooper on May 31, 2014.
On November 7, 2000, 54% of Colorado voters passed Amendment 20, which amends the Colorado State constitution to allow the medical use of marijuana
A patient's medical use of marijuana, within the following limits, is lawful:
- (I) No more than 2 ounces (57 g) of a usable form of marijuana; and
- (II) No more than twelve marijuana plants, with six or fewer being mature, flowering plants that are producing a usable form of marijuana.
Currently Colorado has listed "eight medical conditions for which patients can use marijuana—cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS, muscle spasms, seizures, severe pain, severe nausea and cachexia, or dramatic weight loss and muscle atrophy".
While governor, John Hickenlooper
allocated about half of the state's $13 million "Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund"
to medical research in the 2014 budget.
By 2018, the Medical Marijuana Program Cash Fund was the "largest pool of pot money in the state" and was used to fund programs including research into pediatric applications for controlling autism symptoms.
On November 6, 2012, voters amended the state constitution to protect "personal use" of marijuana for adults
, establishing a framework to regulate marijuana
in a manner similar to alcohol
The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
Colorado has five major professional sports leagues
, all based in the Denver metropolitan area. Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues.
Professional sports teams
NCAA Division I athletic programs in Colorado
- Total employment (2016): 2,318,190
- Number of employer establishments: 165,264
CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Colorado as the third-best state in the nation, falling short only to Texas and Virginia.
The total state product in 2015 was $318.6 billion.
Median Annual Household Income in 2016 was $70,666, 8th in the nation. Per capita personal income
in 2010 was $51,940, ranking Colorado 11th in the nation.
The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th-century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products
, and hay
The federal government
is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD
(North American Aerospace Defense Command), United States Air Force Academy
, Schriever Air Force Base located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson Air Force Base
, and Fort Carson, both located in Colorado Springs
within El Paso County; NOAA
, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL
) in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology
; U.S. Geological Survey
and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center
; the Denver Mint
, Buckley Air Force Base
, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals
, and the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building and United States Courthouse
in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison
and other federal prisons near Cañon City
. In addition to these and other federal agencies
, Colorado has abundant National Forest
land and four National Parks
that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2
) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state.
In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified, and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing
, transportation equipment, machinery
, chemical products
, the extraction of metals such as gold (see Gold mining in Colorado
), silver, and molybdenum
. Colorado now also has the largest annual production of beer of any state.
Denver is an important financial center.
The state's diverse geography
and majestic mountains attract millions of tourists every year, including 85.2 million in 2018. Tourism contributes greatly to Colorado's economy, with tourists generating $22.3 billion in 2018.
A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver
came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest
in 1879, Samsonite
luggage in 1910, Gates
belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies
in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton
in 1864. From Golden
beer in 1873, CoorsTek
industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher
candy in 1949. CF&I
railroad rails, wire, nails, and pipe debuted in Pueblo
in 1892. Holly Sugar
was first milled from beets in Holly
in 1905, and later moved its headquarters to Colorado Springs. The present-day Swift
packed meat of Greeley
evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes
model rockets were launched in Penrose
in 1958. Fort Collins
has been the home of Woodward Governor Company
's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik
dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings
herbal teas have been made in Boulder
since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory
made its first candy in Durango
Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax
, regardless of income level. On November 3, 2020 voters authorized an initiative to lower that income tax rate to 4.55 percent. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income
, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income
—income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions.
Colorado's state sales tax
is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, according to Colorado's Taxpayer Bill of Rights
legislation, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates, in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.
Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break was scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.
As of December 2018, the state's unemployment rate was 4.2%.
Colorado has significant hydrocarbon
resources. According to the Energy Information Administration
, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation's hundred largest natural gas fields, and two of its hundred largest oil fields
. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically account for more than five percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Colorado's oil shale
deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3
) of oil—nearly as much oil as the entire world's proven oil reserves; the economic viability of the oil shale, however, has not been demonstrated.
Substantial deposits of bituminous
, and lignite
coal are found in the state.
Uranium mining in Colorado
goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado. Not counting byproduct uranium from phosphate
, Colorado is considered to have the third-largest uranium reserves of any U.S. state, behind Wyoming and New Mexico. When Colorado and Utah dominated radium
mining from 1910 to 1922, uranium and vanadium
were the byproducts (giving towns like present-day Superfund siteUravan
their names). Uranium price increases from 2001 to 2007 prompted a number of companies to revive uranium mining in Colorado. During the 1940s, certain communities–including Naturita
–earned the moniker of "yellowcake
towns" from their relationship with uranium mining. Price drops and financing problems in late 2008 forced these companies to cancel or scale back uranium-mining project. As of 2016, there were no major uranium mining operations in the state, though plans existed to restart production.
Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the state offers potential resources for ethanol
Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges and eastern plains offer wind power
potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power
development. Much of the state is sunny, and could produce solar power
. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power
A Colorado state welcome sign
Colorado's primary mode of transportation (in terms of passengers) is its highway system. Interstate 25
(I-25) is the primary north–south highway in the state, connecting Pueblo, Colorado Springs, Denver, and Fort Collins, and extending north to Wyoming and south to New Mexico. I-70
is the primary east–west corridor. It connects Grand Junction and the mountain communities with Denver, and enters Utah and Kansas. The state is home to a network of US and Colorado highways that provide access to all principal areas of the state. Many smaller communities are connected to this network only via county roads.
The main terminal of Denver International Airport evokes the peaks of the Front Range
Extensive public transportation bus services are offered both intra-city and inter-city—including the Denver metro area's extensive RTD services. The Regional Transportation District
(RTD) operates the popular RTD Bus & Rail
transit system in the Denver Metropolitan Area
. As of January 2013 the RTD rail system had 170 light-rail vehicles, serving 47 miles (76 km) of track.
operates two passenger rail lines in Colorado, the California Zephyr
and Southwest Chief
. Colorado's contribution to world railroad history was forged principally by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad
which began in 1870 and wrote the book on mountain railroading. In 1988 the "Rio Grande" acquired, but was merged into, the Southern Pacific Railroad
by their joint owner Philip Anschutz
. On September 11, 1996, Anschutz sold the combined company to the Union Pacific Railroad
, creating the largest railroad network in the United States. The Anschutz sale was partly in response to the earlier merger of Burlington Northern and Santa Fe which formed the large Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway (BNSF), Union Pacific's principal competitor in western U.S. railroading. Both Union Pacific and BNSF have extensive freight operations in Colorado.
Colorado's freight railroad network consists of 2,688 miles of Class I trackage. It is integral to the U.S. economy, being a critical artery for the movement of energy, agriculture, mining, and industrial commodities as well as general freight and manufactured products between the East and Midwest and the Pacific coast states.
In August 2014, Colorado began to issue driver licenses to aliens not lawfully in the United States
who lived in Colorado.
In September 2014, KCNC
reported that 524 non-citizens were issued Colorado driver licenses that are normally issued to U.S. citizens living in Colorado.
Like the federal government and all other U.S. states, Colorado's state constitution
provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.
The seven-member Colorado Supreme Court
is the state's highest court, with seven justices. The Colorado Court of Appeals
, with 22 judges, sits in divisions of three judges each. Colorado is divided into 22 judicial districts
, each of which has a district court and a county court with limited jurisdiction. The state also has specialized water courts
, which sit in seven distinct divisions around the state and which decide matters relating to water rights and the use and administration of water.
Most Coloradans are native to other states (nearly 60% according to the 2000 census),
and this is illustrated by the fact that the state did not have a native-born governor from 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof
left office) until 2007, when Bill Ritter
took office; his election
the previous year marked the first electoral victory for a native-born Coloradan in a gubernatorial race since 1958 (Vanderhoof had ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love
was given a position in Richard Nixon
's administration in 1973). In the 2016 election, the Democratic party won the Colorado electoral college votes.
An enlargeable map of the 64 counties
of the State of Colorado
Nine Colorado counties have a population in excess of 250,000 each, while eight Colorado counties have a population of less than 2,500 each. The ten most populous Colorado counties are all located in the Front Range Urban Corridor
The 15 Colorado counties with a population of at least 50,000
The skyline of downtown Denver
with Speer Boulevard in the foreground
The 27 Colorado municipalities with a population exceeding 25,000
The 16 Census Designated Places in Colorado with a population exceeding 10,000
The State of Colorado has more than 3,000 districts with taxing authority
. These districts may provide schools, law enforcement, fire protection, water, sewage, drainage, irrigation, transportation, recreation, infrastructure, cultural facilities, business support, redevelopment, or other services.
Some of these districts have authority to levy sales tax and well as property tax and use fees. This has led to a hodgepodge of sales tax and property tax rates in Colorado. There are some street intersections in Colorado with a different sales tax rate on each corner, sometimes substantially different.
Some of the more notable Colorado districts are:
- The Regional Transportation District (RTD), which affects the counties of Denver, Boulder, Jefferson, and portions of Adams, Arapahoe, Broomfield, and Douglas Counties
- The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District (SCFD), a special regional tax district with physical boundaries contiguous with county boundaries of Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Denver, Douglas, and Jefferson Counties
- It is a 0.1% retail sales and use tax (one penny on every $10).
- According to the Colorado statute, the SCFD distributes the money to local organizations on an annual basis. These organizations must provide for the enlightenment and entertainment of the public through the production, presentation, exhibition, advancement or preservation of art, music, theater, dance, zoology, botany, natural history or cultural history.
- As directed by statute, SCFD recipient organizations are currently divided into three "tiers" among which receipts are allocated by percentage.
- Tier I includes regional organizations: the Denver Art Museum, the Denver Botanic Gardens, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, the Denver Zoo, and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts. It receives 65.5%.
- Tier II currently includes 26 regional organizations. Tier II receives 21%.
- Tier III has more than 280 local organizations such as small theaters, orchestras, art centers, and natural history, cultural history, and community groups. Tier III organizations apply for funding to the county cultural councils via a grant process. This tier receives 13.5%.
- An 11-member board of directors oversees the distributions in accordance with the Colorado Revised Statutes. Seven board members are appointed by county commissioners (in Denver, the Denver City Council) and four members are appointed by the Governor of Colorado.
- The Football Stadium District (FD or FTBL), approved by the voters to pay for and help build the Denver Broncos' stadium Sports Authority Field at Mile High
- Local Improvement Districts (LID) within designated areas of southeast Jefferson and Boulder counties
- The Metropolitan Major League Baseball Stadium District, approved by voters to pay for and help build the Colorado Rockies' stadium Coors Field
- Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) taxes at varying rates in Basalt, Carbondale, Glenwood Springs, Gunnison County
Colorado is considered a swing state
or (more recently) a blue state
in both state and federal elections. In presidential elections, it had not been won until 2020
by double digits since 1984
, and has backed the winning candidate in 9 of the last 11 elections. Coloradans have elected 17 Democrats
and 12 Republicans
to the governorship in the last 100 years.
In presidential politics, Colorado was considered a reliably Republican state during the post-World War II era, voting for the Democratic candidate only in 1948, 1964, and 1992. However, it became a competitive swing state in the 1990s. Since the mid-2000s, it has swung heavily to the Democrats, voting for Barack Obama
in 2008 and 2012, Hillary Clinton
in 2016 and Joe Biden
Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and Grand Junction and liberal cities such as Boulder and Denver. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver
, the college towns of Fort Collins
, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a number of western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, and far Western Colorado near Grand Junction.
Significant Initiatives and Legislation Enacted in Colorado
Colorado was the first state in the union to enact, by voter referendum, a law extending suffrage
to women. That initiative was approved by the state's voters on November 7, 1893.
Colorado has banned, via C.R.S. section 12-6-302, the sale of motor vehicles on Sunday since at least 1953.
In 2012, voters amended the state constitution protecting "personal use" of marijuana for adults
, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis
in a manner similar to alcohol
. The first recreational marijuana shops in Colorado, and by extension the United States, opened their doors on January 1, 2014.
On May 29, 2019, Governor Jared Polis
signed House Bill 1124 immediately prohibiting law enforcement officials in Colorado from holding undocumented immigrants
solely on the basis of a request from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
The first Catholic college
in Colorado was the Jesuit
Sacred Heart College, which was founded in New Mexico in 1877, moved to Morrison
in 1884, and to Denver in 1887. The college was renamed Regis College in 1921 and Regis University
On April 1, 1924, armed students patrolled the campus after a burning cross
was found, the climax of tensions between Regis College and the locally-powerful Ku Klux Klan
Following a 1950 assessment by the Service Academy Board, it was determined that there was a need to supplement the U.S. Military
and Naval Academies
with a third school that would provide commissioned officers for the newly-independent Air Force. On April 1, 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower
signed a law that moved for the creation of a U.S. Air Force Academy
Later that year, Colorado Springs was selected to host the new institution. From its establishment in 1955 until the construction of appropriate facilities in Colorado Springs were completed and opened in 1958, the Air Force Academy operated out of Lowry Air Force Base
in Denver. With the opening of the Colorado Springs facility, the cadets moved to the new campus, though not in the full-kit march that some urban and campus legends suggest.
The first class of Space Force officers
from the Air Force Academy commissioned on April 18, 2020.
Native American reservations
Abolished Indian reservations:
Former Military posts include:
Colorado is home to 4 national parks
, 8 national monuments
, 2 national recreation areas
, 2 national historic sites
, 4 national historic trails
, 1 national scenic trail
, 11 national forests
, 2 national grasslands
, 42 national wilderness areas
, 2 national conservation areas
, 8 national wildlife refuges
, 44 state parks
, 307 state wildlife areas
, and numerous other scenic, historic, and recreational areas.
The following are the 21 units of the National Park System in Colorado:
- ^ Early explorers identified the Gunnison River in Colorado as the headwaters of the Colorado River. The Grand River in Colorado was later tentatively identified as the primary headwaters of the river. In 1916, E.C. LaRue, the Chief Hydrologist of the United States Geological Survey, identified the Green River in southwestern Wyoming as the primary headwaters of the Colorado River.
- ^ Several Air Force teams participate in other conferences, or as independents, in sports that the MW does not sponsor:
- ^ Several Colorado teams participate in other conferences in sports that the Pac-12 does not sponsor:
- ^ Several Denver teams participate in other conferences in sports that The Summit League does not sponsor:
- ^ Several Northern Colorado teams participate in other conferences in sports that the Big Sky does not sponsor:
- ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a combined statistical area (CSA) as an aggregate of adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas that are linked by commuting ties.
- ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
- ^ The United States Office of Management and Budget defines a Micropolitan Statistical Area (μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
- ^ a b Arapaho National Recreation Area and Chimney Rock National Monument are managed by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service.
- ^ Browns Canyon National Monument is jointly managed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management and the United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service.
- ^ Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is managed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.
- ^ The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail is jointly managed by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Forest Service, and the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management.
- ^ "Lawmakers name 'Rocky Mountain High' second state song | 9news.com". Archive.9news.com. March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ a b c President of the United States of America (August 1, 1876). "Proclamation of the Admission of Colorado to the Union" (php). The American Presidency Project. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ a b "Mount Elbert". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
- ^ "Median Annual Household Income". Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- ^ "Colorado—Definition". Merriam-webster.com. August 13, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "Colorado—dictionary.reference.com". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- ^ Clark, Kyle (June 27, 2018). What's the right way to pronounce 'Colorado?' (TV news magazine segment). Contributor: Rich Sandoval, linguist at Metropolitan State University of Denver. KUSA-TV. Retrieved August 4, 2018. [Sandoval] found five pronunciations.
- ^ "State Name and Nickname". Colorado Encyclopedia. August 31, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- ^ a b c "An Act to provide a temporary Government for the Territory of Colorado"(PDF). Thirty-sixth United States Congress. February 28, 1861. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ "Creative Services". Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradoan or Coloradan". The Denver Post. Denver. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. September 22, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- ^ "State Personal Income 2008" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis, United States Department of Commerce. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ "What Climate Change means for Colorado"(PDF). EPA 430-F-16-008. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2016.
- ^ "Colorado is NOT a perfect rectangle". Fascinating Maps. Archived from the original on June 17, 2019. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ a b "Colorado is a rectangle? Think again". The Big Think, Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ "Shared Solution: Four Corners". NGS Survey Monument Data Sheet. United States National Geodetic Survey. May 7, 2003.
- ^ The official Four Corners Monument is located at 36°59′56.31591″N, 109°2′42.62064″W, a short distance east of the 37°N, 109°02′48″W location Congress originally designated.
- ^ "Colorado County Highpoints". Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- ^ a b Doesken, Nolan J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Bliss, Odilia A.P. (January 2003). "Climate of Colorado". Colorado Climate Center—Department of Atmospheric Science—Colorado State University. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Simpson, Kevin (April 8, 2019). "Colorado cattle rustling's colorful history helps modern brand inspectors keep up with a changing crime". The Colorado Sun. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- ^ U.S. Forest Service. "Rocky Mountain Region 14ers". Retrieved November 6, 2009.
- ^ U.S. Geological Survey. "Elevations and Distances". Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ^ "Pikes Peak, Colorado". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- ^ "Genocide Wiped Out Native American Population ", Discovery News, September 20, 2010.
- ^ Multiple Property Documentation Form. "National-Register-of-Historic" (PDF). www.nps.gov.
- ^ Report of the exploring expedition from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the junction of the Grand and Green Rivers of the great Colorado of the West, in 1859: under the command of Capt. J. N. Macomb, Corps of topographical engineers, Volume 1 @ archive.org
- ^ Frazier, Donald Shaw (1995). Blood & treasure : Confederate Empire in the Southwest (1st ed.). College Station: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 0585303304. OCLC 45732362.
- ^ Forty-third United States Congress (March 3, 1875). "An Act to Enable the People of Colorado to Form a Constitution and State Government, and for the Admission of the Said State into the Union on an Equal Footing with the Original States" (PDF). Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ Shu Liu and Linda M. Meyer, Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado, 2007
- ^ Kingman, Dick (1986). A History—Colorado Flower Growers and its People. http://ghex.colostate.edu/pdf_files/AHistoryColoradoFlowerGrowersAndItsPeople.pdf: Colorado Greenhouse Growers Association, Inc.
- ^ Rebchook, John (October 15, 2015). "Neighbors want historic designation for NW Denver home".
- ^ Philip Taft and Philip Ross, "American Labor Violence: Its Causes, Character, and Outcome", The History of Violence in America: A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, ed. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr, 1969.
- ^ McGovern, George; Guttridge, Leonard. The Great Coalfield War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972. 88, 89 p.
- ^ Devine, Edward T.; Ryan, John A.; Lapp, John A. (1921). The Denver Tramway Strike of 1920. The Denver Commission of Religious Forces and National Catholic Welfare Council. p. 33. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- ^ Schreck, Christopher. "The Strike of 1927". Retrieved November 6, 2019.
- ^ Gerald Emerson Sherard (2006). Pre-1963 Colorado mining fatalities (Report). p. 1. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- ^ a b Louvaris, Elenie (August 20, 2019). "Ku Klux Klan in Colorado". Colorado Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- ^ Canterbury, Carie (April 15, 2019). "Ku Klux Klan once a Fremont County political powerhouse". Cañon City Daily Record. Cañon City, CO. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- ^ Iversen, Kristen (June 12, 2012). "Under The 'Nuclear Shadow' Of Colorado's Rocky Flats". NPR.
- ^ "The Chicano Movement's Denver Roots Run Deep". Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. June 30, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "It's Been 50 Years Since Colorado Passed This Groundbreaking Abortion Law". Time. April 25, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- ^ Follman, Mark; Andrews, Becca. "Here's the terrifying new data on how Columbine spawned dozens of copycats". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- ^ "How Colorado's gun laws have changed since the Aurora shooting". The Guardian. July 25, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- ^ Hern, Elizabeth; Ehern, Ez | (March 22, 2021). "Boulder shooting: Gunman kills 10, including police officer, at King Soopers". The Denver Post. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
- ^ Coffield, Alfred (May 29, 2020). "USS Colorado Continues the Tradition of the Submarine Battle Flag". Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. Groton, CT. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- ^ Hansen, Wallace R.; Chronic, John; Matelock, John (1979) [first published 1978]. Climatography of the Front Range Urban Corridor and vicinity, Colorado (PDF). Geological Survey Professional Paper 1019 (Report). Washington, DC: USG Printing Office. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- ^ "Climate of Colorado". Wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ a b "Denver, Colorado Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ "Relocating to Greenhorn Valley". Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- ^ a b Childs, Samuel J.; R. S. Schumacher (2019). "An Updated Severe Hail and Tornado Climatology for Eastern Colorado". J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 58 (10): 2273–2293. Bibcode:2019JApMC..58.2273C. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0098.1.
- ^ "Historic Denver Hailstorm Was Called Worst in American History". July 11, 2014.
- ^ "Hailstorm that hammered west metro Denver May 8 is costliest ever for Colorado". May 23, 2017.
- ^ Slater, Jane (May 28, 2008). "Thursday's Tornado State's 4th Costliest Disaster". KMGH. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Prendergast, Alan (April 29, 2015). "The 1965 Flood: How Denver's Greatest Disaster Changed the City".
- ^ "Denver's Consecutive 90 Degree Streaks". National Weather Service. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- ^ "A History of Drought" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ "People living in this part of Colorado are most at risk of climate change's adverse health effects, study says". The Denver Post. April 23, 2019.
- ^ Zielinski, Sarah. "The Colorado River Runs Dry". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- ^ "On the Water-Starved Colorado River, Drought Is the New Normal". Yale E360. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- ^ Hood, Grace. "As Climate Warms, Colorado's Record-Setting Hot Days Outnumber Cold Ones 3:1". Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- ^ "Over a quarter of Colorado is now officially in a drought". The Denver Post. October 5, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- ^ "What Climate Change Means for Colorado"(PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. August 2016.
- ^ "Record Highest Temperatures by State"(PDF). National Climatic Data Center. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2001. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- ^ "Record Lowest Temperatures by State"(PDF). National Climatic Data Center. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2001. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- ^ "NOAA's National Weather Service—National Climate". W2.weather.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Recent Earthquakes in the U.S." U.S. Geological Survey. January 17, 2013. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.
- ^ "Largest Colorado quake since 1973 shakes homes". USA Today. August 23, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- ^ "Four earthquakes rumble Colorado overnight | OutThere Colorado". OutThere Colorado. August 24, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
- ^ firstname.lastname@example.org, LIZ FORSTER. "3 earthquakes reported overnight in Colorado". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
- ^ a b Purtell, Joe (November 18, 2020). "Wolves Are Coming Back to Colorado. Now Comes the Tricky Part". Sierra. Sierra Club. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ Bruce Finley (January 22, 2020). "Polis welcomes wolves back to Colorado after wildlife officers confirm pack of 6 in Moffat County". Denver Post.
- ^ Mitton, Jeff (December 9, 2019). "Introduced mountain goats have colonized much of the land above the trees". Colorado Arts and Sciences Magazine. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ "CPW launches study to identify unknown disease in mountain goats". Mount Evans, CO: Colorado Parks and Wildlife. August 11, 2021. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ McKee, Spencer (August 11, 2020). "Study launched to identify disease that's killing mountain goats in Colorado". Out There Colorado. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ "Antelope Numbers Across 6 States". GoHunt. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
- ^ Brown, Jennifer (January 21, 2019). "Colorado's booming pronghorn population is running horns-first into newly built neighborhoods". The Colorado Sun. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
- ^ "Antilocapra americana (errata version published in 2017)". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T1677A50181848.en. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Historical Population Change Data (1910-2020)". U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ^ "Population growth—Colorado counties". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "Population and Population Centers by State—2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 8, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- ^ a b Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Population Division. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- ^ "Population of Colorado—Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts". CensusViewer.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ 2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data—2010 Census". Census.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 : 2010 Demographic Profile Data". Factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 21, 2019. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- ^ "Colorado QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 19, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "talking about Colorado in "nada"". Elcastellano.org. June 30, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ "National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 57, Number 12, (March 18, 2009)" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ "Department of Public Health and Environment |". Cdphe.state.co.us. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "People of Colorado statistics". StateMaster.com. June 15, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Losing ground" (PDF). Adworks.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.
- ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013 Volume 64, Number 1" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 15, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014 Volume 64, Number 12" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. December 23, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015 Volume 66, Number 1" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 5, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- ^ Nvsr67_01.pdf. "National Vital Statistics Reports" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- ^ a b "Births: Final Data for 2017" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- ^ "Data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
- ^ "Data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- ^ Seaman, Jessica (March 22, 2019). "Colorado teen pregnancies dropped 20 percent near these clinics. Now their funding is at risk". The Denver Post. Denver. Retrieved May 21, 2019. By increasing access to long-term birth control such as intrauterine devices, Colorado has reduced teen pregnancies by about 20 percent in zip codes near clinics that receive federal funding ... Statewide, the birth rate for ... ages 15 and 19 dropped 59 [%] ... in 2017
- ^ Brown, Jennifer (November 30, 2017). "IUD program leads to big decline in teen pregnancies, abortions in Colorado". The Denver Post. Denver. Retrieved May 21, 2019. The steep drop in teen pregnancies and abortions in Colorado since 2009 is mainly due to one thing: free, low-cost access to IUDs ... Thanks to a grant from billionaire Warren Buffett's family, Colorado spent $28 million
- ^ "Languages—Colorado". www.city-data.com.
- ^ Adkins, Amy. "Mississippi and Alabama Most Protestant States in U.S". Gallup.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics | Pew Research Center". Religions.pewforum.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- ^ Howlett, William (1908). "Denver". The Catholic Encyclopedia. NewAdvent.org. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
- ^ "Your Colorado Church History Tour". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Colorado. March 24, 2020. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
- ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.
- ^ Svaldi, Aldo (January 19, 2020). "Colorado is one of the healthiest states in the country, but health outcomes vary widely by county". The Denver Post. Denver. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
- ^ "Percentage of Obese Adult Population"(GIF). Calorielab.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ https://stateofchildhoodobesity.org/adult-obesity/
- ^ "Fattest States 2010: CalorieLab's Annual Obesity Map—State Obesity Rankings | CalorieLab—Health News & Information Blog". CalorieLab. June 28, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura (May 8, 2017). "Inequalities in Life Expectancy Among US Counties, 1980 to 2014". JAMA Internal Medicine. 177 (7): 1003–1011. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0918. PMC 5543324. PMID 28492829.
- ^ Cangialosi, Jason. "Scenic Memorabilia: Colorado's Film Locations". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- ^ Calhoun, Patricia (July 17, 2019). "Jack Kerouac Slept Here Seventy Years Ago". Westword. Denver. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
- ^ Flewelling, Lindsey (March 2, 2017). "Oscar Wilde in Leadville, Colorado". Isles Abroad. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
- ^ Oscar Wilde (1906). Impressions of America. Sunderland: Keystone Press. Retrieved May 3, 2021 – via Project Gutenburg.
- ^ Knowlton, Andrew. "America's Foodiest Town 2010: Boulder, Colorado: In the Magazine". bonappetit.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Harkins, Jacob (March 2011). "Master Class: The Coloradans who've passed the Master Sommelier test that 97 percent fail". Denver Magazine. Archived from the original on March 15, 2011.
- ^ "Colorado Travel Guide". Travelandleisure.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Antonation, Mark (October 20, 2015). "Chef & Tell: Steve Polidori Talks About 90 Years of Sausage in North Denver". Westword. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- ^ Arnold, Katie (June 8, 2008). "As Skiers Depart Aspen, Chowhounds Take Their Place". Travel.nytimes.com. New York City. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ Jackenthal, Stefani (October 5, 2008). "Biking Colorado's Wine Country". Travel.nytimes.com. New York City. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "The Jefferson Cup Invitational Wine Competition". Thejeffersoncup.com. November 24, 2010. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "Wine Industry Feature Articles—Is Colorado the New Washington?". Winesandvines.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau : U.S. Department of the Treasury : Tables"(PDF). Ttb.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Colorado Wine Industry Development Board". Coloradowine.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "Grand Valley, Colorado—Top 10 Wine Getaways 2018—Wine Enthusiast Magazine".
- ^ "Colorado beer.org". coloradobeer.org. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- ^ "The Denver Beer Triangle". Denver.org. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- ^ Land Water People Time (Cultural Guide) (February 11, 2014). "A new Rocky Mountain high: Colorado open for cannabis tourism—The Santa Fe New Mexican: Travel". The Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ "Marijuana Sales Reports—Department of Revenue". www.colorado.gov.
- ^ "Marijuana Tax Data—Department of Revenue". www.colorado.gov.
- ^ "Industrial Hemp | Department of Agriculture—Plants". Colorado.gov. March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ Amendment 64: (6).j
- ^ "Colorado Senate Bill 14-184". Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- ^ "Active State Medical Marijuana Programs—NORML". norml.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- ^ "Full Text of Colorado Amendment 20—Medical Use of Marijuana 2000". Nationalfamilies.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ Young, Saundra (August 7, 2013), Marijuana stops child's severe seizures, CNN, retrieved January 1, 2014
- ^ Colorado laws pertaining to Medical Marijuana, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, 2014, retrieved January 1, 2014 Several links are found, including .PDF documents to download.
- ^ Markus, Ben (November 26, 2013), Colorado to spend millions researching medical marijuana benefits, Colorado Public Radio, archived from the original on January 8, 2014, retrieved January 1, 2014
- ^ "Almost half of Colorado's marijuana money can go wherever lawmakers wish". The Denver Post. Denver. December 30, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- ^ "ACLU Joins Campaign To Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol—ACLU—Colorado". Aclu-co.org. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ^ a b Healy, Jack. "Colorado Stores Throw Open Their Doors to Pot Buyers". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- ^ https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/CO
- ^ "America's Top States for Business: Overall Rankings—2010". CNBC. Archived from the original on December 26, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Archived from the original on December 30, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. September 22, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- ^ "References" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- ^ Frank, Tony (January 1997). "Colorado Land Ownership by County (acres)". Colorado Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (Excel) on January 16, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- ^ "Colorado rides on Fat Tire to beer heights". Rockymountainnews.com. November 24, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- ^ "News Release: Colorado Tourism Sets All-time Visitor Spending Record in 2018 | Colorado.com". www.colorado.com. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- ^ Colorado individual income tax return (2005) Revenue.state.co.us Archived December 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 26, 2006.
- ^ U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (2005) online copy. Retrieved September 26, 2006.
- ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics Home Page". Bls.gov. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- ^ "Inspired by West Virginia Strike, Teachers in Oklahoma and Kentucky Plan Walk Out". KTLA. April 2, 2018.
- ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: Colorado". June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ Robert J. Wright and Donald L. Everhart (1960) Uranium, in Mineral Resources of Colorado First Sequel, State of Colorado Mineral Resources Board, pp. 330–331.
- ^ Conway, Bernard (March 31, 2016). "Uranium Mining". Colorado Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- ^ "Railroads and States". Aar.org. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ Nicholson, Kieran (August 1, 2014). "Immigrants here illegally begin receiving Colorado driver licenses". Denver Post. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- ^ "524 Non-Citizens Received Regular Colorado Driver's Licenses, DMV Says". KCNC. Denver. September 12, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- ^ "State of Residence in 2000 by State of Birth". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- ^ "Colorado Counties". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. January 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
- ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02: Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses"(PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. December 1, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- ^ a b c "American Factfinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
- ^ "Active Colorado Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- ^ "Colorado Local Government by Type". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. February 27, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- ^ "Total Registered Voters By Party Affiliation"(PDF).
- ^ "Notice of General Election". 4 (41). Silverton Standard. August 19, 1893. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
- ^ "Colorado Revised Statutes 2017" (PDF). Colorado General Assembly. State of Colorado. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
- ^ Sanko, John (October 12, 1999). "Colorado only state ever to turn down Olympics". Rocky Mountain News. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
- ^ Simpson, Kevin (November 8, 2006). "Colorado Amendment 43: Gay marriage banned; domestic partnerships also defeated". Denver. The Denver Post. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
- ^ "Protect Colorado Residents From Federal Government Overreach | Colorado General Assembly". leg.colorado.gov. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- ^ "A Brief History of Calvary Church". Golden, CO: Calvary Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- ^ Chelsey Parrott-Sheffer (ed.). "University of Colorado". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Colorado School of Mines". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Colorado State University". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Our History". Regis University. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ Graham, Luke (Fall 2017). "The Hooded Empire: Remembering the Catholic Clash with the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s". Regis University Alumni Magazine. Denver. pp. 14–17. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Air Force Academy Act signed by Eisenhower". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. April 2, 1954. p. 1. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ Simon, Lt. Col. (Ret.) Steven A. "March-In Mystery Unraveled". Association of Graduates, United States Air Force Academy. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ "Space Force welcomes first academy graduates to its ranks". U.S. Space Force Public Affairs. U.S. Space Force. April 18, 2020. Archived from the original on December 23, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
- Explore Colorado, A Naturalist's Handbook, The Denver Museum of Natural History and Westcliff Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-56579-124-X for an excellent guide to the ecological regions of Colorado.
- The Archeology of Colorado, Revised Edition, E. Steve Cassells, Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1997, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-193-9.
- Chokecherry Places, Essays from the High Plains, Merrill Gilfillan, Johnson Press, Boulder, Colorado, trade paperback, ISBN 1-55566-227-7.
- Gunther, John (1947). "–But Scenery Is Not Enough". Inside U.S.A. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. pp. 213–226.
- The Tie That Binds, Kent Haruf, 1984, hardcover, ISBN 0-03-071979-8, a fictional account of farming in Colorado.
- Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado's Historic Trains and Railway Sites, Claude Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN 0-89658-591-3
- Study Finds Legal Marijuana Motivates Many Tourists to Visit Colorado, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/business/ci_29225304/marijuana-has-huge-influence-colorado-tourism-state-survey
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 05:51
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.