Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures
, the Caddo people
inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
. Later, France also claimed the area
but never established much settlement. In all, six flags have flown over the area preceding and during the city's history: those of France, Spain, and Mexico, the flag of the Republic of Texas, the Confederate flag, and the flag of the United States of America.
Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan
surveyed the area around present-day Dallas.
In 1839, accompanied by his dog and a Cherokee he called Ned, he planted a stake in the ground on a bluff located near three forks of the Trinity River and left.
Two years later, in 1841, he returned to establish a permanent settlement named Dallas.
The origin of the name
is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas
. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas
, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas.
A further theory gives the ultimate origin as the village of Dallas, Moray
similar to the way Houston, Texas
, was named after Sam Houston
whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire
. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845
and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856.
In the mid-1800s, a group of French Socialists established La Réunion
, a short-lived community, along the Trinity River in what is now West Dallas.
With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas
, the South, and the Midwest
. The Praetorian Building
in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper
west of the Mississippi
and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds
was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar drivers club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing.
In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón
along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico
; the small park was on the corner of Akard and Caruth Street, site of the current Fairmont Hotel.
The small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population that had been drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream
, better living conditions,
and the Mexican Revolution.
During World War II
, Dallas was a major manufacturing center for military automobiles and aircraft for the United States and Allied forces. Over 94,000 jeeps and over 6,000 military trucks were produced at the Ford plant in East Dallas.
North American Aviation manufactured over 18,000 aircraft at their plant in Dallas, including the T-6 Texan
trainer, P-51 Mustang
fighter, and B-24 Liberator
On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a Black Lives Matter protest in Downtown Dallas
, held against the police killings of two black men from other states. The gunman, later identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m., killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were also injured. This marked the deadliest day for U.S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks
. Johnson told police during a standoff that he was upset about recent police shootings of black men and wanted to kill whites, especially white officers.
After hours of negotiation failed, police resorted to a robot-delivered bomb, killing Johnson inside El Centro College
. The shooting occurred in an area of hotels, restaurants, businesses, and residential apartments only a few blocks away from Dealey Plaza
Dallas's skyline has twenty buildings classified as skyscrapers
, over 150 meters in height.
Despite its tallest building not reaching 300 meters, Dallas does have a signature building in Bank of America Plaza
which is lit up in neon but falls outside the top two hundred tallest buildings in the world. Although some of Dallas's architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the modernist
eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include Reunion Tower
, the JFK Memorial
, I. M. Pei
's Dallas City Hall
and the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center
Good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers are Fountain Place
, Bank of America Plaza
, Renaissance Tower
, JPMorgan Chase Tower
, and Comerica Bank Tower
. Downtown Dallas
also has residential offerings in downtown, some of which are signature skyline buildings.
The city of Dallas is home to many areas, neighborhoods, and communities. Dallas can be divided into several geographical areas which include larger geographical sections of territory including many subdivisions or neighborhoods, forming macroneighborhoods.
Elm Street at night, January 1942
Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown
, the center of the city, along with Oak Lawn
, areas characterized by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife.
Downtown Dallas has a variety of named districts, including the West End Historic District
, the Arts District
, the Main Street District
, Farmers Market District
, the City Center Business District
, the Convention Center District
, and the Reunion District
. "Hot spots" in this area include Uptown, Victory Park
, Harwood, Oak Lawn, Dallas Design District
, Trinity Groves
, Turtle Creek
, and West Village
Old and new homes side by side in Old East Dallas
is home to Deep Ellum
, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood
neighborhood (and adjacent areas, including Lakewood Heights
, Wilshire Heights
, Lower Greenville
, Junius Heights
, and Hollywood Heights/Santa Monica
), historic Vickery Place
and Bryan Place
, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue and Munger Place
. Its historic district has one of the largest collections of Frank Lloyd Wright
homes in the United States. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands
, one of Dallas's most unified middle-class neighborhoods.
, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars
, an eclectic artist hotbed, and Fair Park
, home of the annual State Fair of Texas
, held from late September through mid-October.
Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff
, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification
in recent years, in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District
. Oak Cliff was a township founded in the mid-1800s and annexed in 1903 by Dallas.
Today, most of the area's northern residents are Hispanic and Latin American
. The ghost town
of La Reunion
once occupied the north tip of Oak Cliff. South Oak Cliff's population is a mix of African American
, and Native American
South Side Dallas is a popular location for nightly entertainment at the NYLO rooftop patio and lounge
The Cedars Social.
The neighborhood has undergone extensive development and community integration. What was once an area characterized by high rates of poverty and crime is now one of the city's most attractive social and living destinations.
Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of Pleasant Grove
. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching to Seagoville
in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides. Swampland and wetlands separating it from South Dallas are part of the Great Trinity Forest
a subsection of the city's Trinity River Project
, newly appreciated for habitat and flood control
Skyline of Dallas (2015)
Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat. The city lies at elevations ranging from 450 to 550 feet (137 to 168 m) above sea level. The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone escarpment
(also known as the "White Rock Escarpment"), rises 230 feet (70 m) and runs roughly north–south through Dallas County. South of the Trinity River
, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill
, Grand Prairie
, and Irving
. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County
surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown.
Dallas, like many other cities, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Interstate 35E
parallels its path through Dallas along the Stemmons Corridor
, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past South Dallas and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45
until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston
. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees
to protect the city from frequent floods.
Since it was rerouted in the late 1920s, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below Downtown, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project
which was begun in the early 2000s.
The project area reaches for over 20 miles (32 km) in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately 44,000 acres (180 km2
) in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river encompasses approximately 10,000 acres (40 km2
), making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.
White Rock Lake
, a reservoir built at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the 66-acre (267,000 m2
) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden
, on the lake's eastern shore. White Rock Creek
feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of Downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek are part of the extensive Dallas County Trails System.
, just northwest of Love Field Airport
, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard
, a vast 22,745-acre (92 km2
) reservoir in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of Garland
, and Sunnyvale
To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake
, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas
) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. North Lake
, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and Coppell
, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport
, a plan the lake's neighboring cities oppose.
Summers in Dallas are very hot and humid, although low humidity characteristics of desert locations can appear at any time of the year. July and August are typically the hottest months, with an average high of 96.0 °F
) and an average low of 76.7 °F (25 °C). Heat indices regularly surpass 105 °F (41 °C) at the height of summer. The all-time record high is 113 °F (45 °C), set on June 26 and 27, 1980 during the Heat Wave of 1980
at nearby Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport
Winters in Dallas are cool to mild, with occasional cold spells. The average date of first frost is November 12, and the average date of last frost is March 12.
January is typically the coldest month, with an average daytime high of 56.8 °F (14 °C) and an average nighttime low of 37.3 °F (3 °C). The normal daily average temperature in January is 47.0 °F (8 °C) but sharp swings in temperature can occur, as strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers
" pass through the Dallas region, forcing daytime highs below the 50 °F (10 °C) mark for several days at a time and often between days with high temperatures above 80 °F (27 °C). Snow accumulation is seen in the city in about 70% of winter seasons, and snowfall generally occurs 1–2 days out of the year for a seasonal average of 1.5 inches (4 cm). Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all.
The all-time record low temperature within the city is −3 °F (−19 °C), set on January 18, 1930.
Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with moderate and pleasant weather. Vibrant wildflowers
(such as the bluebonnet
, Indian paintbrush
and other flora
) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas.
Springtime weather can be quite volatile
, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days. Autumn often brings more storms and tornado threats, but they are usually fewer and less severe than in spring.
Each spring, cold fronts moving south from the North collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast
, leading to severe thunderstorms
, torrents of rain, hail
, and occasionally, tornadoes
. Over time, tornadoes have probably been the most significant natural threat to the city, as it is near the heart of Tornado Alley
A few times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in freezing rain
or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. Temperatures reaching 70 °F (21 °C) on average occur on at least four days each winter month. Dallas averages 26 annual nights at or below freezing,
with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the record for the fewest freezing nights with 14. During this same span of 15 years,[specify]
the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below 15 °F (−9 °C), though it will generally fall below 20 °F (−7 °C) in most (67%) years.
The average daily low in Dallas is 57.4 °F (14 °C), and the average daily high is 76.9 °F (25 °C). Dallas receives approximately 37.6 inches (955 mm) of rain per year. The record snowfall for Dallas was 11.2 inches (28 cm) on February 11, 2010.
There were 521,198 households at the 2018 estimates,
up from 2010's 458,057 households, out of which 137,758 had children under the age of 18 living with them.
36.6% of households were headed by married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.9% were classified as non-family households.
In 2010, 33.7% of all households had one or more people under 18 years of age, and 17.6% had one or more people who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2018 was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.48.
In 2018 the owner-occupied housing rate was 40.2% and the renter-occupied housing rate was 59.8%.
At the 2010 census, the city's age distribution of the population showed 26.5% under the age of 18 and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.8 years. In 2010, 50.0% of the population was male and 50.0% was female.
In 2018, the median age 33.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males.
According to the 2018 American Community Survey
, the median income for a household in the city was $52,210.
In 2003-2007's survey, male full-time workers had a median income of $32,265 versus $32,402 for female full-time workers. The per capita income for the city was $25,904. About 18.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those aged 65 or over. Per 2007's survey, the median price for a house was $129,600.
Race and ethnicity
Map of racial distribution in Dallas, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, AsianHispanic, or Other (yellow)
Dallas's population was historically predominantly white (non-Hispanic whites made up 82.8% of the population in 1930),
but its population has diversified due to immigration and white flight
over the 20th century. Today the non-Hispanic white population has declined to less than one-third of the city's population.
According to the 2010 census, 50.7% of the population was White (28.8% non-Hispanic white), 24.8% was Black or African American, 0.7% American Indian
and Alaska Native
, 2.9% Asian, and 2.6% from two or more races
. 42.4% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).
In the United States Census Bureau
's 2018 estimates, 29.3% were non-Hispanic white
, 24.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian or Alaska Native, 3.4% Asian, and 1.5% from two or more races. Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islanders
made up a total of 606 residents according to 2017's estimates.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 40.7% of the estimated population in 2018. Among the Hispanic or Latin American population in 2018, 34.0% of Dallas was Mexican
, 0.4% Puerto Rican
, 0.2% Cuban
and 5.9% other Hispanic or Latino. In 2017's American Community Survey estimates among the demographic 35.5% were Mexican, 0.6% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 5.4% other Hispanic or Latino.
The Dallas area is a major destination for Mexican Americans
and Hispanic immigrants. The southwestern portion of the city, particularly Oak Cliff
is chiefly inhabited by Hispanic and Latin American residents.
The southeastern portion of the city Pleasant Grove
is chiefly inhabited by African American and Hispanic or Latino residents, while the southern portion
of the city is predominantly black.
The west and east sides of the city are predominantly Hispanic or Latino; Garland
also has a large Spanish speaking population. North Dallas
has many enclaves of predominantly white, black and especially Hispanic or Latino residents.
A trilingual sign featuring English, Spanish, and Amharic
The Dallas–Fort-Worth metroplex had an estimated 70,000 Russian-speakers (as of November 6, 2012) mostly immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc
Included in this population are Russians
, Russian Jews
, and others. The Russian-speaking population of Dallas has continued to grow in the sector of "American husbands-Russian wives". Russian DFW has its own newspaper, The Dallas Telegraph
In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian Americans including those of Indian
, and other heritage.
Among large-sized cities in the United States, Plano
, the northern suburb of Dallas, has the 6th largest Chinese American population
as of 2016. The Plano-Richardson area in particular had an estimated 30,000 Iranian Americans
With so many immigrant groups, there are often multilingual signs in the linguistic landscape
. According to U.S. Census Bureau data released in December 2013, 23 percent of Dallas County residents were foreign-born, while 16 percent of Tarrant County residents were foreign-born.
The 2018 census estimates determined that the city of Dallas's foreign-born population consisted of 25.4% naturalized citizens and 74.6% non-citizens.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
is the most prevalently practiced religion in Dallas and the wider metropolitan area according to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center
There is a large Protestant
Christian influence in the Dallas community, though the city of Dallas and Dallas County have more Catholic than Protestant residents, while the converse is usually true for the suburban areas of Dallas and the city of Fort Worth.
Dallas has been called the "Prison Ministry Capital of the World" by the prison ministry community.
It is a home for the International Network of Prison Ministries
, the Coalition of Prison Evangelists, Bill Glass Champions for Life, Chaplain Ray's International Prison Ministry, and 60 other prison ministries.
population of approximately 45,000 is one of the largest of any city in Texas.
Since the establishment of the city's first Jewish cemetery in 1854 and its first congregation (which would eventually be known as Temple Emanu-El
) in 1873, Dallasite Jews have been well represented among leaders in commerce, politics, and various professional fields in Dallas and elsewhere.
Furthermore, a large Muslim community
exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs
The oldest mosque in Dallas is Masjid Al-Islam just south of Downtown.
Dallas has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from East Asia
, Southeast Asia
, and Sri Lanka
have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of Garland
. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex including The Buddhist Center of Dallas, Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving, and Kadampa Meditation Center Texas and Wat Buddhamahamunee of Arlington
. A large and growing Hindu Community lives in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Most live in Collin County and the northern portions of Dallas County. Over 28 Hindu Temples exist in the area. Some notable ones include North Texas Hindu Mandir
, Radha Krishna Temple, Dallas
and Karya Siddhi Hanuman Temple
There are also at least three Sikh Gurudwaras
in this metropolitan area.
For irreligious people, the Winter Solstice Celebration is held in the Metroplex although some of its participants are also neo-pagans
and New Agers
According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates can be misleading, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown.
With that in mind, Dallas's violent crime rate (12.06 per 1,000 people) is lower than St Louis
(15.09), Washington, D.C
. (14.48), Kansas City
(14.44) and Boston
(13.39). However, Houston
(11.69), Los Angeles
(7.87), and New York City
(6.38) have lower violent crime rates than Dallas.
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth
, and its prime location on Native American trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas' key to growth came in 1873 with the construction of multiple rail
lines through the city. As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon and by 1900, Dallas was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in cotton gin
By the early 1900s, Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the Southern United States and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District
. By 1925, Texas churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, with 31% of Texas cotton produced within a 100-mile (160 km) radius
of Dallas. In the 1930s, petroleum was discovered east of Dallas, near Kilgore
. Dallas' proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's petroleum market. Petroleum discoveries in the Permian Basin
, the Panhandle
, the Gulf Coast
, and Oklahoma
in the following years further solidified Dallas' position as the hub of the market.
The end of World War II
left Dallas seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation. Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of "Silicon Prairie
" because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the Telecom Corridor
, a northern suburb of Dallas. The Telecom Corridor is home to more than 5,700 companies including Texas Instruments
(headquartered in Dallas), Nortel Networks
, Alcatel Lucent
, Rockwell Collins
, Cisco Systems
, Verizon Communications
, and CompUSA
(which is now headquartered in Miami
Texas Instruments, a major manufacturer, employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas.
In the 1980s Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with the increasing metropolitan population bringing with it a demand for new housing and office space. Several of Downtown Dallas
' largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation, the savings and loan crisis
and an oil bust brought the 1980s building boom to an end for Dallas as well as its sister city Houston. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, central Dallas went through a slow period of growth. However, since the early 2000s the central core of Dallas has been enjoying steady and significant growth encompassing both repurposing of older commercial buildings in Downtown Dallas into residential and hotel uses, as well as the construction of new office and residential towers. The opening of Klyde Warren Park
, built across Woodall Rodgers Freeway
seamlessly connecting the central Dallas CBD to Uptown/Victory Park, has acted synergistically with the highly successful Dallas Arts District, so both have become catalysts for significant new development in central Dallas.
The residential real estate market in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex
has not only been resilient but has once again returned to a boom status. Dallas and the greater metro area have been leading the nation in apartment construction and net leasing, with rents reaching all-time highs. Single family home sales, whether pre-owned or new construction, along with home price appreciation, were leading the nation since 2015.
A sudden drop in the price of oil, starting in mid-2014 and accelerating throughout 2015, has not significantly affected Dallas and its greater metro area due to the highly diversified nature of its economy. Dallas and the metropolitan region continue to see strong demand for housing, apartment and office leasing, shopping center space, warehouse and industrial space with overall job growth remaining very robust. Oil-dependent cities and regions have felt significant effects from the downturn, but Dallas's growth has continued unabated, strengthening in 2015. Significant national headquarters relocations to the area (as exemplified by Toyota's decision to leave California
and establish its new North American headquarters in the Dallas area) coupled with significant expansions of regional offices for a variety of corporations and along with company relocations to Downtown Dallas helped drive the boom in the Dallas economy. Dallas led Texas's largest cities in Forbes
magazine's 2015 ranking of "The Best Place for Business and Careers".
In 2020, Dallas ranked No. 2 in Forbes magazine's ranking of "The Best Place for Business and Careers".
The Dallas–Fort Worth area has one of the largest concentrations of corporate headquarters for publicly traded companies in the United States. Fortune Magazine
's 2017 annual list of the Fortune 500 in America indicates the city of Dallas had 9 Fortune 500 companies,
and the DFW region as a whole had 22,
reflecting the continued strong growth in the metro economy and up from 20 the year before.
In 2020, it increased to 10 Fortune 500 companies and 23 for the wider metropolitan area. Dallas–Fort Worth represents the largest concentration of Fortune 500 headquarters in Texas, followed by Greater Houston
with its count of 22,
down from 24.
In 2008, AT&T
relocated their headquarters to Downtown Dallas;
AT&T is the largest telecommunications company in the world and was the ninth largest company in the nation by revenue for 2017.
Additional Fortune 500
companies headquartered in Dallas in order of ranking include Energy Transfer Equity
, Tenet Healthcare
, Southwest Airlines
, Texas Instruments, Jacobs Engineering
, Dean Foods
, and Builders FirstSource. In October 2016, Jacobs Engineering, one of the world's largest engineering companies, relocated from Pasadena, California
to Downtown Dallas.
Nearby Irving is home to six Fortune 500 companies of its own, including ExxonMobil
the largest oil company in the world and the third largest company in the nation by revenue for 2020, Fluor
, Michaels Companies
, and Vistra Energy
is home to an additional four Fortune 500 companies, including J.C. Penney
, Alliance Data Systems
, Yum China
, and Dr. Pepper Snapple
Fort Worth is home to two Fortune 500
companies, including American Airlines
, the largest airline in the world by revenue, fleet size, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile and D.R. Horton
, the largest homebuilder in America.
One Fortune 500 company, Gamestop
, is based in Grapevine
Additional major companies headquartered in Dallas and its metro area include Comerica
, which relocated its national headquarters to Downtown Dallas from Detroit
NTT DATA Services, Regency Energy Partners, Atmos Energy
, Neiman Marcus
, Think Finance
, Brinker International
, Primoris Services, AMS Pictures
, id Software
, Mary Kay Cosmetics
, Chuck E. Cheese's
, Zale Corporation
, and Fossil, Inc
. Many of these companies—and others throughout the DFW metroplex—comprise the Dallas Regional Chamber
. Susan G. Komen for the Cure
, the world's largest breast cancer organization, was founded and is headquartered in Dallas.
In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center ever built in the United States, Highland Park Village
, which opened in 1931.
Dallas is home of the two other major malls in North Texas, the Dallas Galleria
and NorthPark Center
, which is the second largest mall in Texas. Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region.
According to Forbes
magazine's annual list of "The Richest People in America" published September 21, 2011, the city is home to 17 billionaires, up from 14 in 2009. In 2009 (with 14 billionaires) the city placed sixth worldwide among cities with the most billionaires.
Dallas is the third most popular destination for business travel in the United States, and the Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center
is one of the largest and busiest convention centers in the country, at over 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2
), and the world's single-largest column-free exhibit hall. VisitDallas
is the 501(c)(6)
organization contracted to promote tourism and attract conventions but an audit released in January 2019 cast doubts on its effectiveness in achieving those goals.
Arts and culture
Arts and museums
Perot Museum of Nature and Science in downtown Dallas
The Winspear Opera House
Not far north of the area is the Meadows Museum
at Southern Methodist University. In 2009, it joined up with Madrid's Prado Museum
for a three-year partnership. The Prado focuses on Spanish visual art and has a collection of Spanish art in North America, with works by de Juanes, El Greco, Fortuny, Goya, Murillo, Picasso, Pkensa, Ribera, Rico, Velasquez, Zurbaran, and other Spaniards. These works, as well as non-Spanish highlights like sculptures by Rodin and Moore, have been so successful of a collaboration that the Prado and Meadows have agreed upon an extension of the partnership.
Stone Street Gardens is lined with bistros, pubs, and restaurants connecting Main to Elm Streets in Downtown Dallas.
The Institute for Creation Research operates the ICR Discovery Center for Science & Earth History
, a creationism museum, in Dallas.
The former Texas School Book Depository
, from which, according to the Warren Commission
Report, Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed
President John F. Kennedy
in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a county government
office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house the Sixth Floor Museum
. The American Museum of the Miniature Arts
is at the Hall of State in Fair Park
. The Arts District is also home to DISD
's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts
, a magnet school that was recently expanded.City Center District
, next to the Arts District, is home to the Dallas Contemporary
, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz
hot spot in the South
Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson
, Robert Johnson
, Huddie "Lead Belly
" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith
played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as the Harlem and the Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues.
A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on graffiti
, and a number of public spaces, including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets, are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line
through the site.
Like Deep Ellum before it, the Cedars
neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears Roebuck and Company warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. Within this building, Southside on Lamar hosts the Janette Kennedy Gallery with rotating gallery exhibitions featuring many local, national, and international artists.
Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. Dallas Mavericks
owner and local entrepreneur Mark Cuban
purchased land along Lamar Street near Cedars Station
in September 2005, and locals speculate he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.
South of the Trinity River, the Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff
is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals, and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.
Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical
radio station WRR
The Los Angeles-class submarine USS Dallas
was planned to become a museum ship near the Trinity River after her decommissioning in September 2014, but this has since been delayed.
It will be taken apart into massive sections in Houston and be transported by trucks to the museum site and will be put back together.
The J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in the Government District of Downtown Dallas
Places of interest
With the opening of Victory Park
began hosting an annual New Year's Eve celebration in AT&T Plaza that the television station hoped would reminisce of celebrations in New York's Times Square
; on New Year's Eve 2011 set a new record of 32,000 people in attendance.
After the discontinuance of the "Big D NYE" festivities a few years later, a new end-of-year event was started downtown, with a big fireworks show put on at Reunion Tower
, which has since aired on KXAS
and other TV stations around the state and region. Also, several Omni hotels in the Dallas area host large events to welcome in the new year, including murder mystery parties, rave-inspired events, and other events.
Dirk Nowitzki with the Mavericks
The Dallas Cowboys
of the National Football League
play in nearby Arlington
. Since joining the league as an expansion team in 1960, the Cowboys have enjoyed substantial success, advancing to eight Super Bowls
and winning five. The Cowboys are financially the most valuable sports franchise in the world, worth approximately $4 billion.
In 2009, the Cowboys relocated to their new 80,000-seat stadium
in Arlington, which was the site of Super Bowl XLV
Parks and recreation
Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on 21,000 acres (85 km2
) of parkland.
The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock
lakes, spanning a total of 4,400 acres (17.81 km2
). In addition, Dallas is traversed by 61.6 miles (99.1 km) of biking and jogging trails, including the Katy Trail
, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields as of 2013.
Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park
Klyde Warren Park is home to countless amenities, including an amphitheater
, jogging trails, a children's park, My Best Friend's Park (dog park), a putting green, croquet
, ping pong, chess, an outdoor library, and two restaurants: Savor and Relish. Food trucks give hungry people another option of dining and are lined along the park's Downtown side. There are also weekly planned events, including yoga
, skyline tours, Tai Chi
, and meditation
Klyde Warren Park is home to a free trolley stop on Olive St., which riders can connect to Downtown, McKinney Avenue, and West Village
Turtle Creek Parkway park
View of Turtle Creek
and Turtle Creek Boulevard from a Katy Trail overpass
Built in 1913, Turtle Creek Parkway park is a 23.7-acre linear park in between Turtle Creek and Turtle Creek Boulevard in the aptly named Turtle Creek
Archaeological surveys discovered dart points and flint chips dating 3,000 years to 1,000 BC. This site was later discovered to be home to Native Americans who cherished the trees and natural spring water. The park is across Turtle Creek from Kalita Humphreys Theater
, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
Lake Cliff Park
Lake Cliff Park
Opened on July 4, 1906, Lake Cliff Park was called "the Southwest's Greatest Playground". The park was home to an amusement park, a large pool, waterslides, the world's largest skating rink, and three theaters, the largest being the 2,500-seat Casino Theater. After the streetcar bridge that brought most of the park visitors collapsed, Lake Cliff Park was sold. The Casino Theater moved and the pool was demolished after a polio scare in 1959. The pool was Dallas's first municipal pool.
Reverchon Park bridge
The Trinity River as viewed from Reunion Tower in Dallas in August 2015
In 1935, Dallas purchased 36 acres (15 ha) from John Cole's estate to develop Reverchon Park
Reverchon Park was named after botanist Julien Reverchon, who left France to live in the La Reunion colony, which was founded in the mid-1800s
and was situated in present-day West Dallas. Reverchon Park was planned to be the crown jewel of the Dallas park system and was even referred to as the "Central Park
" of Dallas. Improvements were made throughout the years, including the Iris Bowl, picnic settings, a baseball diamond, and tennis courts. The Iris Bowl celebrated many Greek pageants, dances, and other performances. The Gill Well was installed for nearby residents and drew people all across Texas who wanted to experience the water's healing powers.
The baseball diamond was host to a 1953 exhibition game for the New York Giants
and the Cleveland Indians
Trinity River Project
As part of the ongoing Trinity River Project
, the Great Trinity Forest, at 6,000 acres (24 km2
), is the largest urban hardwood forest in the United States and is part of the largest urban park in the United States.
The Trinity River Audubon Center is a new addition to the park. Opened in 2008, it serves as a gateway to many trails and other nature-viewing activities in the area. The Trinity River Audubon Center is the first LEED-certified building built by the City of Dallas Parks and Recreation Department.
Named after its former railroad name, the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (or "MKT" Railroad), the 3.5-mile stretch of railroad was purchased by the city of Dallas and transformed into the city's premier trail. Stretching from Victory Park
, the 30-acre Katy Trail
passes through the Turtle Creek
and Knox Park neighborhoods and runs along the east side of Highland Park
. The trail ends at Central Expressway
, but extensions are underway to extend the trail to the White Rock Lake Trail in Lakewood
In 2015, the Katy Trail was awarded "Best Public Place" from the Urban Land Institute
Dallas hosts three of the twenty-one preserves of the extensive 3,200 acres (13 km2) Dallas County Preserve System. The Joppa Preserve, the McCommas Bluff Preserve, and the Cedar Ridge Preserve are within the Dallas city limits. The Cedar Ridge Preserve was known as the Dallas Nature Center, but the Audubon Dallas group now manages the 633-acre (2.56 km2) natural habitat park on behalf of the city of Dallas and Dallas County. The preserve sits at an elevation of 755 feet (230 m) above sea level and offers a variety of outdoor activities, including 10 miles (16 km) of hiking trails and picnic areas.
The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo, the 106-acre (0.43 km2
) Dallas Zoo
, which opened at its current location in 1888.
The city uses a council-manager government
, with Eric Johnson
serving as mayor,
T.C. Broadnax serving as city manager,
and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city.
This organizational structure was contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter,
only to be rejected by Dallas voters.
In 1969, Anita N. Martínez become the first Latin American to sit as a councilwoman in Dallas's city council.
In the 2017–2018 fiscal year, the city's total budget
(the sum of operating
and capital budgets) was $3.3 billion.
The city has seen a steady increase in its budget due to sustained growth: the budget was $1.7 billion in 2002–2003,
$1.9 billion in 2003–2004,
$2.0 billion in 2004–2005,
and $2.2 billion in 2005–2006.
Federal and state representation
National and state legislators representing Dallas:
The city of Dallas proper
has become a Democratic
stronghold in recent elections, with 67% of voters supporting Hillary Clinton
in the 2016 presidential election
(excluding write-ins). Democratic
voters dominate the majority of the city, especially the central urban core
sectors, with Republicans
spreading a sliver of suburban neighborhoods in North Dallas
. In the 2004 U.S. presidential elections, 57% of Dallas voters voted for John Kerry
over George W. Bush
Dallas County was closely divided, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry.
Results in the 2008 and 2012 elections favored Barack Obama
, with the 44th President receiving 57% of Dallas County voters in both years, with greater margins in the city of Dallas. In the 2016 U.S. presidential election, approximately 66% of Dallas voters voted for Hillary Clinton
, with 28% of city voters voting for Donald Trump
Dallas County as a whole saw 61% of voters voting for Clinton, with 35% support for Trump.
In 2004, Lupe Valdez
was elected Dallas County Sheriff
. An open lesbian, Valdez was the only female sheriff in the state of Texas until her resignation. Despite controversies in her handling of county jails, she won re-election in 2008 with a 10-point victory over Republican challenger Lowell Cannaday.
There are 337 public schools, 89 private schools, 38 colleges, and 32 libraries in Dallas.
Dallas–Fort Worth is also home to six Nobel Laureates.
Colleges and universities
The Dallas area has a high number of colleges and universities. In addition to those in the city, the surrounding cities also have a number of universities, colleges, trade schools, and other educational institutions. The following describes the universities and their proximity to the city:
Colleges and universities within Dallas city limits
- UT Southwestern Medical Center ("UTSW") is a prominent academic medical center north of downtown Dallas in the Southwestern Medical District, ranked in the top 30 nationally by US News & World Report every year (in both Research and Clinical categories). Six Nobel laureates have been among its faculty, and UTSW was ranked #1 in the world among healthcare institutions in biomedical sciences by Nature in 2019. The main teaching hospital of the university also ranks among the top 3 hospitals in the state of Texas. UTSW is part of the University of Texas System.
- Texas Woman's University has operated a nursing school in Dallas at Parkland Memorial Hospital since 1966. The T. Boone Pickens Institute of Health Sciences-Dallas Center (IHSD) was opened in 2011 and is a purpose-built educational facility that replaced the building TWU had used since 1966. TWU also operated an occupational therapy school at Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas from 1977 through 2011 before consolidating those functions into the new IHSD building at Parkland.
- Paul Quinn College is a private, historically black college in southeast Dallas. Originally located in Waco, Texas, it moved to Dallas in 1990 and is housed on the campus of the former Bishop College, another private, historically black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College and bequeathed it to Paul Quinn College in 1990 making it the only historically black college in the Dallas area.
- The University of North Texas at Dallas is along Houston School Road. In 2009 UNT at Dallas became the first public university within Dallas city limits. The University of North Texas System requested approval from the Texas Legislature and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the state's first new public law school in more than 40 years. The University of North Texas at Dallas College of Law was planned to be based at the Old Municipal Building in Downtown Dallas.
- Dallas Baptist University is a private, coeducational university in the Mountain Creek area of southwest Dallas. Originally in Decatur, Texas, the school moved to Dallas in 1965. The school enrolls over 5,600 students, and offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees. Popular subjects include Biblical studies, business, and music degrees. DBU has been recognized by the National Council on Teacher Quality for their high-quality teacher preparatory degrees. The school also maintains an Intensive English Program for international students wishing to enhance their knowledge of the English language. The campus is a Tree Campus USA and is recognized as one of the most beautiful university campuses in the Southwest U.S. The school has also become nationally recognized for its baseball team which has made several playoff runs.
- Dallas Theological Seminary, also within the city limits, is recognized as one of the leading seminaries in Evangelical Protestantism. Situated 3 miles (5 km) east of Downtown Dallas, it has over 2,000 graduate students and has graduated over 12,000 alumni.
- Criswell College is within two blocks of Dallas Theological Seminary. Criswell was started by First Baptist Church of Dallas in the early 1970s.
- Dallas College (formerly Dallas County Community College District), the 2-year educational institution of Dallas County, has seven campuses throughout the area with branches in Dallas as well as the surrounding suburbs.
Colleges and universities within Dallas County
- Southern Methodist University is a private, coeducational university in University Park, an independent city that, together with the adjacent town of Highland Park, Dallas surrounds entirely. SMU was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church, and is now run by R. Gerald Turner. According to sources such as the U.S. News & World Report, SMU is the best overall undergraduate college in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex and the third best in the State of Texas.
- The University of Texas at Dallas is a part of the University of Texas System. It is in the city of Richardson, about 15 miles north of Downtown Dallas. It is in the heart of the Telecom Corridor. UT Dallas is an R1 or Tier-1 University, classified by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education as a doctoral-granting university with the highest research activity (it is among 115 universities in the US with this classification). UTD was ranked #3 (2013, 2015), #1 (2017), and #2 (2019) in the United States in the Times Higher Education "Young University Rankings" of the best universities that are 50 years old or younger. The university has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern Medical Center.
- The University of Dallas, in the suburb of Irving, is an enclave of Roman Catholicism in the majority Protestant religious landscape of Dallas–Fort Worth. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and Holy Trinity Seminary are on campus, while the Cistercian Monastery and Cistercian Preparatory School are just north of the UD campus across Texas State Highway 114. The Highlands School, a PK–12 Legionary school, is just west of the UD campus and connects to campus by jogging trails. As a center for religious study, the Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable for scholastic developments in theology.
- Located in Downtown Dallas, El Centro College is the flagship institution of the Dallas County Community College District. El Centro first opened its campus doors in 1966 and now enrolls over 10,000 students. El Centro was the first college of the DCCCD to offer a nursing program and has established relationships with several top-notch hospitals in the Dallas area. The college is also the only campus within DCCCD that offers a Food & Hospitality Program as well as renowned programs in fashion design and fashion marketing.
University Research Center
Other area colleges and universities
Primary and secondary schools
Most people in the city of Dallas are within the Dallas Independent School District
, the 12th-largest school district in the United States and second largest in Texas.
The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students.
As of 2003 DISD has the majority of K-12 students in the city of Dallas, and a proportionately larger number of students who are not non-Hispanic white
One of the district's magnet schools
, the School for the Talented and Gifted
in Oak Cliff, is consistently named the best public school in the United States by Newsweek
, retaining the title for five consecutive years (2012–2016).
Another one of DISD's schools, the Science and Engineering Magnet
, consistently ranks in the top 10 in the same publication.
Other Dallas high schools named to the list were Hillcrest
, W. T. White
, Williams Preparatory, and Woodrow Wilson
high schools. In 2015, Woodrow Wilson was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas by local publication D Magazine
A few areas of Dallas also extend into other school districts, including Carrollton-Farmers Branch
, and Richardson
. The Plano and Richardson school districts have the largest numbers of public school students in Dallas who are not in Dallas ISD.
The Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District
once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005–2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the Texas Education Agency
consolidated WHISD into Dallas ISD.
Many school districts in Dallas County
, including Dallas ISD, were formerly served by a governmental agency called Dallas County Schools
. The system provided busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs.
There are many private schools in Dallas, such as Bishop Dunne Catholic School
, Bishop Lynch High School
, Burton Adventist Academy
, Calvary Lutheran School,
Dallas Christian Adventist Academy, Dallas Lutheran School, The da Vinci School, Greenhill School
, Episcopal School of Dallas
, First Baptist Academy of Dallas
, The Hockaday School
, Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas
, June Shelton School
, Lakehill Preparatory School
, The Lamplighter School
, Parish Episcopal School
, St. Mark's School of Texas
, Ursuline Academy of Dallas
, The Winston School
, and Yavneh Academy of Dallas and Dallas Christian School
(on the borders of Mesquite
) and Tyler Street Christian Academy in Oak Cliff. Some Dallas residents attend Cistercian Preparatory School
in adjacent Irving, The Highlands School
in Irving, Trinity Christian Academy
, and John Paul II High School
Headquarters of The Dallas Morning News
Dallas has several local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, which is the 5th-largest media market
in the United States.
Dallas has one major daily newspaper, The Dallas Morning News
, which was founded in 1885 by A. H. Belo
and is A. H. Belo's flagship newspaper. The Dallas Times Herald
, started in 1888, was the Morning News'
major competitor until Belo purchased it on December 8, 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily newspapers are Al Día
, a Spanish-language paper published by Belo, and a number of ethnic newspapers printed in languages such as Chinese
, and Vietnamese
Other publications include the Dallas Weekly
and the Elite News
, all weekly news publications. The Dallas Observer
and the North Texas Journal
are also alternative weekly newspapers. The Dallas Morning News
formerly had a weekly publication, Neighborsgo
, which came out every Friday and focused on community news. Readers could post stories and contribute content to the website. D Magazine is a notable monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in Dallas-Fort Worth. Local visitor magazines include "WHERE Magazine" and "Travelhost"–available at hotel desks or in guest rooms. In addition, the park cities and suburbs such as Plano also have their own community newspapers. Also, THE Magazine
covers the contemporary arts scene.
Satellite studio of WFAA
Over 101 radio stations operate within range of Dallas.
The city of Dallas operates WRR
101.1 FM, the area's main classical music station, from city offices in Fair Park
Its original sister station, licensed as WRR-AM
in 1921, is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas and the second-oldest in the United States, after KDKA (AM)
Because of the city's central geographical position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power class A medium-wave
can broadcast as far as southern Canada at night and can be used for emergency messages when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States.
Slavic Voice of America
media group serves Russian-speaking Americans out of Dallas. Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish-language radio station business, is based in Dallas.
In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in the city.
The Dallas Police Department
provides most policing in Dallas. The Dallas chief of police is Eddie Garcia.
The police headquarters are in the Cedars neighborhood of southern Dallas.
Fire protection and emergency medical services
in the city are provided by the Dallas Fire-Rescue Department
. The Dallas Fire & Rescue chief is Dominique Artis.
The department operates the Dallas Firefighter's Museum built in 1907 along Parry Avenue near Fair Park. Dallas's oldest remaining fire station building still stands at the corner of McKinney Ave. and Leonard and was built in 1892. It was the home of Engine Co. Number 1, and is now a picture framing shop.
Zale Lipshy Pavilion – William P. Clements Jr. University Hospital
Dallas also has a VA
hospital in the southern portion of the city, the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The center is home to a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy
(CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail-order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States.
The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department.
Telephone networks, broadband internet, and cable television service are available from several companies, including AT&T
, Time Warner Cable
, and Verizon FiOS
Like many other major cities in the United States, the automobile is the primary mode of local transportation, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wide sidewalks, a trolley system, and buses. Walk Score
ranked Dallas the twenty-third most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States in 2011.
In 2009, 78.5% of Dallas (city) commuters drive to work alone. The 2009 mode share
for Dallas (city) commuters are 10.7% for carpooling, 3.9% for transit, 1.9% for walking, and .1% for cycling.
In 2015, the American Community Survey estimated modal shares for Dallas (city) commuters of 75.4% for driving alone, 12.8% for carpooling, 3.5% for riding transit, 1.9% for walking, and .2% for cycling.
The city of Dallas has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 10.2 percent of Dallas households lacked a car, and decreased to 9.1 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Dallas averaged 1.59 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Dallas is at the confluence of four major interstate highways
, and 45
. The Dallas area freeway system is set up in the popular hub-and-spoke
system, shaped much like a wagon wheel. Starting from the center of the city, a small freeway loop surrounds Downtown, followed by the Interstate 635
loop about 10 miles (16 km) outside Downtown, and ultimately the tolled President George Bush Turnpike
. Inside these freeway loops are other boulevard
- and parkway
-style loops, including Loop 12
and Belt Line Road
. Another beltway around the city upwards of 45 miles (72 km) from Downtown is under plan in Collin County.
The recently completed interchange at the intersection of Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway (Interstate 635
) and Central Expressway
(U.S. Highway 75) has five stacks and is aptly called the High Five Interchange
. It is one of the few five-level interchanges in Dallas and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States.
The following is a list of the freeways and tollways in the Dallas and Fort Worth area:
DFW International Airport is in the suburbs slightly north of and equidistant to Downtown Fort Worth and Downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW International is the largest airport in the state, the 2nd largest in the United States, and 9th largest in the world; DFW International Airport is larger than the island of Manhattan
In terms of traffic, DFW International is the busiest airport in the state, 4th busiest in the United States, and 11th busiest in the world. The headquarters of American Airlines
, the largest air carrier in the world ahead of United Airlines
and Delta Air Lines
, is less than a mile from DFW International within Fort Worth's city limits. Similarly, Love Field is within Dallas's city limits, about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of Downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines
, the largest domestic airline in the United States.
The Red Line
travels through Oak Cliff
, South Dallas
, North Dallas
, while the Blue Line
goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, East Dallas
, Lake Highlands
, and Garland
. The Red
lines are conjoined between 8th & Corinth Station
in Oak Cliff through Mockingbird Station
in North Dallas
. The two lines service Cityplace Station
. The Green Line serves Carrollton
, Farmers Branch
, Love Field Airport
, Stemmons Corridor
, Victory Park
, Downtown, Deep Ellum
, Fair Park
, South Dallas, and Pleasant Grove
The Orange Line initially operated as a peak-service line providing extra capacity on portions of the Green and Red Lines (Bachman Station
on the Green Line, through the Downtown transit mall, to Parker Road Station
on the Red Line making a "U"-shape). However, the first stage of the Orange Line opened on December 6, 2010, extending its west end from Bachman to Belt Line Station
in Irving. The second and final phase opened in August 2014 and provided DFW Airport
with rail service. DFW Airport Station
is the terminus for the Orange Line and connects Skylink
This provides passengers the convenience of disembarking the DART rail, proceeding to security check-in and immediately boarding Skylink
to be quickly transported to their desired terminal. The Blue Line has also been extended by 4.5 miles to serve Rowlett
at the Rowlett Park & Ride
In August 2009, the Regional Transportation Council agreed to seek $96 million in federal stimulus dollars for a trolley project in Dallas and Fort Worth. The Oak Cliff Transit Authority took the lead with leaders envisioning a streetcar line that would link Union Station
and the Dallas Convention Center
in Downtown to Oak Cliff, Methodist Medical Center, and the Bishop Arts District
via the Houston Street Viaduct.
Dallas was awarded a $23 million TIGER grant towards the $58 million Dallas Streetcar Project in February 2010.
- Brno, Czech Republic
- Dijon, France
- Monterrey, Mexico
- Kolkata, India
- Riga, Latvia
- Saratov, Russia
- Sendai, Japan
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Tianjin, China
- Valencia, Spain
Dallas has friendly relations with:
- ^ In ascending order from the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex (in terms of metropolitan population): Chicago via Lake Michigan, Los Angeles via the Pacific Ocean and New York City via the Atlantic Ocean. For attempts to render the Trinity River navigable to the Gulf of Mexico, see TRINITY RIVER NAVIGATION PROJECTS | The Handbook of Texas Online | Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/ett01 (last visited September 16, 2013); The Trinity River Authority of Texas (TRA), "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. (last visited September 16, 2013); Living with the Trinity: The Trinity River in Dallas, Fort Worth, North Texas and Beyond (Video Documentary), http://trinityrivertexas.org/video_full.php (last visited September 16, 2013). See also Trinity River (Texas).
- ^ If this theory is correct, the name is derived from Scottish Gaelic Dalais, the etymology of which is in turn uncertain but may be from a Pictish term that roughly translates to "meadow abode".
- ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
- ^ Official records for Dallas were kept at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from 15 October 1913 to August 1940, and at Love Field since September 1940.
- ^ Sunshine normals are based on only 24 years of data.
- ^ "Slang You Need to Know to Survive DFW". Thrillist. March 22, 2016.
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- ^ "Area Code Lookup (NPA NXX)". Area-codes.com. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- ^ a b "Population".
- ^ "Facts". Texas Almanac. November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- ^ a b Jackie McElhaney and Michael V. Hazel: DALLAS, TX from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved April 20, 2006.
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- ^ a b "About Dallas LGBT Community". www.visitdallas.com. Visit Dallas. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- ^ "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). February 5, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
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- ^ Alvarado, Catherine. "A brief history of the six flags over Texas — including the Confederate flag". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- ^ Bolton, Herbert E. (1914). Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768–1780. Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company.
- ^ Joseph Milton Nance: Republic of Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved September 25, 2006.
- ^ "Dallas Historical Society: Dallas History". April 22, 2006. Archived from the original on April 22, 2006. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- ^ McPherson, Edward (May 17, 2017). "The story of how Dallas became Dallas you probably haven't heard". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved May 23, 2019 – via dallasnews.com.
- ^ "Dallas Historical Society: Dallas History". April 22, 2006. Archived from the original on April 22, 2006. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- ^ Stringer, Dr. Tommy. "Stringer – How did Dallas get its name?". Corsicana Daily Sun. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- ^ Dallas City Hall. "Origin of the Name Dallas". Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- ^ Kuo, Stephanie. "In The 1800s, French Socialists Came To Dallas And Built A Utopia That Collapsed Immediately". Keranews.org. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
- ^ "Dallas' Tallest". D Magazine. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ Villasana, Sol (2011). Dallas's Little Mexico. Arcadia. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7385-7979-5.
- ^ "In Dallas, A New Generation Learns The History Of Little Mexico And Pike Park". KERA News. July 31, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ "Dallas' Little Mexico is nearly gone in Uptown, but here's what remains". Dallas News. March 14, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ "Ford assembly plant in East Dallas". Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- ^ "CAF Webinar: The History of the North American Aviation Plant in Dallas". Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- ^ Stokes, Louis (1979). "Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives". (Pg. 21) Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- ^ "Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, Chapter 1: Summary and Conclusions". National Archives. August 15, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- ^ "Five officers killed in downtown Dallas ambush". WFAA. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- ^ Dart, Oliver Laughland Tom; Dallas, Jon Swaine in; Washington, David Smith in (July 8, 2016). "Dallas shooting suspect stated he wanted to 'kill white officers'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
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- ^ Swissavenue.com Archived July 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine – Retrieved June 13, 2006."Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 7, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
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