This article is about multiple sovereigns of a single state. For a single sovereign shared by multiple states, see Personal union
Another example is in Ancient Egypt
, mainly in the Middle Kingdom, where the Pharaoh
occasionally appointed his successor (often one of his sons) as coregent, or joint king, to ensure a smooth succession. The Pharaoh also did this when he was elderly or unable to rule his country on his own (such as the case of Thutmose III
and Amenhotep II
or Amenemhat I
and Senusret I
). The existence of the practice makes establishing firm dates in Egyptian chronology
more of a challenge, as the lengths of coregencies are often uncertain and complicate the use of accepted regnal lengths to establish dates. Some of the Queens of Egypt rose to a status of equal to the God-Kings, becoming co-rulers and / or at least as important in religious affairs, and were even portrayed with the same size as their male consort and even with the same size as the other Gods of Egypt. Such were the cases of Hatshepsut
and the Nubian Egyptian Queens. In the Ptolemaic Dynasty
women finally rose to become equal co-rulers with men and even challenging them in order to become their respective consorts. This was due to a progressive improvement of the already high status of women in the Egyptian society
, as well as to the religious principle of balance (Maat
) between male and female. In Nubia
, Queens like Amanishakheto
were crowned alongside Kings at Dangeil
and had both their pyramids
with the same height and side by side, and exercised power at the same level, even commanding armies. In Ethiopia
also reached and hold this or a similar status.
In recent decades, the existence of the institution of coregency has been put into question by Egyptologists.
The Gonghe Regency
(meaning joint harmony) of the Zhou dynasty in China was ruled jointly by two dukes for a short period according to Han dynasty historian Sima Qian, but it is more likely that the Count of Gong was the actual single ruler (according to bronze tapestries).
The Lithuanian Grand Dukes typically selected submonarchs from their families or loyal subjects to assist controlling the Grand Duchy
. However, the Grand Dukes remained superior.
A slightly different system developed for a brief period after Vytautas
became Grand Duke, where nominally Vytautas ruled together with Jogaila
, who took the title of aukščiausiasis kunigaikštis
(Supreme Duke), but he has not once used the title to take any action, and in general the powers invested in the title were not clearly stated in any documents, besides the Pact of Horodlo
, which guaranteed that Jogaila would have to approve the selection of a Lithuanian Grand Duke. The title was not used by any other king of Poland after Jogaila.
Following the death of Tsar Feodor III of Russia
in 1682, his brother Ivan
and half-brother Peter
were both crowned autocrats of Russia. This compromise was necessary because Ivan was unfit to rule due to physical and mental disabilities, while Peter's exclusive rule was opposed by Feodor and Ivan's older sister Sofia Alekseyevna
, who led a Streltsy uprising
against him and his mother
's family. Because neither Tsar was of age to rule, Sofia subsequently claimed regency until she was removed from power by Peter in 1689. Ivan V and Peter I's joint reign continued, however, with Ivan maintaining formal seniority despite having little participation in the affairs of the state until his death in 1696, at which point Peter became the sole ruler.
In the book The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings
, Edwin R. Thiele
proposed co-regency as a possible explanation for discrepancies in the dates given in the Hebrew Bible
for the reigns of the kings of Israel
. At least one co-regency is explicitly documented in the Bible: the coronation of King Solomon
occurred before the death of his father David
. Some Kings of Egypt, especially during the Twelfth Dynasty
, also practiced this custom by associating their own sons in order to both prepare them for the office and prevent anyone else from usurping the throne.
Taterka, Filip. "The Co-Regency of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II Revisited." The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 105.1 (2019): 43-57.
Last edited on 26 April 2021, at 07:04
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