"Damiat" redirects here. For the Bulgarian wine grape also known as Damiat, see Dimiat
Amr Ibn Al-a'as Mosque (Al-Fateh).
A 1911 postcard, titled The City of Damietta on the Nile.
In Ancient Egypt
, the city was known as Tamiat
: ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ), but in the Hellenistic period
it was called Tamiathis
Mentioned by the 6th-century geographer Stephanus Byzantius
the town later became known as Damiata and as Damietta, which probably derived from an ancient Egyptian word "Damt" that means 'the ability', since Damietta had the ability to combine the salt water of the Mediterranean Sea and the fresh water of the Nile in one place. Other historians note that the city was called "Tam Heet" which means the city of the water or the city of the running water.
Another derivation of the name might be "Tam Hēt", meaning city of North (Coptic
: ⲡϯⲙⲉ ϧⲏⲧ).
During preparations for the Fifth Crusade
in 1217, it was decided that Damietta should be the focus of attack. Control of Damietta meant control of the Nile, and from there the crusaders believed they would be able to conquer Egypt
. From Egypt they could then attack Palestine
and recapture Jerusalem
. When the port was besieged
and occupied by Frisian
crusaders in 1219, Francis of Assisi
arrived to peaceably negotiate with the Muslim ruler.
The siege devastated the population of Damietta. After the crusaders captured Damietta in November 1219 they loot the city.
In 1221 the Crusaders attempted to march to Cairo, but were destroyed by the combination of nature and Muslim defenses.
Damietta was also the object of the Seventh Crusade
, led by Louis IX of France
. His fleet arrived there in 1249 and quickly captured the fort
, which he refused to hand over to the nominal king of Jerusalem, to whom it had been promised during the Fifth Crusade.
However, having been taken prisoner with his army in April 1250, Louis was obliged to surrender Damietta as ransom.
Hearing that Louis was preparing a new crusade, the Mamluk
, in view of the importance of the town to the Crusaders, destroyed it in 1251 and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometers from the river in the early 1260s, making the mouth of the Nile at Damietta impassable for ships.
The Latin bishopric, no longer residential, is today listed by the Catholic Church
twice as a titular see
under the names Tamiathis (Latin) and Damiata (Curiate Italian), each at time of episcopal or archiepiscopal]] rank, of the Latin and Melkite Catholic Churches,
for the Catholic Church
, having been until the early 20th century an important centre for that church.
Titular Latin see
The diocese was nominally restored in the 17th century when established as Latin Titular archbishopric
of Tamiathis of the Romans
(Latin; Damiata in Curiate Italian) and had the following incumbents of the intermediary (archiepiscopal) rank :
Demoted in 1925 as Titular bishopric, it has been vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the episcopal (lowest) rank :
- Guglielmo Grassi (1937.01.13 – 1954.09.14)
- Eugenio Beitia Aldazabal (1954.10.30 – 1962.01.27)
- Marco Caliaro, Scalabrinians (C.S.) (1962.02.10 – 1962.05.23)
- Antonio Cece (1962.08.06 – 1966.03.31)
Titular Melkite see
Established in 1900 as Titular bishopric
of Damiata of the Melkite Greeks
(Italian; Latin Tamiathis), it was suppressed in 1935, after a single incumbent of this episcopal (lowest) rank:
Titular Bishop Paul-Raphaël Abi-Mourad (1900.07.02 – 1935.08.08)
Restored in 1961 as Titular archbishopric, it has had the following incumbents of the archiepiscopal (intermediary) rank:
- Titular Archbishop Antonio Farage (1961.03.07 – 1963.11.09)
- Titular Archbishop Nicolas Hajj (1965.07.30 – 1984.11.03)
- Titular Archbishop Joseph Jules Zerey (2001.06.22 – ... ), Protosyncellus of Jerusalem of the Greek-Melkites (Palestine)
Damietta is very famous for its furniture industry. In addition to the Egyptian market, its furniture is sold in Arab countries, Africa, Europe, US, and almost all over the world. Today, there is a canal connecting it to the Nile
, which has made it an important port once again. Containers are transported through the new Damietta Port
. The Damietta governorate has a population of about 1,093,580 (2006). It contains the SEGAS LNG
(Liquefied Natural Gas) plant,
which will ultimately have a capacity of 9.6 million ton/year through two trains. The plant is owned by Segas, a joint venture of the Spanish utility Unión Fenosa
(40%), Italian oil company Eni
(40%) and the Egyptian companies EGAS and EGPC (10% each).
The plant is unusual since it is not supplied from a dedicated field, but is supplied with gas from the Egyptian grid. As of 2010, EMethanex, the Egyptian division of Methanex Corporation
, a Canadian owned company, was building a 3600 MTPD methanol plant. Damietta also has a woodworking industry and is also noted for its White Domiati
cheese and other dairy products
and Egyptian desserts
. It is also a fishing port.
- Amr Ibn Al-a'as Mosque (Al-Fateh), the second mosque to be built in Egypt and Africa by the Arabs after entering Egypt. It has been converted to a church twice during occupation by the crusaders and Louis IX of France's son John Tristan, Count of Valois was baptized by a legate of the Pope in this mosque.
- Al-Bahr Mosque, dating to the Ottoman rule era.
- Al-Hadidy Mosque in Faraskour, 200 years old.
- Al-Maainy Mosque, dating to the reign of Al-Naser Mohammed Ibn Qalawon.
- Al-Matbuly Mosque, dating to the Mamluk era.
- Al-Radwaniya Mosque, dating to the Mamluk era.
Urabi fort (Tabiet Orabi) in Ezbet al-Borg
- Tabiet Ahmed Urabi, ruins of Damietta Fort at Ezbet El-Borg.
- The Old Bridge Elkobri Elqadeem, dating to the early 20th century.
- Souk Al-Hesba, the old town centre, dating to the Abbasi rule era.
- Kamal al-Din Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Damiri, (1344–1405), writer on canon law and natural history
- Refaat Al-Gammal (Raafat el-Haggan), Egyptian spy
- Professor Aisha Abd al-Rahman (Bent Al Shatea), journalist and Muslim philosopher
- Latifa al-Zayyat, activist and writer
- Professor Abdel Rahman Badawi, professor of philosophy
- St. Sidhom Bishay, Coptic martyr
- Rifaat El-Fanagily, football player
- Mohamed Fahim ElGindy, who established and developed the furniture industry during 20th century in Damietta
- Rifaat el-Mahgoub, former Head of the Egyptian Parliament and a member of the ruling National Democratic Party
- Besheer El-Tabei, football player
- Mohammed Hassan El-Zayyat, former minister of foreign affairs.
- Farag Foda, secular writer shot to death in his office on 8 June 1992 by two Islamic fundamentalists from the Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya group.
- Zahi Hawass, Egyptologist
- Yusuf Idris, writer and psychiatrist
- Zaki Naguib Mahmoud, writer and philosopher
- Ali Moustafa Mosharafa, physicist and contributor to the theory of relativity
- Farouk Shousha, poet; previously head of Egyptian Radio (El Soaraa village)
- Essam El Hadary, football player
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- ^ a b c d e Siméon Vailhé, "Damietta" in The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
- ^ "The city of Damietta". Ask Aladdin. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ^ Donkin, Robin A (2003). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. Diane Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87169-248-1.
- ^ Dillon, Charles Raymond (30 April 2005). Templar Knights And the Crusades. iUniverse. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-595-34946-3. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ Claster, Jill N. (1 October 2009). Sacred Violence: The European Crusades to the Middle East, 1095-1396. University of Toronto Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-4426-0060-7. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ Bradbury, Jim (1992). The Medieval Siege. Boydell Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-85115-357-5. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
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- ^ Bradbury, Jim (1992). The Medieval Siege. Boydell Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-85115-357-5.
- ^ Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Editions du Cerf. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ Russell, William (1837). The History of Modern Europe: with an Account of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: And a View of the Progress of Society from the Rise of the Modern Kingdoms to the Peace of Paris, in 1763; in a Series of Letters from a Nobleman to His Son. Longman, Rees, & Company. p. 280. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ Houtsma, M. Th (31 December 1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. BRILL. p. 911. ISBN 978-90-04-08265-6. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 589-592
- ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico ecclesiastica, Vol. 72 (Venice 1855), p. 236
- ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 879
- ^ "Climate: Dumiat - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- ^ MEED. Economic East Economic Digest, Limited. April 2008. p. 187. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ The Petroleum Economist. Petroleum Press Bureau. 2008. p. 20. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- ^ "Halayeb". eArabic Market. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- ^ "Islamic Medical Manuscripts: Bio-Bibliographies - B, C, and D". nih.gov.
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Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 18:26
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