Constantine is regarded as the capital of eastern Algeria and the commercial center of its region, and it has a population of about 450,000 (938,475
with the agglomeration), making it the third largest city in the country after Algiers
. There are several museums and historical sites located around the city. Constantine is often referred to as the "City of Bridges" due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the various hills, valleys, and ravines that the city is built on and around.
Constantine was named the Arab Capital of Culture in 2015.
General view, Constantine, 1899
In 311 AD, during the civil war between emperor Maxentius
and usurper Domitius Alexander
(a former governor of Africa), the city was destroyed. Rebuilt in 313 AD, it was subsequently named in Latin as "Colonia Constantiniana" or "Constantina",
after emperor Constantine the Great
, who had defeated Maxentius. Captured by the Vandals
in 432, Constantine returned to the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa
North Africa) from 534 to 697. It was conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century, receiving the name of Qacentina
In 1826 the last bey, Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif
, became the new head of state. He led a fierce resistance against French forces, which had invaded Algeria four years later. By 13 October 1837, the territory was captured by France, and from 1848 on until 1962 it was the centre of the Constantine Département. In 1880, while working in the military hospital in Constantine, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
discovered that the cause of malaria
is a protozoan
. He observed the parasites in a blood smear
taken from a soldier who had just died of malaria.
For this, he received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
This was the first time that protozoa were shown to be a cause of disease. His work helped inspire researchers and veterinarians today to try to find a cure for malaria in animals.
During World War II
, during the campaign in North Africa (1942–43), Allied forces used Constantine and the nearby cities of Sétif
and Bone as operational bases.
Constantine, canyon & bridges
Constantine is situated on a plateau at an elevation 640 metres (2,100 ft) above sea level
. The city is framed by a deep ravine and has a dramatic appearance. The city is very picturesque with a number of bridges over Rhumel River and a viaduct
crossing the ravine. The ravine is crossed by seven bridges, including Sidi M'Cid bridge. Constantine is the railhead of a prosperous and diverse agricultural area. It is also a centre of the grain trade and has flour mills, a tractor factory, and industries producing textiles, wool, linen and leather goods.
Algeria and Tunisia
serve as its markets.
The city is framed by a deep ravine and has a dramatic appearance. In 1911, Baedeker
described it as "resembling the Kasba of Algiers
, the picturesque charm of which has so far been marred by the construction of but a few new streets."
The City of Bridges
Bridge of the Falls
Sidi Rached Bridge
The topography of the city is unique and it determines the need for bridges. At the end of the 19th century, Guy de Maupassant
wrote: "Eight bridges used to cross this ravine. Six of these bridges are in ruins today." Today the most important bridges are:
- Sidi M'Cid Bridge (1912), a suspension bridge with a length of 168m,
- El-Kantara bridge which leads toward north,
- Sidi Rached bridge (1912), a long viaduct of 447ms and 27 arches, designed by Paul Séjourné,
- Devil's bridge, a tiny beam bridge,
- Falls bridge, formed by a series of arches on top of a waterfall,
- Perregaux footbridge (1925), a suspension bridge,
- Salah Bey Bridge (Trans-Rhummel viaduct, 2014), the first cable-stayed bridge in Constantine, designed by Dissing+Weitling architecture,
- Meddjez Dechiche Bridge
Constantine has in general four universities: two of them are downtown Constantine Mentouri Public University
, designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer
, and Algerian architect Rashid Hassaine
, including Zerzara technical engineering pole, Zouaghi Slimane Geography and Earth Sciences Pole, and in the City of El-Khroub is the Institute of Veterinary Sciences. Emir Abdelkader University
is one of the biggest Islamic universities with many faculties covering religious studies, foreign languages, literature. Constantine's new town "nouvelle ville ali mendjeli" has two big universities: Université Constantine 2 known as "lella nsoumer" offering maths, computer and economy majors, and the new university is actually a university pole with more than 20,000 students, 17 faculties and more than 40,000 residents. It is now the largest African university under the name of "Université Salah Boubnider" known as "Université Constantine 3".
Constantine, Tram under the snow
Constantine also owns its 14.7km-long tram network serving the city centre at the airport but also in the main neighbourhoods of the metropolis Constantine tramway
Twin towns – sister cities
Constantine has been the hometown of many noteworthy people in Algeria and France.
- Alfred Nakache, Olympic champion swimmer and Holocaust survivor.
- Ben Badis, Islamic reformer and philosopher
- Malek Bennabi, philosopher
- Abdelmalek Sellal, Prime Minister of Algeria
- Rabah Bitat, the third President of Algeria
- Mouloud Hamrouche, former Prime Minister of Algeria
- Djamel Eddine Laouisset, Algerian Scholar
- Abdelhamid Brahimi, former Prime Minister of Algeria
- Ahmed Bey, the last Bey of Constantine
- Masinissa, the first King of Numidia
- Hassiba Boulmerka, athlete, first Algerian woman to win an Olympic title
- Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois, the daughter of Louis II, Prince of Monaco, and the mother of Prince Rainier III
- Roger Chauviré (1880–1957), French writer
- Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Nobel Prize winner in physics
- Ahlam Mosteghanemi, writer
- Sidi Fredj Halimi, Chief Rabbi and rabbinical court president
- Enrico Macias, French singer
- Cheb i Sabbah, DJ, musician and composer
- Jean-Michel Atlan, artist
- Alphonse Halimi, world champion boxer
- Kateb Yacine, writer
- Maurice Boitel, artist
- Ali Saïdi-Sief, Olympic medalist
- Sandra Laoura, Olympic medalist
- Malek Haddad, poet
- Moussa Maaskri, actor
- Cherif Guellal, Algerian diplomat, first ambassador to the USA
Laura Maravall Buckwalter. 2019. "Factor endowments on the ‘frontier’: Algerian settler agriculture at the beginning of the 1900s." Economic History Review
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- ^ Utilisateur, Super. "Constantine Capital of Arab Culture 2015". www.unesco.dz. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
- ^ LOUIS, RENÉ. “A LA RECHERCHE DE ‘CIRTA REGIA’ CAPITALE DES ROIS NUMIDES.” Hommes Et Mondes, vol. 10, no. 39, 1949, pp. 276–287. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/44207191. Accessed 19 Feb. 2020.
- ^ a b c Bruce-Chuvatt LJ (July 1981). "Alphonse Laveran's discovery 100 years ago and today's global fight against malaria". J R Soc Med. 74 (7): 531–6. doi:10.1177/014107688107400715. PMC 1439072. PMID 7021827.
- ^ Sharon Vance (10 May 2011). The Martyrdom of a Moroccan Jewish Saint. BRILL. p. 182. ISBN 978-90-04-20700-4. Muslim anti Jewish riots in Constantine in 1934 when 34 Jews were killed
- ^ "Climate Normals for Constantine". Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- ^ "Klimatafel von Constantine / Algerien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- ^ "General View, Constantine, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved 2013-09-26.
- ^ "Musée Gustave MERCIER - Constantine (Algérie)". Engival.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- ^ "Jumelages et coopérations". grenoble.fr (in French). Grenoble. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
- ^ "Le printemps de Sousse est de retour". letemps.com.tn (in French). Le Temps. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
Last edited on 21 April 2021, at 01:56
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