Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.
What would eventually become Columbia Pictures was founded as the Cohn-Brandt-Cohn (CBC) Film Sales Corporation
on June 19, 1918 by brothers Jack
and Harry Cohn
and their business partner, Joe Brandt
It adopted the Columbia Pictures name in 1924 (operating as Columbia Pictures Corporation
until 1968), went public two years later, and eventually began to use the image of Columbia
, the female personification of the United States, as its logo.
In its early years, Columbia was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra
. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy
. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Jean Arthur
and Cary Grant
. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth
became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell
, Glenn Ford
, and William Holden
also became major stars at the studio.
The original CBC Film Sales logo used from 1919 through 1924
The studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn
) Film Sales
by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn
and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt
, and released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales, marketing and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood. The studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys" (the vaudeville duo of Edward Flanagan and Neely Edwards
), and the Chaplin imitator Billy West
The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row
studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street
. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage".
Reorganization and new name
The first print logo used by Columbia Pictures, featuring its Columbia
In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation
on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well, thus concentrating enormous power in his hands. He would run Columbia for the next 34 years, one of the longest tenures of any studio chief (Warner Bros.
' Jack L. Warner
was head of production or
CEO longer but did not become CEO until 1956). Even in an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was particularly notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley
called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns".
Brandt eventually tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, and in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over from him as president.
Columbia's product line consisted mostly of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, and cartoons. Columbia gradually moved into the production of higher-budget fare, eventually joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists
. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company. It controlled production and distribution; it did not own any theaters.
Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of an ambitious director, Frank Capra
. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra constantly pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened One Night
, which nearly swept the 1934 Oscars, put Columbia on the map. Until then, Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since it didn't have a theater network of its own. Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon
(1937), with Ronald Colman
, and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
(1939), which made James Stewart
a major star.
In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch
to be their chief fashion and women's costume designer. He was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio,
and he established the studio's wardrobe department.
Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers.
Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn usually borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer
would use the loan-out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings. In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur
to a long-term contract, and after The Whole Town's Talking
(1935), Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern
's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant
signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO
Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, and Columbia always recognized this market. Its first cowboy star was Buck Jones
, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy
, Ken Maynard
, Jack Luden
, Bob Allen (Robert (Tex) Allen
), Russell Hayden
, Tex Ritter
, Ken Curtis
, and Gene Autry
. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett
, who signed with Columbia in 1935 and starred in 131 western features over 17 years.
At Harry Cohn's insistence the studio signed The Three Stooges
in 1934. Rejected by MGM
(which kept straight-man Ted Healy
but let the Stooges go),
the Stooges made 190 shorts for Columbia between 1934 and 1957. Columbia's short-subject department employed many famous comedians, including Buster Keaton
, Charley Chase
, Harry Langdon
, Andy Clyde
, and Hugh Herbert
. Almost 400 of Columbia's 529 two-reel comedies were released to television between 1958 and 1961; to date, all of the Stooges, Keaton, Charley Chase
, Shemp Howard
, Joe Besser
, and Joe DeRita
subjects have been released to home video.
Columbia incorporated animation into its studio in 1929, distributing Walt Disney
's famous Mickey Mouse
cartoons as well as the Silly Symphonies
cartoons until 1932. Also in 1929, Columbia took over distribution of the Krazy Kat
series from Paramount Pictures
by Charles Mintz
. In 1933, The Mintz studio was re-established under the Screen Gems
brand; Columbia's leading cartoon series were Krazy Kat
, The Fox and the Crow
, and (very briefly) Li'l Abner
. Screen Gems
was the last major cartoon studio to produce black-and-white cartoons, producing them until 1946. That same year, Screen Gems shut down, but had completed enough cartoons for the studio to release until 1949. In 1948, Columbia agreed to release animated shorts from United Productions of America
; these new shorts were more sophisticated than Columbia's older cartoons, and many won critical praise and industry awards. In 1957, two years before the UPA deal was terminated, Columbia distributed the Hanna-Barbera
cartoons, including Loopy De Loop
from 1959 to 1965, which was Columbia's final theatrical cartoon series. In 1967, the Hanna-Barbera deal expired and was not renewed.
According to Bob Thomas' book King Cohn
, studio chief Harry Cohn always placed a high priority on serials. Beginning in 1937, Columbia entered the lucrative serial market, and kept making these weekly episodic adventures until 1956, after other studios had discontinued them. The most famous Columbia serials are based on comic-strip or radio characters: Mandrake the Magician
, The Shadow
, Terry and the Pirates
, Captain Midnight
, The Phantom
, and the especially successful Superman
, among many others.
Columbia also produced musical shorts, sports reels (usually narrated by sportscaster Bill Stern
), and travelogues. Its "Screen Snapshots
" series, showing behind-the-scenes footage of Hollywood stars, was a Columbia perennial that the studio had been releasing since the silent-movie days; producer-director Ralph Staub
kept this series going through 1958.
The logo that Columbia used starting in 1936 and ending in 1976; this version was used on the Color Rhapsody cartoons.
In the 1940s, propelled in part by the surge in audiences for their films during the war, the studio also benefited from the popularity of its biggest star, Rita Hayworth
. Columbia maintained a long list of contractees well into the 1950s: Glenn Ford
, Penny Singleton
, William Holden
, Judy Holliday
, The Three Stooges
, Ann Miller
, Evelyn Keyes
, Ann Doran
, Jack Lemmon
, Cleo Moore
, Barbara Hale
, Adele Jergens
, Larry Parks
, Arthur Lake
, Lucille Ball
, Kerwin Mathews
, and Kim Novak
Harry Cohn monitored the budgets of his films, and the studio got the maximum use out of costly sets, costumes, and props by reusing them in other films. Many of Columbia's low-budget "B" pictures and short subjects have an expensive look, thanks to Columbia's efficient recycling policy. Cohn was reluctant to spend lavish sums on even his most important pictures, and it was not until 1943 that he agreed to use three-strip Technicolor
in a live-action feature. (Columbia was the last major studio to employ the expensive color process.) Columbia's first Technicolor feature was the western The Desperadoes
, starring Randolph Scott
and Glenn Ford
. Cohn quickly used Technicolor again for Cover Girl
, a Hayworth vehicle that instantly was a smash hit, released in 1944, and for the fanciful biography of Frédéric Chopin
, A Song to Remember
, with Cornel Wilde
, released in 1945. Another biopic, 1946's The Jolson Story
with Larry Parks
and Evelyn Keyes
, was started in black-and-white, but when Cohn saw how well the project was proceeding, he scrapped the footage and insisted on filming in Technicolor.
In 1948, the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. anti-trust
decision forced Hollywood motion picture companies to divest themselves of the theatre chains that they owned. Since Columbia did not own any theaters, it was now on equal terms with the largest studios, and soon replaced RKO on the list of the "Big Five" studios.
Screen Gems' logo of the 1960s
In 1946, Columbia dropped the Screen Gems
brand from its cartoon line, but retained the Screen Gems name for various ancillary activities, including a 16 mm film-rental agency and a TV-commercial production company. On November 8, 1948, Columbia adopted the Screen Gems
name for its television production subsidiary when the studio acquired Pioneer Telefilms, a television commercial company founded by Jack Cohn's son, Ralph.
Pioneer had been founded in 1947, and was later reorganized as Screen Gems.
The studio opened its doors for business in New York on April 15, 1949.
By 1951, Screen Gems became a full-fledged television studio and became a major producer of situation comedies for TV, beginning with Father Knows Best
and followed by The Donna Reed Show
, The Partridge Family
, I Dream of Jeannie
, and The Monkees
On July 1, 1956, studio veteran Irving Briskin stepped down as manager of Columbia Pictures and form his production company Briskin Productions, Inc. to release series through Screen Gems and supervise all of its productions.
On December 10, Screen Gems expanded into television syndication by acquiring Hygo Television Films (a.k.a. "Serials Inc.") and its affiliated company United Television Films, Inc. Hygo Television Films was founded in 1951 by Jerome Hyams, who also acquired United Television Films in 1955 that was founded by Archie Mayers.
In 1957, two years before its parent company Columbia dropped UPA, Screen Gems entered a distribution deal with Hanna-Barbera Productions
, which produced classic TV cartoon shows such as The Flintstones
, Ruff and Reddy
, The Huckleberry Hound Show
, Yogi Bear
, Jonny Quest
, The Jetsons
and others. Screen Gems would distribute until 1967, when Hanna-Barbera was sold to Taft Broadcasting
. In 1960, the cartoon studio became a publicly traded company under the name Screen Gems, Inc., when Columbia spun off an 18% stake.
By 1950, Columbia had discontinued most of its popular series films
, The Lone Wolf
, The Crime Doctor
, etc.) Only Jungle Jim
, launched by producer Sam Katzman
in 1949, kept going through 1955. Katzman contributed greatly to Columbia's success by producing dozens of topical feature films, including crime dramas, science-fiction stories, and rock-'n'-roll musicals. Columbia kept making serials until 1956 and two-reel comedies until 1957, after other studios had abandoned them.
In December 1956, Jack Cohn, co-founder and executive vice-president, died.
In 1958, Columbia established its own record label, Colpix Records
, initially run by Jonie Taps, who headed Columbia's music department, and later Paul Wexler
and Lester Sill
. Colpix was active until 1966 when Columbia entered into a joint agreement with RCA Victor
and discontinued Colpix in favor of its new label, Colgems Records
Shortly after closing their short subjects department, Columbia president Harry Cohn
died of a heart attack in February 1958. His nephew Ralph Cohn died in 1959, ending almost four decades of family management.
The new management was headed by Abe Schneider, who had joined the company as an office boy out of high school and become a director in 1929, rising through the financial side of the business.
By 1966, the studio was suffering from box-office failures, and takeover rumors began surfacing. Columbia was surviving solely on the profits made from Screen Gems, whose holdings also included radio and television stations.
On December 23, 1968, Screen Gems merged with Columbia Pictures Corporation and became part of the newly formed Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.
for $24.5 million.
Schneider was chairman of the holding company and Leo Jaffe
president. Following the merger, in March 1969, CPI purchased Bell Records
for $3.5 million (mainly in CPI stock), retaining Larry Uttal
as label president.
Nearly bankrupt by the early 1970s, the studio was saved via a radical overhaul: the Gower Street Studios (now called "Sunset Gower Studios
") were sold and a new management team was brought in. In 1972, Columbia and Warner Bros. formed a partnership called The Burbank Studios, in which both companies shared the Warner studio lot
In 1971, Columbia Pictures established sheet music publisher Columbia Pictures Publications, with vice president and general manager Frank J. Hackinson
, who later became the president.
In 1973, Allen & Co took a financial stake in Columbia Pictures Industries and Alan Hirschfield
was appointed CEO,
succeeding Leo Jaffe
who became chairman. Stanley Schneider, son of Abe Schneider (who became honorary chairman before leaving the board in 1975) was replaced as head of the Columbia Pictures studio by David Begelman
, who reported to Hirschfield. Some years later Begelman was involved in a check-forging scandal that badly hurt the studio's image.
On May 6, 1974, Columbia retired the Screen Gems
name from television, renaming its television division Columbia Pictures Television
. The name was suggested by David Gerber
, who was then-president of Columbia's television division.
The same year, Columbia Pictures acquired Rastar Pictures
, which included Rastar Productions, Rastar Features, and Rastar Television. Ray Stark then founded Rastar Films
, the reincarnation of Rastar Pictures and it was acquired by Columbia Pictures in February 1980.
Columbia Pictures also reorganized its music and record divisions. Clive Davis
who was hired as a record and music consultant by Columbia Pictures in 1974 and later became temporary president of Bell Records
. Davis's real goal was to revitalize Columbia Pictures's music division. With a $10 million investment by CPI, and a reorganization of the various Columbia Pictures legacy labels (Colpix, Colgems
, and Bell), Davis introduced Columbia Pictures's new record division, Arista Records
, in November 1974 with Davis himself owning 20% of the new venture. Columbia maintained control of the label until 1979, when it was sold to Ariola Records
. In addition, Columbia sold its music publishing business (Columbia-Screen Gems) to EMI
in August 1976 for $15 million.
Both would later be reunited with Columbia Pictures under Sony ownership.
In December 1976, Columbia Pictures acquired the arcade game company D. Gottlieb & Co.
for $50 million.
In 1978, Begelman was suspended for having embezzled
money from Columbia. Hirschfield was forced out for his refusal to reinstate him.
Begelman later resigned and was replaced by Daniel Melnick
in June 1978. Fay Vincent
was hired to replace Hirschfield.
became president of production in 1978. In March 1979, he would become president of Columbia Pictures, succeeding Melnick.
During Price's tenure he was responsible for turning out 9 of the top 10 grossing films in Columbia's history.
In fall 1978, Kirk Kerkorian
, a Vegas casino mogul who also controlled Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
, acquired a 5.5% stake in Columbia Pictures.
He then announced on November 20, to launch a tender offer to acquire another 20% for the studio.
On December 14, a standstill agreement was reached with Columbia by promising not to go beyond 25% or seeking control for at least three years.
On January 15, 1979, the Justice Department filed an antitrust suit against Kerkorian, to block him from holding stake in Columbia, while controlling MGM.
On February 19, 1979, Columbia Pictures Television acquired TOY Productions; the production company founded by Bud Yorkin
and writers Saul Turteltaub and Bernie Orenstein in 1976.
In May, Kerkorian acquired an additional 214,000 shares in Columbia, raising his stake to 25%.
On August 2, the suit trial opened at the Justice Department, however, on August 14, the court ruled in favor for Kerkorian.
1980s: Coca-Cola, Tri-Star, and other acquisitions and ventures
On September 30, 1980, Kerkorian sued Columbia for ignoring shareholders' interest and violating an agreement with him.
Columbia later accused him on October 2, for scheming with Nelson Bunker Hunt
to gain control of Columbia.
In 1981, Kerkorian sold his 25% stake in Columbia back to CPI.
Columbia Pictures later acquired 81% of The Walter Reade Organization
, which owned 11 theaters; it purchased the remaining 19% in 1985.
On May 17, 1982, Columbia Pictures acquired Spelling-Goldberg Productions
for over $40 million.
With a healthier balance-sheet (due in large part to box office hits like Stir Crazy
, The Blue Lagoon
, and Stripes
) Columbia was bought by Coca-Cola
on June 22, 1982 for $750 million,
Studio head Frank Price mixed big hits like Tootsie
, The Karate Kid
, The Big Chill
, and Ghostbusters
with many costly flops. To share the increasing cost of film production, Coke brought in two outside investors whose earlier efforts in Hollywood had come to nothing. In 1982, Columbia, Time Inc.
announced, as a joint venture, "Nova Pictures"; this enterprise was to be renamed Tri-Star Pictures
In 1983, Price left Columbia Pictures after a dispute with Coca-Cola and went back to Universal.
He was replaced by Guy McElwaine
Many changes occurred in 1986. Expanding its television franchise, on May 5, Columbia also bought Merv Griffin Enterprises
, notable for: Wheel of Fortune
, Dance Fever
, and The Merv Griffin Show
for $250 million.
Months later on August 28, the Columbia Pictures Television Group acquired Danny Arnold
's Danny Arnold Productions, Inc. including the rights to the sitcom Barney Miller
(Four D Productions) among other produced series such as Fish
(The Mimus Corporation), A.E.S. Hudson Street
(Triseme Corporation), and Joe Bash
(Tetagram Ltd.), after Arnold dropped the federal and state lawsuits against the television studio accusing them for antitrust
violations, fraud, and breach of fiduciary duty
Coca-Cola sold the Embassy Pictures division to Dino de Laurentiis
, who later folded Embassy Pictures into Dino de Laurentiis Productions, Inc. and became De Laurentiis Entertainment Group. Coca-Cola also sold Embassy Home Entertainment to Nelson Entertainment
. Coca-Cola however, retained the Embassy Pictures name, logo, and trademark. HBO was the last partner drop out of the Tri-Star venture and sold its shares to Columbia 
Tri-Star later expanded into the television business with its new Tri-Star Television division. The same year, Columbia recruited British producer David Puttnam
to head the studio. Puttnam attempted to defy Hollywood filmmaking by making smaller films instead of big tentpole pictures. His criticism of American film production, in addition to the fact that the films he greenlit were mostly flops, left Coke and Hollywood discerned[clarification needed]
that Puttnam was ousted from the position after only one year.
On June 26, 1987, Coca-Cola sold The Walter Reade Organization to Cineplex Odeon Corporation
On October 14, 1987, Coca-Cola's entertainment division invested in $30 million in Castle Rock Entertainment
with five Hollywood executives. Coke's entertainment business division owned 40% in Castle Rock, while the execs owned 60%.
Columbia Pictures Entertainment era (1987–1989)
The volatile film business made Coke shareholders nervous, and following the critical and box-office failure of Ishtar
, Coke spun off its entertainment holdings on December 21, 1987 and sold it to Tri-Star Pictures for $3.1 billion and Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. and Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. were renamed as Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. (CPE)
, with Coke owning 80% of the company.
Both studios continued to produce and distribute films under their separate names.
Puttnam was succeeded by Dawn Steel
. Other small-scale, "boutique" entities were created: Nelson Entertainment
, a joint venture with British and Canadian partners, Triumph Films
, jointly owned with French studio Gaumont
, and which is now a low-budget label, and Castle Rock Entertainment
. On January 2, 1988, Columbia/Embassy Television and Tri-Star Television were formed into the new Columbia Pictures Television and Embassy Communications was renamed as ELP Communications
. On January 16, 1988, CPE's stock fell slightly in the market on its first day trading in the New York Stock Exchange
. Coke spun off 34.1 million of its Columbia shares to its shareholders by reducing its stake in CPE from 80% to 49%.
On April 13, 1988, CPE spun off Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. as a reformed company of the Tri-Star studio.
In April 1988, CPE sold its music publishing operations to the British company Filmtrax.
(Filmtrax was acquired by Thorn EMI
) In June 1988, CPE announced the sale of Columbia Pictures Publications (consisting of the print music operations) to the investment firm Boston Ventures and was renamed CPP/Belwin.
(CPP/Belwin was acquired by Warner Bros.
On February 2, 1989, Columbia Pictures Television formed a joint-venture with Norman Lear's Act III Communications called Act III Television
to produce television series instead of managing.
The Columbia Pictures empire was sold on September 28, 1989, to the electronics giant Sony
for the amount of $3.4 billion, one of several Japanese firms then buying American properties
. The sale netted Coca-Cola a profit from its investment in the studio.
Sony then hired two producers, Peter Guber
and Jon Peters
, to serve as co-heads of production when Sony also acquired the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company (the former game show production company, Barris Industries
, Inc.) for $200 million on September 29, 1989.
Guber and Peters had just signed a long-term contract with Warner Bros. in 1989, having been with the company since 1983. To extricate them from this contract, Steve Ross
, who at the time the CEO of Warner Bros.'s then-corporate parent Warner Communications
, sued Sony for $1 billion.
Sony completed CPE's acquisition on November 8 and the Guber-Peters acquisition was completed on the following day.
On December 1, 1989, Guber and Peters hired a longtime lawyer of GPEC, Alan J. Levine, to the post of president and COO of Columbia's newly formed company Filmed Entertainment Group
FEG consisted of Columbia Pictures, Tri-Star Pictures, Triumph Releasing, Columbia Pictures Television, Columbia Pictures Television Distribution, Merv Griffin Enterprises, RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video (internationally known as RCA/Columbia Pictures International Video), Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, and ancillary and distribution companies.
Columbia Pictures painting on the outer wall of Sony Pictures Studios after the 1993 change.
In 1990, Sony ended up paying hundreds of millions of dollars, gave up a half-interest in its Columbia House Records Club
mail-order business, and bought from Time Warner
the former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
studio lot in Culver City, which Warner Communications had acquired in its takeover of Lorimar-Telepictures
in 1989, thus ending the Burbank Studios partnership. Initially renamed Columbia Studios
, Sony spent $100 million to refurbish the rechristened Sony Pictures Studios
lot. Guber and Peters set out to prove they were worth this fortune, but though there were to be some successes, there were also many costly flops. The same year, Frank Price
was made as the chairman of Columbia Pictures. His company Price Entertainment, Inc. that he founded in 1987, was merged with Columbia in March 1991. Price left Columbia on October 4, 1991 and was replaced by Warner Bros. executive Mark Canton
and reactivated Price Entertainment as Price Entertainment Company
with a non-exclusive deal with SPE.
Peters was fired by his partner Guber in 1991, but Guber later resigned in 1994 to form Mandalay Entertainment
the following year.
The entire operation was reorganized and renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE) on August 7, 1991,
and at the same time, TriStar (which had officially lost its hyphen) relaunched its television division in October. In December 1991, SPE created Sony Pictures Classics
for arthouse fare and was headed by Michael Barker, Tom Bernard, and Marcie Bloom,
whom previously operated United Artists Classics
and Orion Classics
. Publicly humiliated, Sony suffered an enormous loss on its investment in Columbia, taking a $2.7-billion write-off in 1994. John Calley
took over as SPE president in November 1996, installing Amy Pascal
as Columbia Pictures president and Chris Lee
as president of the production at TriStar. By the next spring, the studios were clearly rebounding, setting a record pace at the box office.
On December 7, 1992, Sony Pictures acquired the Barry & Enright game show library.
In the 1990s, Columbia announced plans of a rival James Bond franchise, since they owned the rights of Casino Royale
and were planning to make a third version of Thunderball
with Kevin McClory
. MGM and Danjaq, LLC
, owners of the franchise, sued Sony Pictures in 1997
, with the legal dispute ending two years later in an out-of-court settlement. Sony traded the Casino Royale
rights for $10 million, and the Spider-Man
The superhero has since become Columbia's most successful franchise
with the first movie
coming out in 2002 and having since gained two sequels, with plans for three more. Between the releases of the first and second sequels in 2004 and 2007, Sony led a consortium that purchased MGM – giving it distribution rights to the James Bond franchise.
In 1997, Columbia Pictures ranked as the highest-grossing movie studio in the United States with a gross of $1.256 billion. In 1998, Columbia and TriStar merged to form the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group (a.k.a. Columbia TriStar Pictures), though both studios still produce and distribute under their own names. Pascal retained her position as president of the newly united Columbia Pictures, while Lee became the combined studio's head of production.
On December 8, 1998, Sony Pictures Entertainment relaunched the Screen Gems brand as a horror and independent film distribution company after shutting down Triumph Films.
In 1999, TriStar Television was folded into CTT. Two years later, CPT was folded into CTT as well.
In the 2000s, Sony broadened its release schedule by backing Revolution Studios, the production/distribution company headed by Joe Roth
. On October 25, 2001, CTT and CTTD merged to form Columbia TriStar Domestic Television.
On September 16, 2002, Columbia TriStar Domestic Television was renamed Sony Pictures Television
Also in 2002, Columbia broke the record for biggest domestic theatrical gross, with a tally of $1.575 billion, coincidentally breaking its own record of $1.256 billion set in 1997, which was raised by such blockbusters as Spider-Man
, Men in Black II
The studio was also the most lucrative of 2004,
with over $1.338 billion in the domestic box office with movies such as Spider-Man 2
, 50 First Dates
, and The Grudge
and in 2006, Columbia, helped with such blockbusters as: The Da Vinci Code
, The Pursuit of Happyness
, Casino Royale
, and Open Season
, not only finished the year in first place, but it reached an all-time record high sum of $1.711 billion, which was an all-time yearly record for any studio until Warner Bros. surpassed it in 2009.
On October 29, 2010, Matt Tolmach
, the co-president of Columbia Pictures, stepped down in order to produce The Amazing Spider-Man
and its sequel
. Doug Belgrad, the other co-president of Columbia was promoted as sole president of the studio. Belgrad and Tolmach had been co-presidents of the studio since 2008 and had been working together as a team in 2003.
The same day, Hanna Minghella was named president of production of Columbia.
On July 16, 2014, Doug Belgrad was named a president of the Sony Pictures Entertainment Motion Picture Group. He exited the post in June 2016. On June 2, Sanford Panitch
, who had been the head of international local language production at the studio, was named president of Columbia Pictures.
The Columbia Pictures logo, featuring a woman carrying a torch and wearing a drape (representing Columbia
, a personification of the United States), has gone through five major changes.
It has often been compared to the Statue of Liberty
, which was an inspiration to the Columbia Pictures logo.
Originally in 1924, Columbia Pictures used a logo featuring a female Roman soldier holding a shield in her left hand and a stick of wheat in her right hand. The logo changed in 1928 with a new woman (Columbia
, the female representative of America) wearing a draped flag
and torch. The woman wore the stola
and carried the palla
of ancient Rome
, and above her were the words "A Columbia Production" ("A Columbia Picture" or "Columbia Pictures Corporation") written in an arch. The illustration was based upon the actress Evelyn Venable
, known for providing the voice of The Blue Fairy in Walt Disney
In 1936, the logo was changed: the Torch Lady now stood on a pedestal, wore no headdress, and the text "Columbia" appeared in chiseled letters behind her (Pittsburgh
native Jane Chester Bartholomew, whom Harry Cohn
discovered, portrayed the Torch Lady in the logo). There were several variations to the logo over the years—significantly, a color version was done in 1943 for The Desperadoes
Two years earlier, the flag became just a drape with no markings.
The latter change came after a federal law was passed making it illegal to wear an American flag as clothing. 1976's Taxi Driver
was one of the last films to use the "Torch Lady" in her classic appearance until 2019's Once Upon a Time in Hollywood
, which used the classic appearance of the "Torch Lady" (with a minor alteration to add a Sony byline to the logo) to match the year (1969) the film takes place in.
From 1976 to 1993,
Columbia Pictures used two logos. The first, from 1976 to 1981 (1976 to 1982 for international territories) used just a sunburst representing the beams from the torch. The score accompanying the first logo was composed by Suzanne Ciani
. The studio hired visual effects pioneer Robert Abel
to animate the first logo.
The woman returned in 1981, but in a much smoother form described as resembling a Coke bottle
The current logo was created in 1992 (same time as the television version’s debut), and started its use in films the year after, when Scott Mednick and The Mednick Group was hired by Peter Guber to create logos for all the entertainment properties then owned by Sony Pictures.
Mednick hired New Orleans artist Michael Deas
to digitally repaint the logo and return the woman to her "classic" look.
Michael Deas hired Jennifer Joseph, a graphics artist for The Times-Picayune
, as a model for the logo.
Due to time constraints, she agreed to help out on her lunch break. The animation was created by Synthespian Studios in 1993 by Jeff Kleiser and Diana Walczak
, who used 2D elements from the painting and converted it to 3D.
In 2012, Jennifer Joseph gave an interview to WWL-TV
: “So we just scooted over there come lunchtime and they wrapped a sheet around me and I held a regular little desk lamp, a side lamp,” she said, “and I just held that up and we did that with a light bulb." Deas went on to say, "I never thought it would make it to the silver screen and I never thought it would still be up 20 years later, and I certainly never thought it would be in a museum, so it’s kind of gratifying.”
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- ^ "Sony, Form 20-F, Filing Date Jun 28, 2011"(PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- ^ a b Rozen, Leah (November 14, 1999). "HOLIDAY FILMS: SCREEN GEMS; It Happened With One Movie: A Studio Transformed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
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