The Damour massacre was a response to the Karantina massacre of January 18, 1976 in which Phalangists, a predominantly-Christian right-wing militia, killed 1,000 to 1,500 people.
The Ahrar and the Phalangist
militias, based in Damour
, and Dayr al Nama
had blocked the coastal road leading to southern Lebanon and the Chouf, which turned them into a threat to the PLO and its leftist and nationalist allies in the Lebanese Civil War
That occurred as part of a series of events during the Lebanese Civil War
in which Palestinians
joined the Muslim forces,
in the context of the Christian-Muslim divide,
and soon Beirut
was divided along the Green Line
, with Christian enclaves to the east and Muslims to the west.
On 9 January, the militias began a siege of Damour and Jiyeh.
Jiyeh was entered by the PLO on 17 January.
It was said that Yasser Arafat
wanted to execute the local PLO commanders for what they had permitted.
According to an eyewitness, the attack took place from the mountain behind the town. "It was an apocalypse," said Father Mansour Labaky, a Christian Maronite priest who survived the massacre. "They were coming, thousands and thousands, shouting 'Allahu Akbar! (God is great!) Let us attack them for the Arabs, let us offer a holocaust to Mohammad!", and they were slaughtering everyone in their path, men, women and children."
- ^ Hirst, David (2010). Beware of small states. Nation Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8. With Palestinian help, the Muslim/lefitsts then overran Damour, in their domain, on the coastal road a few kilometres south of the capital, sacked it, killed some 150 inhabitants, and drove out the rest.
- ^ a b Nisan, 2003
- ^ Armies in Lebanon, 1985, Osprey Publishing
- ^ William W. Harris (January 2006). The New Face of Lebanon: History's Revenge. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-55876-392-0. Retrieved July 27, 2013. the massacre of 1,500 Palestinians, Shi'is, and others in Karantina and Maslakh, and the revenge killings of hundreds of Christians in Damour
- ^ Noam Chomsky, Edward W. Said (1999) Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-601-1 pp 184–185
- ^ Yezid Sayigh (1999) Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-829643-6 p 368
- ^ Samuel M. Katz (1985). Armies in Lebanon. Osprey Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-85045-602-8. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- ^ Frank Brenchley (1989). Britain and the Middle East: Economic History, 1945-87. I.B.Tauris. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-870915-07-6. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- ^ Terry John Carter; Lara Dunston; Amelia Thomas (2008). Syria & Lebanon. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-74104-609-0. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- ^ a b "Lebanon's Legacy of Political Violence: A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975-2008" (PDF). pp. 14, 15.
- ^ Fisk, 2001, pp. 99,
- ^ Fisk, 2001, pp. 99–100.
- ^ Randal, Jonathan (1983) ‘’The Tragedy of Lebanon. Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers’’ Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-2755-4 p.90
- ^ Hirst, David (2010) Beware of Small States. Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8 p.111: ‘some 150’ killed
- ^ "Elie Hobeika". moreorless : heroes & killers of the 20th century. www.moreorless.au.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- ^ Helena Cobban (November 8, 2004). "Back to Shatila, part 2". Just World News. Just World News. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- ^ Friedman, 1998, p. 161.
- ^ Friedman, New York Times, Sep 20, 21, 26, 27, 1982.
- ^ Israel undercover: secret warfare and hidden diplomacy in the Middle East By Steve Posner, ISBN 0-8156-0220-0, ISBN 978-0-8156-0220-0, p. 2
- ^ J. Becker: The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, p. 124  qtd in  
- ^ "Articles > PLO Policy towards the Christian Community during the Civil War in Lebanon". ICT. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- ^ The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, p. 124  qtd in  
- ^ Some sources name the PLA's Ayn Jalout brigade armed by Egypt and the Qadisiyah brigade from Iraq. This page Archived January 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine also mentions the Yarmouk brigade, set up by Syria.
- ^ Brian Lee Davis (January 1, 1990). Qaddafi, Terrorism, and the Origins of the U.S. Attack on Libya. ABC-CLIO. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-275-93302-9. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- ^ Nisan, 2003, p. 41.
- Abraham, A. J. (1996). The Lebanon War. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-95389-0
- Fisk, Robert. (2001). Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280130-9
- Friedman, Thomas. (1998) From Beirut To Jerusalem. 2nd Edition. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-653070-2
- Nisan, M. (2003). The Conscience of Lebanon: A Political Biography of Etienne Sakr (Abu-Arz). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5392-6.
Becker, Jillian. (1985). The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization
. New York: St. Martin's Press ISBN 0-312-59379-1
Last edited on 15 January 2021, at 02:09
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