is a Deutsches Institut für Normung
(DIN) standard for the transliteration
of the Arabic alphabet
adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j
, because it stood for /dʒ
/ in the English-speaking world and for /j
/ in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh
. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur
manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann
and the dictionary of Hans Wehr
. Today it is used in most German-language publications of Arabic and Islamic studies.
The 28 letters:
) are transliterated as a
. A šaddah
results in a geminate
(consonant written twice). The article is written with the sun letters
marking /aː/ is transliterated as ā
. The letter (ﺓ
) tāʾ marbūṭah
is transliterated as word-final -h
normally, or -t
in a word in the construct state
has many variants, أ إ ء ئ ؤ
; depending on its position, all of them are transliterated as ⟨ʾ
⟩. The initial ʾalif
) without a hamzah
isn't transliterated using ʾ
initially, only the initial vowel is transliterated (if pronounced): i-.
) ʾalif maqṣūrah
appears as ā,
transliterating it indistinguishable from ʾalif.
Long vowels /iː/ and /uː/ are transliterated as ī
suffix /ij(j), ijja/ appears as -iyy, -iyyah
although the former is normally transliterated as -ī
, and nunation
is ignored in transliteration. A hyphen -
is used to separate clitics
(the article, the prepositions and the conjunction) from words to which they are attached.
- ^ In Egypt, Sudan and sometimes other regions, the final form is always ى (without dots).
- ^ ى for final /-aː/ is also known as ألف لينة ʾalif layyinah [ˈʔælef læjˈjenæ] "flexible ʾalif".
Last edited on 2 August 2020, at 00:16
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.