Capture of Tunis
In the Battle of La Goleta
, Selim II mustered a fleet of between 250 and 300 warships, with about 75,000 men.
The Ottoman fleet was commanded by Sinan Pacha
and Alūj Ali
The Ottoman fleet combined with troops sent by the governors of Algiers
, and Tunis
, giving a combined strength of about 100,000.
The army attacked Tunis and La Goleta; the presidio
of La Goleta, defended by 7,000 men, fell on 24 August 1574. The last Christian troops in a small fort opposite Tunis surrendered on 3 September 1574.
John of Austria
attempted to relieve the siege with a fleet of galleys from Naples
but failed due to storms.
The Spanish crown, being heavily involved in the Netherlands and short of funds was unable to help significantly.
Miguel de Cervantes
, future author of Don Quixote
, participated in these events as a soldier, and was among the troops of Don Juan of Austria which tried to rescue the city.
He claims that the Ottomans led 22 assaults against the fort of Tunis, losing 25,000 men, while only 300 Christians survived.
He wrote about the battle:
"If Goleta and the fort, put together, held barely 7,000 soldiers, how could such a small force, however resolute, come out and hold its own against so huge an enemy army. And how can you help losing a stronghold that is not relieved, and especially when it is surrounded by a stubborn and very numerous army, and on its own ground?"
— Cervantes, DQ I, 39.
, the future Moroccan King, participated in the 1574 conquest of Tunis on the side of the Ottomans.
was the commander of the fort of Tunis. The general of La Goleta, Don Pedro Portocarerro, was taken as a captive to Constantinople
, but died on the way.
The captured soldiers were employed as slaves on galleys.
The capture of Tunis gave the territories of the Hafsid dynasty
to the Ottoman Empire.
The battle marked the final establishment of Ottoman rule in Tunis, putting an end to the Hafsid dynasty
and the Spanish presence in Tunis.
The success of the Turks under Occhiali
in the battle of Goleta managed in reducing Spanish pressure on the Dutch, and leading to negotiations at the Conference of Breda
After the death of Charles IX in May 1574 however, contacts weakened, although the Ottomans are said to have supported the 1575–1576 revolt, and establish, in 1582, a consulate in Antwerp (De Turks-Griekse Natie
The Ottomans made a truce with Spain, and shifted their attention to their conflict with Persia
in the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590)
The Spanish crown fell into bankruptcy
on 1 September 1575.
- ^ a b c d Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1984). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: Vol.IV. Philadelphia.
- ^ a b c d e f Garcés, p.222
- ^ a b The new Cambridge modern history R. B. Wernham, p.354
- ^ The Regency of Tunis and the Ottoman Porte, 1777–1814: Army and Government of a North-African Ottoman Eyâlet at the End of the Eighteenth Century by Asma Moalla, Routledge, 2004 ISBN 0-415-29781-8, p.3 
- ^ a b [dead link]
- ^ Parker, Geoffrey; Smith, Lesley M. (January 1978). The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780710088659. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- ^ a b c d Parker, p.61
- ^ Garcés, María Antonia (2005). Cervantes In Algiers: A Captive's Tale – María Antonia Garcés – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780826514707. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- ^ a b c Garcés, p.220
- ^ a b c Garcés, p.221
- ^ The last great Muslim empires: history of the Muslim world by Frank Ronald Charles Bagley, Hans Joachim Kissling p.103ff
- ^ Tarih Sitesi: Kılıç Ali Paşa
- ^ Goris, J.A. (1922-1923) Turksche kooplieden te antwerpen in de XVIe Bijdragentot de Geschiedenis 14/1:30
Last edited on 11 April 2021, at 04:28
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