Map of colour revolutions from 2000 to 2005
Participants in colour revolutions have mostly used nonviolent resistance
. Such methods as demonstrations, strikes
, and interventions have aimed to protest against governments. Colour-revolution movements generally became associated with a specific colour or flower as their symbol. The colour revolutions are notable for the important role of non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) and particularly student activists
in organizing creative non-violent resistance
Russia and China share nearly identical views that colour revolutions are the product of machinations by the United States and other Western powers and pose a vital threat to their public and national security.
List of colour revolutions
Many have cited the influence of the series of revolutions
in Central and Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s, particularly the Velvet Revolution
in 1989. The police attacked a peaceful demonstration by students (mostly from Charles University) – and, in time, contributed to the collapse of the communist government in Czechoslovakia. However, the roots of the pacifist floral imagery may go even further back to the non-violent Carnation Revolution
of Portugal in April 1974, which is associated with the colour carnation because carnations
were worn, and the 1986 Yellow Revolution
in the Philippines where demonstrators offered peace flowers to military personnel manning armored tanks.
The first of these was Otpor!
("Resistance!") in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, founded at Belgrade University
in October 1998 and began protesting against Miloševic' during the Kosovo War
. Most of them were already veterans of anti-Milošević demonstrations such as the 1996–97 protests
and the 9 March 1991 protest
. Many of its members were arrested or beaten by the police. Despite this, during the presidential campaign in September 2000, Otpor!
launched its Gotov je
(He's finished) campaign that galvanized Serbian discontent with Milošević and resulted in his defeat.
Members of Otpor!
have inspired and trained members of related student movements, including Kmara
in Georgia, Pora in Ukraine, Zubr
in Belarus, and MJAFT!
in Albania. These groups have been explicit and scrupulous in their non-violent resistance
, as advocated and explained in Gene Sharp
The massive protests that they have organized, which were essential to the successes in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Georgia, and Ukraine, have been notable for their colourfulness and use of ridiculing humor in opposing authoritarian leaders.
The analysis of international geopolitics scholars Paul J. Bolt and Sharyl N. Cross is that "Moscow and Beijing share almost indistinguishable views on the potential domestic and international security threats posed by colored revolutions, and both nations view these revolutionary movements as being orchestrated by the United States and its Western democratic partners to advance geopolitical ambitions."
Government figures in Russia
, such as Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu
(in office from 2012) and Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov
(in office from 2004), have characterized colour revolutions as externally-fuelled acts with a clear goal to influence the internal affairs that destabilize the economy,
conflict with the law and represent a new form of warfare.
Russian President Vladimir Putin
has stated that Russia must prevent colour revolutions: "We see what tragic consequences the wave of so-called colour revolutions led to. For us, this is a lesson and a warning. We should do everything necessary so that nothing similar ever happens in Russia".
The 2015 presidential decree The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy
(О Стратегии Национальной Безопасности Российской Федерации
) cites "foreign-sponsored regime change" among "main threats to public and national security," including
the activities of radical public associations and groups using nationalist and religious extremist ideology, foreign and international non-governmental organizations, and financial and economic structures, and also individuals, focused on destroying the unity and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, destabilizing the domestic political and social situation — including through inciting "color revolutions" — and destroying traditional Russian religious and moral values
Chinese government view
Articles published by the Global Times
, a Chinese Communist Party
-owned nationalist tabloid, indicate that Chinese leaders also anticipate the Western powers, such as the United States, using "color revolutions" (Chinese
: 颜色革命; pinyin
: yánsè gémìng
) as a means to undermine the one-party state.
An article published on 8 May 2016 claims: "A variation of containment seeks to press China on human rights and democracy with the hope of creating a 'color revolution.'"
The 2015 policy white paper "China's Military Strategy" (中国的军事战略) by the State Council Information Office
said that "anti-China forces have never given up their attempt to instigate a 'color revolution' in this country."
Pattern of revolution
- A semi-autocratic rather than fully autocratic regime
- An unpopular incumbent
- A united and organized opposition
- An ability to quickly drive home the point that voting results were falsified
- Enough independent media to inform citizens about the falsified vote
- A political opposition capable of mobilizing tens of thousands or more demonstrators to protest electoral fraud
- Divisions among the regime's coercive forces.
Reactions and connected movements in other countries
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (April 2018)
, leader of the New Times political party in Armenia
, declared his intention to start a "revolution from below" in April 2005, saying that the situation was different now that people had seen the developments in the CIS
. He added that the Armenian revolution would be peaceful but not have a colour.
In 2008, a massive anti-government demonstration took place in Armenia. The citizens of Armenia held demonstrations against illegal elections.
Several movements were created in Azerbaijan
in mid-2005, inspired by the examples of both Georgia and Ukraine. A youth group, calling itself Yox!
(which means No!), declared its opposition to governmental corruption. The leader of Yox! said that, unlike Pora or Kmara
, he wants to change not just the leadership but the entire system of governance in Azerbaijan. The Yox movement chose green as its colour.
The spearhead of Azerbaijan's attempted colour revolution was Yeni Fikir ("New Idea"), a youth group closely aligned with the Azadlig (Freedom) Bloc of opposition political parties. Along with groups such as Magam ("It's Time") and Dalga ("Wave"), Yeni Fikir deliberately adopted many of the tactics of the Georgian and Ukrainian colour revolution groups, even borrowing the colour orange from the Ukrainian revolution.
In November 2005 protesters took to the streets, waving orange flags and banners, to protest government fraud in recent parliamentary elections.
The Azerbaijani colour revolution finally fizzled out with the police riot on 26 November, during which dozens of protesters were injured and perhaps hundreds teargassed and sprayed with water cannons.
Protesters considered Mollah's sentence too lenient, given his crimes.
Bloggers and online activists called for additional protests at Shahbag.
Tens of thousands of people joined the demonstration, which gave rise to protests across the country.
The movement demanding trial of war criminals is a protest movement in Bangladesh, from 1972 to the present.
, there have been a number of protests against President Alexander Lukashenko
, with participation from student group Zubr
. One round of protests culminated on 25 March 2005; it was a self-declared attempt to emulate the Kyrgyzstan revolution and involved over a thousand citizens. However, police severely suppressed it, arresting over 30 people and imprisoning opposition leader Mikhail Marinich
A second, much larger round of protests began almost a year later, on 19 March 2006, soon after the presidential election
. Official results had Lukashenko winning with 83% of the vote; protesters claimed the results were achieved through fraud and voter intimidation, a charge echoed by many foreign governments.
Protesters camped out in October Square in Minsk
over the next week, calling variously for the resignation of Lukashenko, the installation of rival candidate Alaksandar Milinkievič
, and new, fair elections.
The opposition originally used as a symbol the white-red-white former flag of Belarus
; the movement has had significant connections with that in neighboring Ukraine. During the Orange Revolution, some white-red-white flags were seen being waved in Kyiv. During the 2006 protests, some called it the "Jeans Revolution
" or "Denim Revolution,"
blue jeans being considered a symbol for freedom. Some protesters cut up jeans into ribbons and hung them in public places.
It is claimed that Zubr was responsible for coining the phrase.
Lukashenko has said in the past: "In our country, there will be no pink or orange, or even banana revolution." More recently, he has said, "They [the West] think that Belarus is ready for some 'orange' or, what is a rather frightening option, 'blue' or 'cornflower blue
' revolution. Such 'blue' revolutions are the last thing we need".
On 19 April 2005, he further commented: "All these coloured revolutions are pure and simple banditry."
In Burma (officially called Myanmar), a series of anti-government protests were referred to in the press as the Saffron Revolution
after Buddhist monks (Theravada Buddhist
monks normally wear the colour saffron) took the vanguard of the protests. A previous, student-led revolution, the 8888 Uprising
on 8 August 1988, had similarities to the colour revolutions, but was violently repressed.
A call which first appeared on 17 February 2011 on the Chinese language site Boxun.com
in the United States for a "Jasmine revolution" in the People's Republic of China and repeated on social networking sites in China resulted in blocking of internet searches for "jasmine" and a heavy police presence at designated sites for protest such as the McDonald's
in central Beijing, one of the 13 designated protest sites, on 20 February 2011. A crowd did gather there, but their motivations were ambiguous as a crowd tends to draw a crowd in that area.
Boxun experienced a denial of service attack
during this period and was inaccessible.
In the 2000s, Fiji suffered numerous coups. But at the same time, many Fiji citizens resisted the military. In Fiji, there have been many human rights abuses by the military. Anti-government protesters in Fiji have fled to Australia and New Zealand. In 2011, Fijians conducted anti-Fijian government protests in Australia.
On 17 September 2014, the first democratic general election was held in Fiji.
In 2015, Otto Pérez Molina
, President of Guatemala, was suspected of corruption. In Guatemala City, a large number of protests rallied. Demonstrations took place from April to September 2015. Otto Pérez Molina
was eventually arrested on 3 September. The people of Guatemala called this event "Guatemalan Spring".
A name hypothesized for such an event was the "Grape Revolution" because of the abundance of vineyards in the country; however, such a revolution failed to materialize after the governmental victory in the elections. Many reasons have been given for this, including a fractured opposition and the fact that the government had already co-opted many of the political positions that might have united the opposition (such as a perceived pro-European and anti-Russian stance). Also, the elections themselves were declared fairer in the OSCE election monitoring reports than had been the case in other countries where similar revolutions occurred, even though the CIS monitoring mission strongly condemned them.
On 25 March 2005, activists wearing yellow scarves held protests in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar
, disputing the results of the 2004 Mongolian parliamentary elections
and calling for fresh elections. One of the chants heard in that protest was "Let's congratulate our Kyrgyz brothers for their revolutionary spirit. Let's free Mongolia of corruption."
An uprising commenced in Ulaanbaatar on 1 July 2008, with a peaceful meeting in protest of the election of 29 June. The results of these elections were (it was claimed by opposition political parties) corrupted by the Mongolian People's Party
(MPRP). Approximately 30,000 people took part in the meeting. Afterward, some of the protesters left the central square and moved to the HQ of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party – which they attacked and then burned down. A police station was also attacked.
The night rioters vandalized and then set fire to the Cultural Palace (a theatre, museum, and National art gallery). Cars torching,
bank robberies, and looting were reported.
The organizations in the burning buildings were vandalized and looted. Police used tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannon against stone-throwing protesters.
A 4-day state of emergency was installed, the capital was placed under a 2200 to 0800 curfew, and alcohol sales were banned
rioting not resumed.
Five people were shot dead by the police
, dozens of teenagers were wounded from the police firearms
and disabled and 800 people, including the leaders of the civil movements J. Batzandan, O. Magnai and B. Jargalsakhan, were arrested.
International observers said 1 July general election was free and fair.
The liberal opposition in Russia is represented by several parties
An active part of the opposition is the Oborona
Oborona claims that its aim is to provide free and honest elections and to establish in Russia a system with democratic political competition. This movement under the leadership of Oleg Kozlovsky
was one of the most active and radical ones and is represented in a number of Russian cities. During the elections of 8 September 2013, the movement contributed to the success of Navalny in Moscow and other opposition candidates in various regions and towns throughout Russia. The "oboronkis" also took part in oppositional groups in protests against fraud in the Moscow mayoral elections.
Since the 2012 protests, Aleksei Navalny
mobilized with support of the various and fractured opposition parties and masses of young people against the alleged repression and fraud of the Kremlin apparatus.
After a vigorous campaign for the 8 September elections in Moscow and the regions, the opposition won remarkable successes[according to whom?]
. Navalny reached a second place in Moscow with a surprising 27% behind Kremlin-backed Sergei Sobyanin
, finishing with 51% of the votes. In other regions, opposition candidates received remarkable successes. In the big industrial town of Yekaterinburg, opposition candidate Yevgeny Roizman
received the majority of votes and became the mayor of that town. The slow but gradual sequence of opposition successes reached by mass protests, election campaigns and other peaceful strategies has been recently called by observers and analysts as of Radio Free Europe
"Tortoise Revolution" in contrast to the radical "rose" or "orange" ones the Kremlin tried to prevent.
's opposition has held protests demanding that the federal authorities intervene to dismiss Murtaza Rakhimov
from his position as president of the republic, accusing him of leading an "arbitrary, corrupt, and violent" regime. Airat Dilmukhametov
, one of the opposition leaders and leader of the Bashkir National Front
, has said that the opposition movement has been inspired by the mass protests of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan.
Another opposition leader, Marat Khaiyirulin
, has said that if an Orange Revolution were to happen in Russia, it would begin in Bashkortostan.
, there has been longstanding opposition to President Islam Karimov
, from liberals and Islamists. Following protests in 2005, security forces in Uzbekistan carried out the Andijan massacre
that successfully halted country-wide demonstrations. These protests otherwise could have turned into colour revolution, according to many analysts.
The revolution in neighboring Kyrgyzstan began in the largely ethnic Uzbek South and received early support in the city of Osh
. Nigora Hidoyatova
, leader of the Free Peasants
opposition party, has referred to the idea of a peasant revolt or 'Cotton Revolution'. She also said that her party is collaborating with the youth organization Shiddat
and that she hopes it can evolve to an organization similar to Kmara or Pora.
Other nascent youth organizations in and for Uzbekistan include Bolga
and the freeuzbek
Response in other countries
When groups of young people protested the closure of Venezuela's RCTV
television station in June 2007, President Hugo Chávez
said that he believed the protests were organized by the West in an attempt to promote a "soft coup" like the revolutions in Ukraine and Georgia.
Similarly, Chinese authorities claimed repeatedly in the state-run media that both the 2014 Hong Kong protests
– known as the Umbrella Revolution
– as well as the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests
, were organized and controlled by the United States.
In July 2007, Iranian state television released footage of two Iranian-American prisoners, both of whom work for western NGOs, as part of a documentary called "In the Name of Democracy." The documentary discusses the colour revolutions in Ukraine and Georgia and accuses the United States of attempting to foment a similar ouster in Iran.
Other examples and political movements around the world
The imagery of a colour revolution has been adopted by various non-revolutionary electoral campaigns. The 'Purple Revolution' social media campaign of Naheed Nenshi
catapulted his platform from 8% to Calgary's 36th Mayor. The platform advocated city sustainability and to inspire the high voter turnout of 56%, particularly among young voters.
In 2015, the NDP
earned a majority mandate and ended the 44-year-old dynasty of the Progressive Conservatives
. During the campaign, Rachel Notley
's popularity gained momentum, and the news and NDP supporters referred to this phenomenon as the "Orange Crush" per the party's colour. NDP parodies of Orange flavoured Crush
soda logo became a popular meme on social media.
- ^ Gene Sharp: Author of the nonviolent revolution rulebook, BBC News (21 February 2011)
Lukashenko vows 'no color revolution' in Belarus, CNN (4 July 2011)
Sri Lanka's Color Revolution?, Sri Lanka Guardian (26 January 2010)
(in Dutch) Iran, een 'kleurenrevolutie' binnen de lijntjes?, De Standaard (26 juni 2009)
(in Dutch) En toch zijn verkiezingen in Rusland wel spannend, de Volkskrant (29 February 2008)
(in French) "Il n'y a plus rien en commun entre les élites russes et le peuple", Le Monde (6 December 2012)
(in Spanish) Revoluciones sin colores, El País (8 February 2010)
- ^ a b McFaul, Michael (July 2005). "Transitions from Postcommunism" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. Johns Hopkins University Press. 16 (3): 5–19. doi:10.1353/jod.2005.0049. ISSN 1086-3214. OCLC 4637557635. S2CID 154994813. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 6, 2020.
- ^ a b c d Bolt, Paul J.; Cross, Sharyl N. (2018). "Emerging Non-traditional Security Challenges: Color Revolutions, Cyber and Information Security, Terrorism, and Violent Extremism". China, Russia, and Twenty-First Century Global Geopolitics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198719519.003.0005. ISBN 9780198719519. OCLC 993635784.
- ^ Prof. Dr. Jürgen Nautz (2008). Die großen Revolutionen der Welt. ISBN 9783843800341.
- ^ "Der Hoffnungsträger vertrieb den Löwen". Zeit. 6 May 2004. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
- ^ "The Purple Revolution". Real Clear Politics. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- ^ "President Addresses and Thanks Citizens of Slovakia". The White House. 24 February 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- ^ Charles Paul Freund (7 March 2005). "Kuwait: Blue Revolution – Hit & Run". Reason. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Leaders hail Kuwait women's votes". BBC News. 17 May 2005. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ^ a b Fraud claims to follow Lukashenko win in Belarus election ABC News (Australia)
- ^ "Dissidents of the theatre in Belarus pin their hopes on denim". The Independent. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ a b  Archived 30 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b "Different Voices". Politico Europe. Archived from the original on September 16, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ a b "Military junta threatens monks in Burma", The Times (UK) Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b "100,000 Protestors Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"". Novinite.com. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ Akbar E. Torbat, The Arab Uprisings and Iran’s Green Movement Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 19 October 2011.
- ^ Isayev, Boris (6 April 2019). Политическая история: революции. Учебник для бакалавриата и магистратуры. ЛитРес. p. 278. ISBN 9785041554125.
- ^ "Volksparteien verlieren Parteivolk". Центр Льва Гумилёва (in Russian). 12 September 2015.
- ^ "Why 'Color Revolutions' Can't Be Exported". Bloomberg News. 15 February 2018.
- ^ "Zweischneidige Sanktionen gegen Russland". Allgemeine Schweizerische Militärzeitschrift [de] (in German). April 2015.
- ^ Tucker, Joshua (15 January 2011). "Initial Thoughts on Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution". The Monkey Cage. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Egyptian-American leaders call for U.S. support of 'Lotus Revolution'". CNN. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ a b Andrew Jacobs (20 February 2011). "Chinese Government Responds to Call for Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ a b Cara Anna, Associated Press (19 February 2011). "China cracks down on call for 'Jasmine Revolution'". Boxun.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ Petrevska, Anastasija. Arrests Add Fuel to Anti-Impunity Protesters’ Fire in Macedonia. Global Voices Online. Published 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- ^ O'Sullivan, Feargus. How Paint Became a Weapon in Macedonia's 'Colorful Revolution'. CityLab. Published 9 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- ^ "A 'Color Revolution' In Armenia? Mass Protests Echo Previous Post-Soviet Upheavals". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- ^ "Breaking: Serge Sarkisian Resigns as Prime Minister". The Armenian Weekly. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- ^ ""Velvet Revolution" Takes Armenia into the Unknown". Crisis Group. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- ^ "Lebanese govt to charge USD 0.20 a day for WhatsApp calls". The Daily Star. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- ^ "Protests erupt in Lebanon over plans to impose new taxes". aljazeera.com. 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- ^ "Lebanon: WhatsApp tax sparks mass protests". DW. Deutsche Welle. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- ^ a b "Lebanon Protesters Found Strength in Unity, Ditched Sectarianism". Report Syndication. 27 October 2019.
- ^ "Protesters march from Al Nour Square to Central Bank in Tripoli". MTV Lebanon. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- ^ "Protesters block Karakoul Druze-Mar Elias road". MTV Lebanon. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- ^ Khraiche, Dana (17 October 2019). "Nationwide Protests Erupt in Lebanon as Economic Crisis Deepens". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- ^ "Pesquisadores do MIT questionam conclusão da OEA sobre fraude na eleição da Bolívia". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ Collyns, Dan (11 November 2019). "Bolivian president Evo Morales resigns after election result dispute". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ embajadadebolivia, Autor entrada. "The "Pitita Revolution" in Bolivia – Embajada de Bolivia en Bélgica" (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ Newswire, Eds Imperialism Bolivia (5 September 2019). "MR Online | The U.S. footprint in Bolivia's incipient colour revolution". MR Online. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ Episkopos, Mark (20 November 2020). "Why America's Belarus Strategy Backfired". The National Interest. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2005.
- ^ Cordesman, Anthony, Russia and the "Color Revolution", Center for Strategic and International Studies, 28 May 2014
- ^ Compare: (RUS) "Путин: мы не допустим цветных революций в России и странах ОДКБ." vesti.ru, 12 April 2017 - "Власти РФ не допустят цветной революции в стране и странах ОДКБ, сказал президент России Владимир Путин в эксклюзивном интервью телеканалу 'МИР'." [The authorities of the Russian Federation will not allow a colour revolution in the country of in the counties of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, said the President of Russia in an exclusive interview with the television channel 'MIR'.]
- ^ Leontyev, Mikhail (23 May 2014). "Lavrov, Shoigu and the General Staff: on the "color revolutions", Ukraine, Syria and the role of Russia" Лавров, Шойгу и Генштаб: о «цветных революциях», Украине, Сирии и роли России. Odnako [ru]. Пресс код, 'Press Code'. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020. По словам Шойгу, схема реализации «цветной революции» универсальна: военное давление, смена политического руководства, смена внешнеполитических и экономических векторов государства. Министр отметил, что «цветные революции» всегда сопровождаются информационной войной и использованием сил спецназначения и всё больше приобретают форму вооружённой борьбы. [According to Shoigu, the scheme for implementing the "color revolution" is universal: military pressure, a change in political leadership, a change in the state's foreign policy and economic vectors. The minister noted that "color revolutions" are always accompanied by information warfare and the use of special forces and are increasingly taking the form of an armed struggle.]
- ^ Gorenburg, Dmitry, "Countering Color Revolutions: Russia's New Security Strategy and its Implications for U.S. Policy", Russian Military Reform, 15 September 2014
- ^ Flintoff, Corey, Are 'Color Revolutions' A New Front In U.S.-Russia Tensions?, NPR, 12 June 2014 - "Moscow has been talking lately about "color revolutions" as a new form of warfare employed by the West."
- ^ Korsunskaya, Darya (20 November 2014). "Putin says Russia must prevent 'color revolution'". Yahoo. Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- ^ Государственная и общественная безопасность [State and Public Security]. Russian Federation Presidential Edict Number 683—The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy Указ Президента Российской Федерации № 683 «О Стратегии Национальной Безопасности Российской Федерации» (Report). Moscow: Kremlin. 31 December 2015. деятельность радикальных общественных объединений и группировок, использующих националистическую и религиозно-экстремистскую идеологию, иностранных и международных неправительственных организаций, финансовых и экономических структур, а также частных лиц, направленная на нарушение единства и территориальной целостности Российской Федерации, дестабилизацию внутриполитической и социальной ситуации в стране, включая инспирирование "цветных революций", разрушение традиционных российских духовно-нравственных ценностей [the activities of radical public associations and groups using nationalist and religious extremist ideology, foreign and international non-governmental organizations, and financial and economic structures, and also individuals, focused on destroying the unity and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, destabilizing the domestic political and social situation — including through inciting "color revolutions" — and destroying traditional Russian religious and moral values]
- ^ "US split on future relations with China - Global Times". Global Times. May 8, 2016.
- ^ "Color revolution aims to ruin HK's future". Global Times. August 13, 2019.
- ^ "国家安全形势; 'National Security Situation'". China's Military Strategy 中国的军事战略 (Report). 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室; 'The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China'. 26 May 2016. 维护国家政治安全和社会稳定的任务艰巨繁重，“东突”“藏独”分裂势力危害严重，特别是“东突”暴力恐怖活动威胁升级，反华势力图谋制造“颜色革命”，国家安全和社会稳定面临更多挑战。 [The task of safeguarding the country's political security and social stability is arduous and tedious. The "East Turkistan" and "Tibet independence" separatist forces are seriously harming [China]; particularly, the threat of violent terrorist activities in "East Turkistan" has escalated. Anti-China forces have never given up their attempt to instigate a 'color revolution' in this country.]
- ^ Domestic and International Perspectives on Kyrgyzstan’s ‘Tulip Revolution’
- ^ The Color Revolutions
- ^ The Colour Revolutions in the Former Soviet Republics
- ^ Time for Revolution Armenian Diaspora
- ^ Azeri youth group makes debut by slamming state corruption Archived 17 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine Baku Today
- ^ Young activists posed to assume higher political profile in Azerbaijan Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine EurasiaNet
- ^ Baku opposition prepares for 'color revolution’Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine ISN Security Watch
- ^ Baku police crush opposition rally with force ISN Security Watch
- ^ "THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMES (TRIBUNALS) ACT, 1973". bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- ^ "Protesters demand death for Bangladesh war crimes Islamist". Reuters. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ "Summary of verdict in Quader Mollah case". The Daily Star. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- ^ Rabbi, Saimul Islam (16 February 2013). "Bangladesh 1971: War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity". BD News 24. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- ^ Rahman, Mashiur (28 February 2013). "Analysis: Calls grow for banning Jamaat-e-Islami in BD". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- ^ "OUTRAGED". The Daily Star. 6 February 2013.
- ^ Sarkar, Ashutosh (7 February 2013). "Verdict surprises some top jurists". The Daily Star.
- ^ "Bangladesh's rising voices". Al Jazeera. 19 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- ^ "Compilation of Shahbag Movement: A new Sun Uplifts". Priyo.com. 11 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013.
- ^ "Outrage explodes over verdict". The Daily Star. 7 February 2013.
- ^ "Amnesty accuses Fiji military of a series of beatings". Radio Australia. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- ^ "Amnesty reports Fiji military beatings of young people". Radio New Zealand International. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- ^ "Fiji beatings a sign of regime's fear of revolt, says academic". Radio New Zealand International. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- ^ "People-power and the 'Guatemalan Spring' | Politics | al Jazeera".
- ^ "Asia-Pacific | Mongolians protest for new poll". BBC News. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ a b c "Mongolia calls state of emergency". BBC News. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Mongolia clamps down after 5 killed in unrest". ABC News. Australia. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Fatal clashes in Mongolia capital the situation had stabilised". BBC News. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Streets calm in riot-hit Mongolia". BBC News. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Єдєр бvр дэлхий даяар – Гэмтэж бэртсэн иргэд цагдаад буудуулсан талаараа ярьж байна". Olloo.mn. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Mongolia Report 2009". Amnesty International. 2009.
- ^ "In pictures: Mongolian protests". BBC News. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ xavia. "Lawyers' Movement in Pakistan". Wikimir.com. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Oleg Kozlovski, Oborona, and Democracy Activism in Russia, by Matt Mulberry, Sept 13, 2011". Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
- ^ "Oleg Kozlovsky". Retrieved 9 July 2015.[non-primary source needed]
- ^ "Jailing Navalny makes Kremlin's mantra of repression look shaky". Financial Times. 18 July 2013.
- ^ "The Tortoise Revolution". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- ^ Bigg, Claire (8 April 2005). "Bashkortostan: Opposition Denounces 'Dictatorship' At Moscow Protest". Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 May 2005. Retrieved 9 April 2005.
- ^ Kelly, Jack (17 June 2009). "Obama Cowers on Iran". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- ^ Poh Phaik Thien (31 July 2009). "Explaining the Color Revolutions". e-International Relations. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- ^ "Features". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 20 April 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ Alisher Sidikov (2 July 2003). "Pakistan Blames IMU Militants For Afghan Border Unrest". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- ^ "Nacional y Política". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- ^ BBC News China (6 October 2014). "China media: 'Harmonious environment' absent for Hong Kong talks". BBC. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- ^ Cheng, Kris (8 August 2019). "Beijing deems Hong Kong protests 'colour revolution,' will not rule out intervention" (8 August 2019). Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 27 August 2019. Beijing has claimed that Hong Kong protests have 'clear colour revolution characteristics,' adding that it will not rule out intervention if the city is in turmoil. Colour revolution refers to movements in former Soviet countries in the 2000s that led to the overthrow of governments. Beijing believes such movements were organized or assisted by the United States.
- ^ Westcott, Ben (31 July 2019). "China is blaming the US for the Hong Kong protests. Can that really be true?". CNN. Retrieved 27 August 2019. The Chinese Foreign Ministry on Tuesday accused the United States of influencing the increasingly violent pro-democracy protests that have rocked Hong Kong for two months. 'As you all know, they are somehow the work of the US,' Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said at a press conference in Beijing ... The comments are one of the most direct accusations Beijing has so far made of US interference in Hong Kong politics, and follow months of speculation inside China that Western forces have had a hand in the movement ... It isn't clear, however, whether Beijing genuinely believes the US -- and the West more broadly -- is behind the protests, or if the claim is propaganda.
- ^ "Iran shows new scholars' footage". BBC News. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ^ "Ismaili Muslim elected mayor of the third-largest city in Canada – The Ismaili". 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- ^ "Turnout high as Calgary votes". CBC News.
- ^ Tucker, Erika.'Orange Crush:NDP stomps out 44-year dynasty, Jim Pretice resigns'.Global News 5 May 2015. http://globalnews.ca/news/1981421/rachel-notley-and-ndp-win-alberta-election-2015/. Retrieved 29 May 2015
- ^ Nolais, Jeremy.'Alberta NDO's 'Orange Crush' slogan could lead to surge in soda sales:Prof'.Metro News, 7 May 2015. http://metronews.ca/news/calgary/1363385/alberta-ndps-orange-crush-slogan-could-lead-to-surge-in-soda-sales-prof/ Archived 3 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 29 May 2015
- Beissinger, Mark R. (2007). "Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions". Perspectives on Politics. 5 (2): 259–276. doi:10.1017/S1537592707070776.
- Dawn Brancati: Democracy Protests: Causes, Significance, and Consequences. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
- Donnacha Ó Beacháin and Abel Polese, eds. The colour Revolutions in the Former Soviet Republics: Successes and Failures. Routledge, 2010. ISBN 978-0-41-562547-0
- Valerie J. Bunce and Sharon L. Wolchik: Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries. Cambridge University Press, 2011
- Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way: Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War. Cambridge University Press, 2010
- Pavol Demes and Joerg Forbrig (eds.). Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe. German Marshall Fund, 2007.
- Joerg Fobrig (Ed.): Revisiting Youth Political Participation: Challenges for research and democratic practice in Europe. Council of Europe, Publishing Division, Strasbourg 2005, ISBN 92-871-5654-9
- Landry, Tristan (2011). "The Color Revolutions in the Rearview Mirror: Closer Than They Appear". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 53 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1080/00085006.2011.11092663. ISSN 0008-5006. S2CID 129384588.
- Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6. US edition. On Google
- Joshua A. Tucker: Enough! Electoral Fraud, Collective Action Problems, and Post-Communist coloured Revolutions. 2007. Perspectives on Politics, 5(3): 537–553.
- Akbar E. Torbat,The Arab Uprisings and Iran’s Green Movement, 19 October 2011.
- Michael McFaul, Transitions from Post Communism. July 2005. Journal of Democracy, 16(3): 5–19.
- Albert Einstein Institution, East Boston, Massachusetts
- Central Asian Backlash Against US Franchised Revolutions Written by K. Gajendra Singh, India's former ambassador to Turkey and Azerbaijan from 1992 to 1996.
- The Centre for Democracy in Lebanon
- Hardy Merriman, The trifecta of civil resistance: unity, planning, discipline, 19 November 2010 at openDemocracy.net
- Howard Clark civil resistance website
- How Orange Networks Work
- ICNC’s Online Learning Platform for the Study & Teaching of Civil Resistance, Washington DC
- International Center on Nonviolent Conflict (ICNC), Washington DC
- Jack DuVall, "Civil resistance and the language of power", 19 November 2010 at openDemocracy.net
- Michael Barker, Regulating revolutions in Eastern Europe: Polyarchy and the National Endowment for Democracy, 1 November 2006.
- Oxford University Research Project on Civil Resistance and Power Politics
- "Sowing seeds of democracy in post-soviet granite" – the future of democracy in post-Soviet states Written by Lauren Brodsky, a PhD candidate at the Fletcher School in Medford, Mass., focusing on US public diplomacy and the regions of Southwest and Central Asia.
- Stellan Vinthagen, People power and the new global ferment, 15 November 2010 at openDemocracy.net
- United 4 Belarus Campaign British campaign website drawing attention to the political situation in Belarus ahead of 2006 presidential elections.
Last edited on 17 May 2021, at 16:00
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.