is the act of military
subjugation of an enemy by force of arms
. Military history
provides many examples of conquest: the Roman conquest of Gaul
, the Mauryan
conquest of Afghanistan
and of vast areas of the Indian subcontinent
, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
and various Arab conquests
, all of which were successful in bringing foreign states under the conquerors' control. These conquests provided great wealth, power and prestige for the conquerors, a key motivation in the expenditure of resources required to conquer in the first place. Conquest was a key component of colonialism
, as various European
powers sought to expand their influence by conquering various territories of other continents and thereby gaining access to their resources and population. Military conquest is no longer prevalent in the world, as global unity increased with the formation of the United Nations
, so too did global disapproval of military conquest and expansionism
The ancient civilized peoples conducted wars
on a large scale that were, in effect, conquests.
the effects of invasion and conquest are to be seen in different racial types represented in paintings and sculptures.
Leading to migration
Military conquest has been one of the most persistent causes of human migrations.
There is a significant influence of migration and conquest on political development and state formation. Conquest leading to migration has contributed to race mixture and cultural exchange. The latter points influence on conquest has been of far greater significance in the evolution of society. Conquest brings humans into contact, even though it is a hostile contact.
has in all times and places been a result of war, the conquerors taking whatever things of value they find. The desire for it has been one of the commonest causes of war and conquest.
In the formation of the modern state, the conspicuous immediate causes are the closely related facts of migration
The state has increased civilization and allowed increased cultural contact allowing for a cultural exchange and stimulus; frequently the conquerors have taken over the culture of their subjects.
With subjugation, further class distinctions arise. The conquered people are enslaved; thus the widest possible social classes are produced: the enslaved
and the free. The slaves are put to work to support the upper classes, who regard war as their chief business. 
The state is in origin a product of war and exists primarily as an enforced peace between conquerors and conquered.
From slavery and from conquest, another result of war, sprang differentiation of classes and occupations termed the division of labour
Through conquest, society became divided into a ruling militant class and a subject industrial class. The regulative function devolved upon the conquering soldiers and operations side to the serfs
Culture after conquest
After a conquest where a minority imposes itself on a majority, it usually adopts the language and religion of the majority, through this force of numbers and because a strong government can be maintained only through the unity of these two important facts.
In other cases, especially when the conquerors create or maintain strong cultural or social institutions, the conquered culture could adopt norms or ideas from the conquering culture to expedite interactions with the new ruling class. These changes were often imposed on the conquered people by force, particularly during religiously motivated conquests
Look up conquest
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- ^ Miquelon, Dale. 1977. Society and Conquest. ISBN 0-7730-3132-4
- ^ Day, David. 2008. Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others. ISBN 0-19-923934-7
- ^ Cambridge Ancient History. Vol I pg. 261, 519; Vol III, 99, 100-101 ISBN 0-521-85073-8
- ^ Petrie, W. Races of Early Egypt. JAI XXX, 103.
- ^ Sumner, W. 1914. War Pg. 3.
- ^ Howitt, A. 1910. Native Tribes. pg. 185-186, 678, 682-683
- ^ Spencer, H. 1969. Principles of Sociology I . pg. 631. ISBN 0-208-00849-7
- ^ Jenks, E. 1919. The State and the Nation. pg. 121, 133, 152
- ^ Wissler, C. 1923. Man and Culture. pg 42, 179.
- ^ Gumplowicz, L. 1909. Der Rassenkampf pg. 163-175, 179-181, 219-238, 250-259
- ^ Keller, G. 1902. Homeric society pg. 248
- ^ Nieboer, H. 1900. Slavery as an industrial system.
- ^ Smyth, R. 1878. The Aborigines of Victoria. Vol I. pg. 181
Last edited on 22 February 2021, at 02:40
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.