derives from the Frenchcommunisme
which developed out of the Latin
and the suffix isme
can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme
is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine
may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism
, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto
which proposed a particular type of communism.
One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay
to Restif de la Bretonne
around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste
In 1793 Restif first used the term communism to describe a social order based on egalitarianism and the common ownership of property.
Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government
. John Goodwyn Barmby
is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.
Communism and socialism
Since the 1840s, communism
has usually been distinguished from socialism
. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist
which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism
fell out of use during this period.
According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx
, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".
Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More
. In his 1516 treatise Utopia
, More portrayed a society based on common ownership
of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason
. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group
known as the Diggers
advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.
In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism
, Eduard Bernstein
argued that several groups during the English Civil War
(especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian
ideals and that Oliver Cromwell
's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.
Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment
of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Meslier
, Étienne-Gabriel Morelly
, Abbé de Mably
, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
During the upheaval of the French Revolution
, communism emerged as a political doctrine under the auspices of Restif de la Bretonne
, Sylvain Maréchal
, and Gracchus Babeuf
who can, according to James H. Billington
, be considered the progenitors of modern communism.
In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.
Notable among them were Robert Owen
, who founded New Harmony, Indiana
, in 1825; and Charles Fourier
, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm
The 1917 October Revolution
in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin
which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.
The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.
The moderate Mensheviks
(minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for socialist revolution
before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I
, the peasants' demand for land reform
and popular support for the soviets
The Soviet Union
was established in 1922.
Following Lenin's democratic centralism
, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres
approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline
In the Moscow Trials
, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Lev Kamenev
, Grigory Zinoviev
, Alexei Rykov
and Nikolai Bukharin
, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol
, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.
The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms
were started in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping
, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001.
These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector
is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic
analysis that frames capitalism
through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class
relations and social conflict
using a materialist
interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical
view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism
, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism
as well as the role of class struggles
in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se
and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism
, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals
, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs
to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-idealist
attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.
According to Marxist theory
, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat
—a class of wage laborers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie
—the ruling class
that owns the means of production
and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product
produced by the proletariat in the form of profit
. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces
against its relations of production
, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor
experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness
. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution
which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism
—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership
of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution
and production organized directly for use
. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society
, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership
and distribution based on one's needs
While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism
while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.
However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism
remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought
and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in international relations
during most of the 20th century.
Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism
and Marxism–Leninism. Orthodox Marxism
is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International
until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces
) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism
and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems
As a term, orthodox Marxism
represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.
Class conflict and historical materialism
At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist
conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production
and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution
ushered the world into capitalism
as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes
had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat
and the bourgeoisie
These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses private ownership
of the means of production
, earning profit via the surplus value
generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie.
According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism
captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class
out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.
Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership
of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into communism as a new mode of production
. In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat
, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage
It is the defeat of the bourgeois state
, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production.
Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit
by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The communist system
would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution
. According to Marxian crisis theory
, communism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity.
Socialization versus nationalization
An important concept in Marxism is socialization
. Nationalization is state ownership
of property whereas socialization is control and management of property by society. Marxism considers the latter as its goal and considers nationalization a tactical issue, as state ownership is still in the realm of the capitalist mode of production
. In the words of Friedrich Engels
, "the transformation [...] into State-ownership does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. [...] State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution".[b]
This has led some Marxist groups and tendencies to label states based on nationalization such as the Soviet Union as state capitalist
We want to achieve a new and better order of society: in this new and better society there must be neither rich nor poor; all will have to work. Not a handful of rich people, but all the working people must enjoy the fruits of their common labour. Machines and other improvements must serve to ease the work of all and not to enable a few to grow rich at the expense of millions and tens of millions of people. This new and better society is called socialist society. The teachings about this society are called 'socialism'.
— Vladimir Lenin, To the Rural Poor
Leninism was composed for revolutionary praxis
and originally was neither a rigorously proper philosophy nor a discrete political theory. After the Russian Revolution and in History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics
(1923), György Lukács
developed and organised Lenin's pragmatic revolutionary practices and ideology into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution. As a political-science term, Leninism
entered common usage in 1922 after infirmity ended Lenin's participation in governing the Russian Communist Party. At the Fifth Congress of the Communist International
in July 1924, Grigory Zinoviev
popularized the term Leninism
to denote "vanguard-party revolution".
Within Leninism, democratic centralism
is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the communist party
. The party's political vanguard is composed of professional revolutionaries that elect leaders and officers as well as to determine policy through free discussion, then this is decisively realized through united action. In the context of the theory of Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism
is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat
or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies
During the Cold War, Marxism–Leninism was the ideology of the most clearly visible communist movement and is the most prominent ideology associated with communism.
According to their proponents, Marxist–Leninist ideologies have been adapted to the material conditions of their respective countries and include Castroism
(Romania), Gonzalo Thought
(Cuba), Ho Chi Minh Thought
(anti-revisionist Albania), Husakism
(North Korea), Kadarism
(Hungary), Khmer Rouge
(Soviet Union), Prachanda Path
(Nepal), Shining Path
(Peru) and Titoism
Within Marxism–Leninism, anti-revisionism
is a position which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the reforms
of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
. Where Khrushchev pursued an interpretation that differed from Stalin, the anti-revisionists within the international communist movement remained dedicated to Stalin's ideological legacy and criticized the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and his successors as state capitalist
and social imperialist
due to its hopes of achieving peace with the United States. The term Stalinism
is also used to describe these positions, but it is often not used by its supporters who opine that Stalin simply synthesized and practiced orthodox Marxism
and Leninism. Because different political trends trace the historical roots of revisionism to different eras and leaders, there is significant disagreement today as to what constitutes anti-revisionism. Modern groups which describe themselves as anti-revisionist fall into several categories. Some uphold the works of Stalin and Mao Zedong
and some the works of Stalin while rejecting Mao and universally tend to oppose Trotskyism
. Others reject both Stalin and Mao, tracing their ideological roots back to Marx and Lenin. In addition, other groups uphold various less-well-known historical leaders such as Enver Hoxha
, who also broke with Mao during the Sino-Albanian split
Within Marxism–Leninism, social imperialism
was a term used by Mao to criticize the Soviet Union post-Stalin. Mao argued that the Soviet Union had itself become an imperialist
power while maintaining a socialist façade.
Hoxha agreed with Mao in this analysis, before later using the expression to also condemn Mao's Three Worlds Theory
Marxism–Leninism has been criticized by other communist and Marxist tendencies. They argue that Marxist–Leninist states did not establish socialism, but rather state capitalism
According to Marxism, the dictatorship of the proletariat represents the rule of the majority (democracy) rather than of one party, to the extent that co-founder of Marxism Friedrich Engels
described its "specific form" as the democratic republic
Additionally, according to Engels state property by itself is private property of capitalist nature[b]
unless the proletariat has control of political power, in which case it forms public property.[c]
Whether the proletariat was actually in control of the Marxist–Leninist states is a matter of debate between Marxism–Leninism and other communist tendencies. To these tendencies, Marxism–Leninism is neither Marxism nor Leninism nor the union of both, but rather an artificial term created to justify Stalin's ideological distortion,
forced into the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Comintern. In the Soviet Union, this struggle against Marxism–Leninism was represented by Trotskyism
which describes itself as a Marxist and Leninist tendency.
The synthesis of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism which builds upon the two individual theories as the Chinese adaption of Marxism–Leninism did not occur during the life of Mao. After de-Stalinization
, Marxism–Leninism was kept in the Soviet Union
while certain anti-revisionist
tendencies such as Hoxhaism
and Maoism argued that such had deviated from its original concept. Different policies were applied in Albania
which became more distanced from the Soviet Union. From the 1960s, groups who called themselves Maoists
, or those who upheld Maoism, were not unified around a common understanding of Maoism, instead having their own particular interpretations of the political, philosophical, economical and military works of Mao. Its adherents claim that as a unified, coherent higher stage of Marxism, it was not consolidated until the 1980s, first being formalized by the Peruvian communist partyShining Path
Through the experience of the people's war
waged by the party, the Shining Path were able to posit Maoism as the newest development of Marxism.
Struggling against Stalin for power in the Soviet Union, Trotsky and his supporters organized into the Left Opposition
, the platform of which became known as Trotskyism. Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining control of the Soviet regime and Trotskyist attempts to remove Stalin from power resulted in Trotsky's exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. While in exile, Trotsky continued his campaign against Stalin, founding in 1938 the Fourth International
, a Trotskyist rival to the Comintern. In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City
upon Stalin's orders. Trotskyist currents include orthodox Trotskyism
, third camp
In Trotskyist political theory, a degenerated workers' state is a dictatorship of the proletariat in which the working class's democratic control over the state has given way to control by a bureaucratic clique. The term was developed by Trotsky in The Revolution Betrayed
and in other works. Deformed workers' states
are states where the capitalist class has been overthrown, the economy is largely state-owned and planned, but there is no internal democracy or workers' control of industry. In a deformed workers' state, the working class has never held political power like it did in Russia shortly after the Bolshevik Revolution
. These states are considered deformed because their political and economic structures have been imposed from the top (or from outside) and because revolutionary working class organizations are crushed. Like a degenerated workers' state, a deformed workers' state cannot be said to be a state that is transitioning to socialism. Most Trotskyists cite examples of deformed workers' states today as including Cuba
, the People's Republic of China
, North Korea
. The Committee for a Workers' International
has also included states such as Burma
at times when they have had a nationalized
Aside from left communism, libertarian Marxism includes such currents as autonomism
, council communism
, De Leonism
, the Johnson–Forest Tendency
, Luxemburgism Situationism
, Socialisme ou Barbarie
, the World Socialist Movement
as well as parts of Freudo-Marxism
and the New Left
Moreover, libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left
and social anarchists
. Notable theorists of libertarian Marxism have included Antonie Pannekoek
, Raya Dunayevskaya
, C. L. R. James
, Antonio Negri
, Cornelius Castoriadis
, Maurice Brinton
, Guy Debord
, Daniel Guérin
, Ernesto Screpanti
, Raoul Vaneigem
and Yanis Varoufakis
who claims that Marx himself was a libertarian Marxist.
The core principle of council communism is that the government and the economy should be managed by Workers' councils
which are composed of delegates
elected at workplaces and recallable
at any moment. As such, council communists oppose state-run authoritarian state socialism
and state capitalism
. They also oppose the idea of a revolutionary party since council communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily produce a party dictatorship. Council communists support a workers' democracy, produced through a federation of workers' councils.
is a Leninist left-communist current named after Amadeo Bordiga
, who did consider himself a Leninist and has been described as being "more Leninist than Lenin".
Anarcho-communism differs from Marxism in that it rejects its view about the need for a state socialism
phase prior to establishing communism. Peter Kropotkin
, the main theorist of anarcho-communism, argued that a revolutionary society should "transform itself immediately into a communist society", that it should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced, completed, phase of communism".
In this way, it tries to avoid the reappearance of "class divisions
and the need for a state to oversee everything".
Christian communism enjoys some support in Russia. For instance, Russian musician Yegor Letov
was an outspoken Christian communist. "Communism is the Kingdom of God
on Earth," he said in an interview in 1995.
Criticism of communism can be divided into two broad categories, namely that which concerns itself with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states
and that which concerns itself with communist principles and theory.
- ^ Busky, Donald F. 2000. Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 6–8: ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. "In a modern sense of the word, communism refers to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism.… [T]he adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism."
- ^ a b Engels, Friedrich.  1970. "Historical Materialism". "But, the transformation—either into joint-stock companies and trusts, or into State-ownership—does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. In the joint-stock companies and trusts, this is obvious. And the modern State, again, is only the organization that bourgeois society takes on in order to support the external conditions of the capitalist mode of production against the encroachments as well of the workers as of individual capitalists. The modern state, no matter what its form, is essentially a capitalist machine—the state of the capitalists, the ideal personification of the total national capital. The more it proceeds to the taking over of productive forces, the more does it actually become the national capitalist, the more citizens does it exploit. The workers remain wage-workers—proletarians. The capitalist relation is not done away with. It is, rather, brought to a head. But, brought to a head, it topples over. State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution."
- ^ Engels, Friedrich.  1970. ""Historical Materialism". "The proletariat seizes the public power, and by means of this transforms the socialized means of production, slipping from the hands of the bourgeoisie, into public property. By this act, the proletariat frees the means of production from the character of capital they have thus far borne, and gives their socialized character complete freedom to work itself out."
- ^ Kropotkin, Peter. "Communism and Anarchy". Archived from the original on July 29, 2011. "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty—provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy ... Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work."
- ^ a b c d Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger.  2019. "Communism" (revised ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- ^ "Communism." p. 890 in World Book Volume 4 (Ci–Cz). Chicago: World Book, Inc. 2008. ISBN 978-0-7166-0108-1.
- ^ Engels, Friedrich.  2005. "What will be the course of this revolution?" Sec. 18 in Principles of Communism, translated by P. Sweezy. Marxists Internet Archive. "Finally, when all capital, all production, all exchange have been brought together in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear of its own accord, money will become superfluous, and production will so expand and man so change that society will be able to slough off whatever of its old economic habits may remain."
- ^ Bukharin, Nikolai, and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky.  1922. "Distribution in the communist system." Pp. 72–73, § 20 in The ABC of Communism, translated by E. Paul and C. Paul. London: Communist Party of Great Britain. Available in e-text.
- ^ Bukharin, Nikolai, and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky.  1922. "Administration in the communist system." Pp. 73–75, § 21 in The ABC of Communism, translated by E. Paul and C. Paul. London: Communist Party of Great Britain. Available in e-text.
- ^ Kurian, George Thomas, ed. (2011). "Withering Away of the State". The Encyclopedia of Political Science. CQ Press. doi:10.4135/9781608712434. ISBN 978-1-933116-44-0. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- ^ a b Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels.  1969. "Bourgeois and Proletarians." Ch. 1 in Manifesto of the Communist Party, (Marx/Engels Selected Works 1, pp. 98–137), translated by S. Moore. Moscow: Progress Publishers. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- ^ Smith, Stephen. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism. Oxford University Press, 2014. p.3
- ^ Newman, Michael. 2005. Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 5: "Chapter 1 looks at the foundations of the doctrine by examining the contribution made by various traditions of socialism in the period between the early 19th century and the aftermath of the First World War. The two forms that emerged as dominant by the early 1920s were social democracy and communism."
- ^ "Communism." 2007. Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.).
- ^ Wilczynski, J. (2008). The Economics of Socialism after World War Two: 1945-1990. Aldine Transaction. p. 21. ISBN 978-0202362281. Contrary to Western usage, these countries describe themselves as 'Socialist' (not 'Communist'). The second stage (Marx's 'higher phase'), or 'Communism' is to be marked by an age of plenty, distribution according to needs (not work), the absence of money and the market mechanism, the disappearance of the last vestiges of capitalism and the ultimate 'whithering away' of the State.
- ^ Steele, David Ramsay (September 1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. p. 45. ISBN 978-0875484495. Among Western journalists the term 'Communist' came to refer exclusively to regimes and movements associated with the Communist International and its offspring: regimes which insisted that they were not communist but socialist, and movements which were barely communist in any sense at all.
- ^ Rosser, Mariana V. and J Barkley Jr. (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0262182348. Ironically, the ideological father of communism, Karl Marx, claimed that communism entailed the withering away of the state. The dictatorship of the proletariat was to be a strictly temporary phenomenon. Well aware of this, the Soviet Communists never claimed to have achieved communism, always labeling their own system socialist rather than communist and viewing their system as in transition to communism.
- ^ Williams, Raymond (1983). "Socialism". Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, revised edition. Oxford University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-19-520469-8. The decisive distinction between socialist and communist, as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used, came with the renaming, in 1918, of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) as the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). From that time on, a distinction of socialist from communist, often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist, became widely current, although it is significant that all communist parties, in line with earlier usage, continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism.
- ^ Nation, R. Craig (1992). Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917-1991. Cornell University Press. pp. 85–6. ISBN 978-0801480072. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- ^ a b c Chomsky, Noam. 1986. "The Soviet Union Versus Socialism." Our Generation (Spring/Summer). via Chomsky.info. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- ^ a b c Howard, M. C., and J. E. King. 2001. "'State Capitalism' in the Soviet Union." History of Economics Review 34(1):110–26. doi:10.1080/10370196.2001.11733360.
- ^ a b c Wolff, Richard D. 27 June 2015. "Socialism Means Abolishing the Distinction Between Bosses and Employees." Truthout. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- ^ a b c Wilhelm, John Howard (1985). "The Soviet Union Has an Administered, Not a Planned, Economy". Soviet Studies. 37 (1): 118–30. doi:10.1080/09668138508411571.
- ^ a b c Ellman, Michael (2007). "The Rise and Fall of Socialist Planning". In Estrin, Saul; Kołodko, Grzegorz W.; Uvalić, Milica (eds.). Transition and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Mario Nuti. New York City: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-230-54697-4. In the USSR in the late 1980s the system was normally referred to as the 'administrative-command' economy. What was fundamental to this system was not the plan but the role of administrative hierarchies at all levels of decision making; the absence of control over decision making by the population [...].
- ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "communist." Online Etymology Dictionary. 2020.
- ^ Grandjonc, Jacques (1983). "Quelques dates à propos des termes communiste et communisme". Mots (in French). 7 (1): 143–148. doi:10.3406/mots.1983.1122.
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