A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander
, which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of state (see Generalissimo
). The term is also used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch
, special branch
or within a theatre of operations
Heads of state as commanders-in-chief
This includes heads of states who:
- Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces.
- Mostly ceremonial heads of state (constitutional monarchs, viceroys and presidents in parliamentary republics) with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making.
The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's
The commander-in-chief is the president
, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister
. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani
, during Bangladesh Liberation War
in 1971, who was commander of all Bangladesh Forces
, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972. He retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the president of Bangladesh.
President Alexander Lukashenko
wearing the official uniform of the commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Belarus.
The president of Belarus
is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces
: Галоўнакамандуючы Узброенымі Сіламі Рэспублікі Беларусь).
The Belarusian commander in chief has an official uniform befitting of the rank, which the president wears on official occasion and ceremonies in relation to the military. The role of commander in chief is laid out in Article 28 of the Constitution of Belarus
, which states that he/she has the authority to "appoint and dismiss the high command of the Armed Forces".
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces
are vested in the Canadian monarch
and are delegated to the Governor General of Canada
, who also uses the title Commander-in-Chief
In this capacity, the Governor General is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia.
By constitutional convention, the Crown’s prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as Commander-in-Chief are exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister
and the rest of Cabinet
, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons
. According to the National Defence Act
, the Minister of National Defence
is responsible and accountable to the Parliament of Canada
for all matters related to national defence and the Canadian Armed Forces.
In theory, the Governor General could use his or her powers as Commander-in-Chief to stop any attempts to use the Canadian Forces unconstitutionally, though this has never occurred and would likely be highly controversial.
The CMC Chairman and the president are distinctly separate state offices and they have not always been held by the same persons. However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of Jiang Zemin
as CMC Chairman and General Secretary of the Communist Party
, it has been standard practice to have the president, the CMC chairman, and the CCP general secretary to be normally held by the same person
; although the slight differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.
According to the 1992 constitution
, the president of the Czech Republic
is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
according to Article 63(1)(c), and appoints and promotes generals under Article 63(1)(f). The president needs the countersignature
of the prime minister
for decisions concerning the above-mentioned provisions as per Articles 63(3-4), or otherwise, they are not valid. The prime minister may delegate to other ministers the right to countersign these decisions of the president. The political responsibility for the Armed Forces is borne by the Government
, which in Article 67 is defined as the "supreme body of executive power". According to Articles 39 & 43, the Parliament
must give consent to the dispatch of Czech military forces outside the territory of the Czech Republic.
The Ministry of Defence
is the central authority of the state administration for the control of the Armed Forces.
The actual day-to-day management is vested in the chief of the general staff, the Czech chief of defence
The position of the Danish monarch
as the head of the military is deeply rooted in tradition. While the 1953 constitution
does not explicitly designate the monarch as commander-in-chief; it is implicit, given the general provision in article 12 and the more specific wording of article 19 (2): "Except for purposes of defence against an armed attack upon the Realm or Danish forces, the King shall not use military force against any foreign state without the consent of the Folketing
. Any measure which the King may take in pursuance of this provision shall forthwith be submitted to the Folketing".
However, when reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the king
in this context is understood by Danish jurists to be read as the government
(consisting of the prime minister
and other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and 14, all of which in essence stipulates that the powers vested in the monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible for all acts. Thus, the Government, in effect, holds the supreme command authority implied in articles 12 and 19(2).
, the president of the Republic
holds the ceremonial title of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. A member of the government, usually defence minister, is commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces
, the incumbent being Mohamed Ahmed Zaki
. The president is the only individual capable of declaring war. With the exception of Mohamed Morsi
, who briefly served as president from 2012 to 2013, all Egyptian presidents have been former military officers, including the incumbent Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
. During the Yom Kippur War
, the president played a major role at all levels of the planning of the war, and was, in a literal sense, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, giving direct orders to the commanders from the headquarters during the war as field marshal
of the army
, marshal of the air force
and air defence forces and admiral of the navy
. Anwar Sadat
often wore his military uniform, while president Hosni Mubarak
had abandoned this tradition.
- main principles of the military defence of the realm
- principles of the execution of the military defence
- other military command matters with wide-ranging importance to the military activity or the military establishment
- any other military command issue that he wishes to decide upon
Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the minister of defence
has the right to be present when the president uses his command powers, unless the matter is of immediate concern. In questions of strategic importance, the prime minister
has the same right.:§32
The president commissions and promotes officers and decides on activating reservists for extraordinary service and on the mobilisation of the Defence Forces.:§40:§ 128.2
is not in session when a decision to mobilise is taken, it must be immediately convened.:§ 129
Declarations of a state of emergency (Finnish
, literally, "state of preparedness") and state of war (Finnish
, lit. "state of defence") are declared by a presidential decree, given after a motion by the government, which is then submitted to the Parliament for ratification.
The president has, in a state of emergency, the right to transfer the position of the commander-in-chief to another Finnish citizen.:§ 129
, the president of the Republic
is designated as "Chef des Armées
" (literally "Chief of the Armies") under article 15 of the constitution, and is as such the supreme executive authority in military affairs. Article 16 provides the president with extensive emergency powers
However, owing to the nature of the semi-presidential system
, the prime minister
also has key constitutional powers under article 21: "He shall be responsible for national defence" and has "power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts".
Since the reign of Louis XIV
, France has been strongly centralized. After crushing local nobles engaged in warlord-ism, the kings of France retained all authority with the help of able yet discreet Prime ministers (Mazarin
According to the Guyanese constitution, the president is commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. There is a rank insignia for the position.
Indonesian Armed Forces has three service branches: Indonesian Army
, Indonesian Navy
(including Indonesian Marine Corps
), and Indonesian Air Forces
. Each service branch is headed by a chief of staff (also a 4-star officer) who has the task of developing soldier professionalism in each branch. However, the commanding authority is held by the commander of Indonesian National Armed Forces. Commanders have direct commanding authority to Main Combatants Command (Indonesian
: Komando Utama Tempur
) from all service branches such as Army Special Forces Command, Army Strategic Reserve Command, Military Area Command, Fleet Command, Military Sea Traffic Command, National Air Defense Command and Air-Force Operational Command. The commander of the Armed Forces is appointed by the president from active chiefs of staff (Army
, or Air Force
) and must get approval from the House of Representatives
. The chief of staff is also appointed by the president from senior military officers. The president as commander-in-chief also has authority in senior military officer mutation and promotion in tour of duty. The minister of defense
has responsibility to assist the president in defense issues and create policies about authorization use of military force, manage defense budget, etc. For authorization use of military forces or declaration of war, the president must get approval from House of Representatives. The commander of Armed Forces gives recommendations to the minister of defense in creating national defense policies.
The Federal Constitution establishes that the office of Supreme Commander is attached to the person of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Federation's head of state:
Federal Constitution, Article 41 - The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Federation.
The Federal Parliament passed the Federal Armed Forces Act to consolidate in one law all regulations that govern the three services ( Army, Navy, and Air Force ). It establishes the function and duties of the Federal Head of State in the capacity as Supreme Commander.
Both the Organic Law of the Mexican Army and Air Force and the Organic Law of the Mexican Navy clearly state the President of the Republic is "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces". The President is ex officio
the only five-star general of Mexico.  
, King of Norway
, officially retains executive power. Article 25 of the constitution states: "The King is commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the realm"
However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Monarch
have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and other ministers in the executive government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forces
, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity.
The President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime Minister. He may dismiss the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, as well as the principle of his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of Poland, shall be specified by statute.
During the interbellum period
, the General Inspector of the Armed Forces was appointed the commander-in-chief for the time of war (Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces). However, after the war this function ceased to exist—thus it is likely that if Poland formally participates in a war, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces
will be appointed Supreme Commander.
In the Portuguese military parlance, the term "Commander-in-Chief" (in Portuguese: comandante-em-chefe or simply comandante-chefe) refers to the unified military commander of all the land, naval and air forces in a theater of operations.
Article 60 of the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia
states: "The King is the commander-in-chief of all the Military Forces. He appoints officers and puts an end to their duties in accordance with the law."
Article 61 further states: "The King declares a state of emergency, general mobilization and war, and the law defines the rules for this."
Lastly, Article 62 states: "If there is a danger threatening the safety of the Kingdom or its territorial integrity, or the security of its people and its interests, or which impedes the functioning of the state institutions, the King may take urgent measures in order to deal with this danger And if the King considers that these measures should continue, he may then implement the necessary regulations to this end."
In accordance with the law, the president of Serbia
is the commander-in-chief of Armed Forces and in command of the military. He appoints, promotes and recalls officers of the Army of Serbia
In Slovenia, the commander-in-chief is formally the president of Slovenia
, although he or she does not exercise this position in peacetime. Instead, this role is usually assumed by the minister of defence.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the Commander-in-Chief and the Supreme Authority on all military matters is the President of South Korea
As with most remaining European monarchies, the position of the Spanish monarch as the nominal head of the armed forces is deeply rooted in traditions going centuries back.
The king regularly chairs sessions of the National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of staff and the individual general staffs of each branch of the Armed Forces in his capacity as supreme commander.
All promotions to military rank and positions in the high command of the armed forces are made by Royal decree signed by the king and the minister of defense
This constitutional provision can and has been made the subject of an exception in crisis situations.
In 1981 the king as supreme commander of the armed forces assumed direct command in order to put down a military coup attempt. All members of the government were at that time trapped/held hostage in Parliament and were unable to counter sign the kings orders. This did not however result in those orders being ruled unenforceable or unconstitutional. The coup collapsed after the king ordered all army units to leave the streets and return to their barracks. Furthermore, article 97 stipulates that;
shall conduct domestic and foreign policy, civil and military administration and the defence of the State
No provision in the constitution requires the king/government to seek approval from the Cortes Generales
before sending the armed forces abroad.
As head of state, the president of Sri Lanka
, is nominally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The National Security Council
, chaired by the president is the authority charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the nation. The highest level of military headquarters is the Ministry of Defence
, since 1978 except for a few rare occasions the president retained the portfolio defence, thus being the minister of defence. The ministry and the armed forces have been controlled by the during these periods by either a minister of state
, deputy minister
for defence, and of recently the permanent secretary
to the Ministry of Defence. Prior to 1978 the prime minister
held the portfolio of minister of defence and external affairs, and was supported by a parliamentary secretary
for defence and external affairs.
, the constitution gives the president
"supreme authority over the armed forces and all of its members".
President of the Republic of Turkey
has the constitutional right to represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces
, on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
, and to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the chief of the general staff, to call the National Security Council
to meet, to preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim martial law or state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon a decision of the Council of Ministers meeting under his/her chairmanship. With all these issues above written in the Constitution of Turkey
, the executive rights are given to the president of the Republic of Turkey to be represented as the commander-in-chief of the nation.
According to Article II, Section 2, Clause I of the Constitution
, the president of the United States
is “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia
of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States.”
Since the National Security Act of 1947, this has been understood to mean all United States Armed Forces
. U.S. ranks have their roots in British military traditions, with the president possessing ultimate authority, but no rank, maintaining a civilian status.
The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the president wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.
The Governor shall be commander in chief of the Kentucky active militia, and the adjutant general shall be the executive officer and shall be responsible to the Governor for the proper functioning of the Kentucky active militia, and he is hereby authorized and empowered to take necessary action to perfect and maintain an efficient organization for the purposes herein set out. He shall have charge of all matters of administration and organization, which shall be in all respects, insofar as necessary and applicable, the same as that of the National Guard.
Similarly, Section 140 of Article 2 of the California Military and Veterans Code states:
The Governor is commander in chief of a militia that shall be provided by statute. The Governor may call it forth to execute the law.
The Uzbek president
holds the constitutional position of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan
, according to the Constitution of Uzbekistan
. In this capacity, the president give decisions on declaring war or martial law, the appointment of senior officials, and the development of the armed forces. In the event of an attack on the republic, the president announce a state of war and will submit within 72 hours a resolution for a plan of action to the Oliy Majlis
. When the country is in a wartime situation, the minister of defense
will serve in an official capacity as the deputy supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, essentially assisting the president in his day-to-day activities and decisions regarding national security.
According to the Venezuelan constitution, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The office of the Venezuelan military supreme commander in chief has always been held by the president of Venezuela as per constitutional requirements. However, with a new law sanctioned in 2008, the "comandante en jefe" rank is not only a function attributed to the executive branch but a full military rank given to the president upon taking office. Upon assumption he receives a saber, epaulette, shoulder knot, shoulder board and sleeve insignia and full military uniform to be used in military events while performing the duties as president. The shoulder insignia mirrors Cuban practice but is derived from the German-styled officer rank insignia.
The minister of Defence
oversees operations of the Ministry of Defence, and the Vietnam People's Army
. He also oversees such agencies as the General Staff
and the General Logistics Department. However, military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.
Other officeholders as commanders-in-chief or other situations
Present, Federal Republic (1956-)
The rationale for placing the command authority over the armed forces directly with the responsible minister in charge of the military establishment, and thus breaking with the longstanding German constitutional tradition in both earlier monarchical and republican systems of placing it with the head of state
, was that in a democratic parliamentary system
the command authority should directly reside where it would be exercised and where it is subject to the parliamentary control of the Bundestag
at all times. By assigning it directly to the responsible minister, instead of with the Federal Chancellor, this also meant that military affairs is but one of the many integrated responsibilities of the government
; in stark contrast of earlier times when the separate division of the military establishment from the civil administration allowed the former to act as a state within a state
(in contrast to the Federal Republic, the Weimar Republic
began with the Ebert–Groener pact
, which kept the military establishment as an autonomous force outside the control of politics; the 1925 election
of Paul von Hindenburg
, surrounded by his camarilla
and the machinations of Kurt von Schleicher
, did little to reverse the trend).
The Malta Armed Forces Act does not directly establish the president of Malta
as the supreme commander of the Armed Forces. However, Maltese law allows the president to raise by voluntary enlistment and maintain an armed force. Likewise, the law allows the president to issue orders in order to the administrate the armed forces.
It is important to note that the Armed Forces do not swear allegiance to the president of Malta but rather to the Republic of Malta
. On this basis, there is no direct link between the head of state and the armed forces. For this reason, this link is mediated by the minister responsible for defence.
Nonetheless, the Presidential Palaces are guarded by the Armed Forces as a symbolic gesture of social cohesion.
Before a constitution change took place in 1983, even though the equivalent section stated that: "The King shall have supreme authority over the armed forces
"; that did not give the monarch any autonomous command authority.
The minister of defence
has the primary ministerial responsibility for the armed forces, which are formally a part of the Ministry of Defence
The chief of defence
is the highest ranked professional military officer, and serves as an intermediary between the minister of defence and the Armed Forces, and is responsible to the minister for military-strategic planning, operations and deployment of the Armed Forces.
Flag of the supreme commander
In any case, the North Korean constitution, in article 102, is quite explicit regarding which official commands the armed forces:
The chairman is formally elected by the Supreme People's Assembly
) and serves for terms of office of five years (articles 101
); but in practice, the office is hereditary within the Kim Dynasty
, as the late Kim Jong-il
was posthumously designated as the "eternal chairman of the National Defence Commission", while his son, Kim Jong-un
, was appointed as the "first chairman of the National Defence Commission".
At present, the Government
) as a collective body, chaired and formed by the prime minister of Sweden
, holds the highest Executive Authority
, subject to the will of the Riksdag
; and is thus the present day closest equivalent of a command-in-chief, although not explicitly designated as such.
The reason for this change was, apart from the fact that the king was since 1917 no longer expected to make political decisions without ministerial advice, that the new Instrument of Government was intended to be made as descriptive on the workings of the State as possible, and reflective on how decisions are actually made. Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer
further remarked in the government bill that any continued pretensions of royal involvement in government decisions would be of a "fictitious nature" and "highly unsatisfactory".
Certain government decisions regarding the Armed Forces (Swedish
: Särskilda regeringsbeslut
) may be delegated to the minister for defence
, under the supervision of the prime minister and to the extent laid down in ordinances.
However, the Monarch (as of present King Carl XVI Gustaf
), is still a four-star general and admiral à la suite
in the Swedish Army
and Air Force
and is by unwritten convention regarded as the foremost representative of the Swedish Armed Forces.
The king has, as part of his court
, a military staff
. The military staff is headed by a senior officer (usually a general or admiral, retired from active service) and is composed of active duty military officers serving as aides
to the king and his family.
Supreme authority over the military belongs to the Federal Council
, which is the Swiss collegial head of state
. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, under the Constitution
, the Federal Council can only, in the operational sense, command a maximum of 4,000 soldiers, with a time limit of three weeks of mobilisation.
For it to field more service personnel, the Federal Assembly
must elect a General
who is given four stars.
Thus, the General is elected by the Federal Assembly to give him the same democratic legitimacy as the Federal Council.
In a time of declared war or national emergency, however, the Federal Assembly
, assembled as the United Federal Assembly
, specifically for the purpose of taking on the war-time responsibilities
elect a General
as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces under Article 168 of the Constitution. Whilst the General acts as the highest military authority with a high degree of autonomy, he is still subordinate to the Federal Council (See Articles 58, 60, 174, 177, 180 & 185).
The Federal Assembly retains the sole power to dismiss the General, but the General remains subordinate to the Federal Council by the council's ability to demobilise, thereby making the position of General redundant.
and the European Union
, the term Chief of Defence
(CHOD) is usually used as a generic term for the highest-ranked office held by a professional military officer on active duty, irrespective of their actual title or powers.
Other Articles of Interest
- ^ LacusCurtius • Roman Law — Auctor (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)
- ^ For example: "Ordered, That this House joins and agrees with the House of Commons in this Vote; and that the Lord Admiral is hereby desired, from both Houses of Parliament, that the Commander in Chief of this Summer's Fleet under his Lordship, may be the Earl of Warwicke.", House of Lords Journal 15 March 1642
- ^ Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson, and Grace P. Hayes. "Supreme Commander." Dictionary of Military Terms. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1986.
- ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE ARGENTINE NATION". Argentine Senate. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Ministerio de Defensa" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Archived copy" Նժդեհ Գարեգին. encyclopedia.am (in Armenian). Armenian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- ^ "Vazgen Sargsyan". Government of Armenia. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- ^ "The Constitution as in force on 1 June 2003 together with proclamation declaring the establishment of the Commonwealth, letters patent relating to the Office of Governor-General, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, Australia Act 1986". ComLaw. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Defence Act 1903". ComLaw. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ Bangladesh : General M.A.G. Osmani (1918-1984) - C-IN-C Liberation Forces 1v MNH 1986
- ^ Канстытуцыя Рэспублікі Беларусь
- ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil: 3rd Edition Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Chamber of Deputies (2010) ISBN 978-85-736-5737-1. Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
- ^ Constitution Act, 1867, III.15, Westminster: Queen's Printer, archived from the original on 28 May 2013, retrieved 10 January 2014
- ^ Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General of Canada, X., Ottawa: King's Printer for Canada, 1 October 1947, retrieved 10 January 2014
- ^ National Defence Act, retrieved 10 January 2014
- ^ a b "Constitution". Government of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Constitution of the CR of December 16, 1992". President of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Professional Army". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ "Constitution Act". Folketing. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "My Constitution Act with Explanations 2013". Folketing. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "LOV nr 122 af 27/02/2001 om forsvarets formål, opgaver og organisation m.v." (in Danish). Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "Facts and Figures" (PDF). Danish Defence. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "Constitucion de la República Dominicana" (in Spanish). World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ a b c Laki puolustusvoimista (551/2007). (Act on the Defence Forces) Retrieved on 30 August 2015. (in Finnish)
- ^ Asevelvollisuuslaki (1438/2007). (Conscription Act) §§82–83. Retrieved on 30 August 2015. (in Finnish)
- ^ a b c Suomen perustuslaki. (731/1999, as amended by later amendments). (Finnish Constitution). Retrieved 30 August 2015. (in Finnish)
- ^ Valmiuslaki (552/2011). (Preparedness Act) §§6–9. Retrieved on 30 August 2015. (in Finnish)
- ^ Puolustustilalaki (1083/1991) (State of Defence Act) §§3–4. Retrieved on 30 August 2015. (in Finnish)
- ^ a b Constitution of 4 October 1958, National Assembly of France. Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
- ^ "GAF and Police pledge full commitment to their new C-in-C". Gaf.mil.gh. Ghana Armed Forces. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- ^ "Continue to position Ghana and GAF high globally, -C-in-C". Gaf.mil.gh. Ghana Armed Forces. 15 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- ^ "Official President.ie site - Roles of the President". Áras an Uachtaráin. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- ^ "Statute Book - Defence Act, 1954". Retrieved 1 May 2015. Under the direction of the President, and subject to the provisions of this Act, the military command of, and all executive and administrative powers in relation to, the Defence Forces, including the power to delegate command and authority, shall be exercisable by the Government and, subject to such exceptions and limitations as the Government may from time to time determine, through and by the Minister.
- ^ "Statute Book - Ministers And Secretaries Act, 1924". Retrieved 23 December 2014. the Minister for Defence [...] shall be assisted by a Council of Defence
- ^ "Constitution of Italy" (PDF).
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- ^ "The Constitution". National Assembly of Mauritius. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- ^ "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF).
- ^ "Ley Orgánica del Ejército y Fuerza Aérea Mexicanos".
- ^ "Ley Orgánica de la Armada de México"(PDF).
- ^ Bajwa, Kuldip Singh (2003). "Kashmir Valley Saved" (google books). Jammu and Kashmir war, 1947-1948 : political and military perspective (1st ed.). New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 350. ISBN 9788124109236. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ Singh, Ravi Shekhar Narain Singh (2008). "Military and Politics" (googlebooks). The Military Factor in Pakistan (1st ed.). London, UK: Lancer Publishers. p. 550. ISBN 9780981537894. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ "THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – ARTICLE VII". Official Gazette. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ Mikhail Tsypkin (September 2004). "Adventures of the "Nuclear Briefcase"". Strategic Insights. 3 (9). Archived from the original on 23 September 2004.
- ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Presidential Administration of Russia. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces". Presidential Administration of Russia. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- ^ "President of Serbia". Presidential Administration of Serbia. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- ^ The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (PDF). 1996.
- ^ a b c Constitution of Spain 1978, Government of Spain. Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
- ^ Suriname Constitution See Article 100
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
- ^ Queen and Armed Forces, royal.gov.uk. Archived 13 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ The Royal Prerogative SN/PC/03861, House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ Governance of Britain, July 2007. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ Review of the Royal Prerogative Powers: Final Report, Ministry of Justice, October 2009. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ "Whose hand is on the button?". BBC. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- ^ Joseph G. Dawson, ed. Commanders in Chief: Presidential Leadership in Modern Wars (1993)
- ^ Matthew Moten, Presidents and Their Generals: An American History of Command in War (2014)
- ^ Ramsey, Michael; Vladeck, Stephen. "Common Interpretation: Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources (some internal navigation required). National Constitution Center. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- ^ Governor is commander in chief -- Adjutant general is executive officer., Constitution of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
- ^ "Law section". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- ^ http://lex.uz/acts/107702
- ^ "Constitution of Ethiopia" (PDF). House of Federation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ^ a b Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bundestag (Print version. As at: October 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
- ^ (in German) Die Befehls- und Kommandogewalt des Art. 65a GG im Lichte ... Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
- ^ (in German) Politik und Militär in Deutschland: die Bundespräsidenten und Bundeskanzler und ihre Beziehung zu Soldatentum und Bundeswehr, 2011. Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
- ^ Gesetz über das Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs, 1 August 1934:
"§ 1 The office of the Reichspräsident is merged with that of the Reichskanzler. Therefore, the previous rights of the Reichspräsident pass over to the Führer and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler. He names his deputy."
- ^  Archived 27 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Basic Law of Israel: The Military, Knesset. Retrieved on 11 November 2011.
- ^ "Self Defense Forces". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- ^ The Ministry of Defense Reorganized: For the Support of Peace and Security (PDF). Tokyo: Japan Ministry of Defense. 2007. pp. 4–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- ^ "職種 Branches of Service" (in Japanese). Tokyo: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- ^ 自衛隊: 組織 [JSDF: Organization]. Nihon Daihyakka Zensho (Nipponika) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 153301537. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- ^ "The Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2008" (PDF). Government of the Netherlands. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- ^ a b c Besselink, Leonard F.M. (2011). The Legal And Constitutional Position of the Netherlands Armed Forces and International Military Cooperation (PDF) (Technical report). Universiteit Utrecht.
- ^ "Organisation chart". Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- ^ "DPRK Constitution (Preamble)". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- ^ "DPRK Constitution (Chapter VI State Organs, Section 4. The Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly)". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- ^ a b c "DPRK Constitution (Chapter VI State Organs, Section 2. The Chairman of the DPRK National Defence Commission)". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- ^ a b "DPRK Constitution (Chapter VI State Organs, Section 1. The Supreme People's Assembly )". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- ^ "DPRK's Kim Jong Un elected first chairman of National Defense Commission". People's Daily Online. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- ^ "Regeringsformen 1809 med ändringar 1809-1974" (in Swedish). Studieförbundet Näringsliv och Samhälle. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- ^ "The Instrument of Government" (PDF). The Riksdag. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- ^ (in Swedish) Prop. 1973:90. Kungl. Maj:ts proposition med förslag till ny regeringsform och ny riksdagsordning m. m.; given Stockholms slott den 16 mars 1973. p. 172-175.
- ^ SOU 2013:18 Regeringsbeslut av ett statsråd - SRÄ[permanent dead link] (with English summary), Retrieved on 20 August 2013.
- ^ About the Armed Forces, Swedish Armed Forces. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ Duties of the Monarch, Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ (in Swedish) Övriga funktioner, Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
- ^ a b c d Haltiner, Karl W. (2002). "The Swiss Security Sector: Structure, Control, Reforms"(PDF). Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. [permanent dead link]
- ^ McPhee, John (31 October 1983). "La Place de la Concorde Suisse-I". The New Yorker. p. 50. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- ^ Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (English translation) (as of March 2012), The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved on 21 August 2013.
- ^ NATO Chiefs of Defence. Retrieved on 12 May 2013.
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 11:30
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.