Born in Toronto
, Canada, to a Jewish family,
Frum is the son of the late Barbara Frum
(née Rosberg), a well-known, Niagara Falls, New York-born journalist and broadcaster in Canada, and the late Murray Frum
, a dentist, who later became a real estate developer, philanthropist, and art collector. His father's parents immigrated from Poland
Frum's sister, Linda Frum
, is a member of the Senate of Canada
. He is married to the writer Danielle Crittenden
, the stepdaughter of former Toronto Sun
editor Peter Worthington
. Frum also has an adopted brother, Matthew, from whom he is estranged.
The couple has three children.
He is a distant cousin of economist Paul Krugman
Following the 2000 election of George W. Bush
, Frum was appointed to a position within the White House
. He would later write that when he was first offered the job by chief Bush speechwriter Michael Gerson
I believed I was unsuited to the job he was offering me. I had no connection to the Bush campaign or the Bush family
. I had no experience in government and little of political campaigns. I had not written a speech for anyone other than myself. And I had been only a moderately enthusiastic supporter of George W. Bush … I strongly doubted he was the right man for the job.
While still a Canadian
citizen, he was one of the few foreign nationals working within the Bush White House. He filed for naturalization
and took the oath of citizenship
on September 11, 2007.
Frum served as special assistant to the president
for economic speechwriting from January 2001 to February 2002. Conservative commentator Robert Novak
described Frum as an "uncompromising supporter of Israel
" and "fervent supporter of Ariel Sharon
's policies" during his time in the White House.
Frum is credited with inventing the expression "Axis of Evil
", which Bush introduced in his 2002 State of the Union address.
During Frum's time at the White House, he was described by commentator Ryan Lizza
as being part of a speechwriting brain trust
that brought "intellectual heft" and considerable policy influence to the Bush Administration.
While serving in the Bush White House and afterward, Frum strongly supported the Iraq War
. In later years, however, he would express regret for that endorsement, saying that it owed more to psychological and group identity factors than reasoned judgment:
It's human nature to assess difficult questions, not on the merits, but on our feelings about the different 'teams' that form around different answers. To cite a painful personal experience: During the decision-making about the Iraq war, I was powerfully swayed by the fact that the proposed invasion of Iraq was supported by those who had been most right about the Cold War—and was most bitterly opposed by those who had been wrongest about the Cold War. Yet in the end, it is not teams that matter. It is results. As Queen Victoria's first prime minister bitterly quipped after a policy fiasco: 'What wise men had promised has not happened. What the damned fools predicted has actually come to pass.'"
He also later acknowledged that it remains unclear how the US "could have delivered better success in Iraq" in terms of replacing Saddam with a "more humane and peaceful" government.
Frum left the White House in February 2002. Commentator Robert Novak
, appearing on CNN, claimed that Frum was dismissed because his wife had emailed friends, saying that her husband had invented the "axis of evil" phrase. Frum and the White House denied Novak's allegation.
American Enterprise Institute
Other activities after leaving the White House
In 2005, Frum faced a libel lawsuit filed by the Canadian chapter of the Council on American–Islamic Relations
after he suggested in a column for the National Post
that CAIR was sympathetic to terrorists. Frum first vowed to fight the lawsuit, but instead the paper published an editor's note acknowledging that "neither Sheema Khan nor the Council on American-Islamic Relations Canada advocates or promotes terrorism."
On November 16, 2008, The New York Times
reported that Frum would be leaving National Review
, where he was a contributing editor and online blogger
Frum announced to readers of his blog that he would be starting a new political website, NewMajority.com, describing it as "a group blog, featuring many different voices. Not all of them … conservatives or Republicans." He hoped the site would "create an online community that will be exciting and appealing to younger readers, a generation often repelled by today's mainstream conservatism."
The website was launched on January 19, 2009.
On October 31, 2009, its title was changed to FrumForum, to avoid confusion with other political organizations that used "New Majority" in their names.
In 2012 it was merged into The Daily Beast
, where his blog continued. Citing personal reasons shortly after the deaths of his father and father-in-law, Frum suspended his blog on June 3, 2013
but resumed writing for The Daily Beast in September 2013.
Frum joined The Atlantic
as a senior editor in March 2014. During the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
, Frum issued a series of tweets labeling as "fake" a photo of two blood-covered Palestinian youths bringing their father's body to a hospital in Khan Younis
; the man had been killed in an Israeli airstrike. Frum apologized on The Atlantic
Frum was criticized by Washington Post
media writer Erik Wemple
and by fellow correspondent for The Atlantic
, James Fallows
, who termed Frum's tweets "a major journalistic error."
Books and writing
Frum's first book, Dead Right
, was released in 1994. It "expressed intense dissatisfaction with supply-siders
, and nearly all Republican politicians." Frank Rich
of The New York Times
described it as "the smartest book written from the inside about the American conservative movement," William F. Buckley, Jr.
found it "the most refreshing ideological experience in a generation,"
and Daniel McCarthy of The American Conservative
called it "a crisply written indictment of everything its author disliked about conservatism in the early '90s."
He is also the author of What's Right
(1996) and How We Got Here
(2000), a history of the 1970s, which "framed the 1970s in the shadow of World War II
, suggesting, 'The turmoil of the 1970s should be understood … as the rebellion of an unmilitary people against institutions and laws formed by a century of war and the preparation for war.'" Michael Barone
of U.S. News & World Report
praised How We Got Here
, noting that "more than any other book … it shows how we came to be the way we are." John Podhoretz
described it as "compulsively readable" and a "commanding amalgam of history, sociology and polemic."
In January 2003 Frum released The Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush
, the first insider account of the Bush presidency. As the title suggests, Frum also discussed how the events of September 11, 2001
redefined the country and the president: "George W. Bush was hardly the obvious man for the job. But by a very strange fate, he turned out to be, of all unlikely things, the right man." His book An End to Evil
was co-written with Richard Perle
. It provided a defense of the 2003 invasion of Iraq
, and advocated regime change
. It called for a tougher policy toward North Korea
, and a tougher US stance against Saudi Arabia
and other Islamic
nations in order to "win the war on terror
" (from the book's subtitle).
He published Comeback: Conservatism That Can Win Again.
in 2008. In 2012, his book Why Romney Lost (And What The GOP Can Do About It)
, attributed Mitt Romney
's defeat in the 2012 U.S. presidential election
to an economic message out of touch with the concerns of middle-class Americans and to a backward-looking cultural message. Frum's first novel, Patriots
, was published in April 2012.
It is a political satire
about the election and presidency of a fictional conservative
In 2018, Frum published Trumpocracy: The Corruption of the American Republic
, about the dangers posed by the Trump presidency to American democracy.
In 2020, he published a second volume about the Trump era and its consequences, Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy
Appearances on public radio
I'm a conservative Republican, have been all my adult life. I volunteered for the Reagan campaign in 1980. I've attended every Republican convention since 1988. I was president of the Federalist Society
chapter at my law school, worked on the editorial page of The Wall Street Journal
and wrote speeches for President Bush—not the 'Read My Lips
, the 'Axis of Evil' Bush. I served on the Giuliani campaign in 2008 and voted for John McCain
in November. I supported the Iraq War and (although I feel kind of silly about it in retrospect) the impeachment of Bill Clinton
. I could go on, but you get the idea.
In 2010, Frum was involved in the formation of the centrist group No Labels
as a "founding leader".
In June 2011, following the legalization of same-sex marriage in New York
state, Frum's weekly column for CNN
.com was titled "I was wrong about same-sex marriage." In it he described the evolution of his opinion
from a "strong opponent" 14 years prior; while he had feared that its introduction would cause "the American family [to] become radically more unstable," he now feels that "the case against same-sex marriage has been tested against reality. The case has not passed its test."
In 2013, Frum was a signatory to an amicus curiae brief
submitted to the Supreme Court
in support of same-sex marriage during the Hollingsworth v. Perry
In a 2013 opinion column for CNN
, Frum discussed the need for a "Plan B On Guns" because of a lack of votes in Congress for gun control
legislation. Frum specifically urged the commissioning of a surgeon general's report on firearms health effects on individual ownership (writing that "such a report would surely reach the conclusion that a gun in the home greatly elevates risks of suicide
, lethal accident and fatal domestic violence
"), and he called for Senate hearings regarding the practices of firearms manufacturers. He compared these to hearings conducted in the 1990s about tobacco companies.
On May 15, 2017, he called on Donald Trump
to resign the presidency.[why?]
Frum appeared on stage with Steve Bannon
, Trump's former campaign CEO and White House Chief Strategist, in the November 2, 2018 edition of the Munk Debates
, where they debated the future of populism in western politics.
In 2018, he wrote, "The advanced democracies have built the freest, most just, and best societies in human history. Those societies demand many improvements, for sure—incremental, practical reforms, with careful attention to unintended consequences. But not revolution. Not the burn-it-all-down fantasies of the new populists."
Frum is a proponent of immigration reform, arguing that "reducing immigration, and selecting immigrants more carefully" would lead to increased economic benefits and restore "the feeling of belonging to one united nation, responsible for the care and flourishing of all its people".
Frum supported John McCain
in the 2008 presidential election
, writing "I vote for John McCain".
In an article for National Review Online
that he posted days before the 2008 election
, he gave ten reasons why he was going to vote for McCain instead of Barack Obama
Frum had previously been a vocal critic of Republican
presidential candidate McCain's choice of Sarah Palin
as his running mate
on the grounds that Palin was unqualified to assume the presidency. Speaking of Palin's performance during the campaign, Frum stated, "I think she has pretty thoroughly—and probably irretrievably—proven that she is not up to the job of being president of the United States
Nevertheless, he ultimately stated his support for Palin, writing "But on Tuesday, I will trust that she can learn. She has governed a state—and … it says something important that so many millions of people respond to her as somebody who incarnates their beliefs and values. At a time when the great American middle often seems to be falling further and further behind, there may be a special need for a national leader who represents and symbolizes that middle."
After the 2012 election, Frum said that Romney would have been "a really good president" but that he had allowed himself to be "twisted into pretzels" by the more extreme factions of the Republican Party who immediately abandoned him after he lost the election.
Criticism of the Republican Party after 2008
In 2009, Frum denounced various anti-Obama conspiracy theories as "wild accusations and the paranoid delusions coming from the fever swamps".
In his blog, Frum described the Tea Party
as "a movement of relatively older and relatively affluent Americans whose expectations have been disrupted by the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression
. They are looking for an explanation of the catastrophe—and a villain to blame. They are finding it in the same place that (Michele) Bachmann
and her co-religionists located it 30 years ago: a deeply hostile national government controlled by alien and suspect forces, with Barack Obama as their leader and symbol." He explained Bachmann's political views, some of which he called "paranoid": "It emerges from a religious philosophy that rejects the federal government as an alien instrument of destruction, ripping apart a Christian society. Bachmann's religiously grounded rejection of the American state finds a hearing with many more conventional conservatives radicalized by today's hard economic times."
On August 14, 2009, on Bill Moyers Journal
, Frum challenged certain Republican political tactics in opposing health care
and other Democratic initiatives as "outrageous," "dangerous," and ineffective.
As Congress prepared to pass the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
in March 2010, Frum again criticized the Republican strategy of refusing to negotiate with President Obama and congressional Democrats on health care reform, saying that it had resulted in the Republicans' "most crushing legislative defeat since the 1960s".
Before making this statement, Frum had been associated with the American Enterprise Institute
. He resigned from the AEI a few days later.
Following the temporary withdrawal of a Republican effort to repeal the ACA
in 2017, Frum wrote an article in the Atlantic
in which he chastised fellow Republicans and conservatives for failing to take his advice to behave with moderation and humility.
In a September 2011 article, Tablet Magazine
wrote: "as the Tea Party has come to dominate the GOP, Frum has been transformed in a remarkably short period of time from right-wing royalty to apostate" and quoted him as saying: "There's a style and a sensibility in the Republican Party right now that I find myself removed from, [but] you can do more good for the country by working for a better Republican Party than by leaving it to the extremists. What have they done to deserve that inheritance?"
Writing for New York
magazine in November 2011, Frum described his reaction to fellow Republicans, who had distanced themselves from him, saying, "Some of my Republican friends ask if I've gone crazy. I say: Look in the mirror." He described the development of an "alternative reality" within which the party, conservative think-tanks, and right wing commentators operate from a set of lies about the economy and nonexistent threats to their traditional base of supporters. He expressed concern over the inability of moderate Republicans to criticize their conservative brethren, contrasting this to the 1960s split between moderate Ripon Republicans
and conservative Goldwater Republicans
, when moderates such as Michigan governor George Romney
were publicly critical of the conservatives.
- Frum, David (May 26, 2020). Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy. Harper. ISBN 978-0062978417.
- Frum, David (January 16, 2018). Trumpocracy: The Corruption of the American Republic. Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-279673-8.
- Frum, David (November 8, 2012). Why Romney Lost (And What the GOP Can Do About It). New York City: Newsweek. p. 224. ASIN B00A3EOVKS.
- Frum, David (December 31, 2007). Comeback: Conservatism That Can Win Again. New York City: Doubleday. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-385-51533-7.
- Frum, David; Perle, Richard (2004). An End to Evil: How to Win the War on Terror. New York and Toronto: Random House. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-4000-6194-5.
- Frum, David (2003). The Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush. Random House. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-375-50903-2.
- Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The 70's: The Decade That Brought You Modern Life—For Better or Worse. New York: Basic Books. p. 448. ISBN 978-0-465-04195-4.
- Frum, David (1997). What's Right: The New Conservative Majority and the Remaking of America. Basic Books. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-465-04198-5.
- Frum, David (1996). What's Right: The New Conservatism and What It Means for Canada. Mississauga, Ontario: Random House of Canada. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-679-30783-9.
- Frum, David (1995). Dead Right. Basic Books. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-465-09825-5.
- de Soto, Hernando; Frum, David (2003). The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. Basic Books. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-465-01615-0. I ghostwrote it, but the research & concepts are all his.
Critical studies and reviews of Frum's work
- ^ "David Jeffrey Frum". Companies House. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- ^ a b Kreisler, Harry. "Conversation with David Frum". Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ a b Oppenheimer, Mark (July 11, 2012). "The Prodigal Frum". The Nation. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- ^ Frum, David (2003). The Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50903-2. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
- ^ "Proud wife turns 'axis of evil' speech into a resignation letter", Matthew Engel, The Guardian, February 27, 2002
- ^ "Top Bush Speech Writer Resigns". ABC News. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- ^ "Biographies: David Frum, Board of Directors". Republican Jewish Coalition. Archived from the original on November 27, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Neeley, Josiah (June 14, 2012). "David Frum | R Street Institute". R Street. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ "Barbara Frum | Jewish Women's Archive". Jwa.org. March 26, 1992. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
- ^ a b Oppenheimer, Mark (July 11, 2012). "The Prodigal Frum". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- ^ Winsa, Patty (May 28, 2013). "Murray Frum, developer and philanthropist, died Monday at age 81". Toronto Star. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- ^ Frum, David. "about the author". Comeback: Conservatism that can win again.
- ^ Krugman, Paul (March 25, 2010). "David Frum, AEI, Heritage And Health Care". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David (October 30, 2007). "Campaigns Past". National Review. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ a b Frum, David (January 1, 2008). "David's Bookshelf Year End". National Review. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ a b c McCarthy, Daniel (January 28, 2008). "Dead Wrong". The American Conservative. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- ^ Canadian Press, "Reform, Tories should merge, right-wing group says", The Globe and Mail, May 15, 1996
- ^ a b c d Novak, Robert D. (March 24, 2003). "Axis of Ego". The American Conservative. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- ^ Solomon, Deborah (January 6, 2008). "Questions for David Frum, Right Hand Man". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Engel, Matthew (February 27, 2002). "Proud wife turns 'axis of evil' speech into a resignation letter". The Guardian. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- ^ Lizza, Ryan (May 11, 2001). "Write Hand". The New Republic. Archived from the original on February 20, 2002.
- ^ Mooney, Chris (December 19, 2001). "Holy War". The American Prospect. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- ^ Frum, David (May 14, 2013). "Opinion: Controversial Immigration Report May Be Right". CNN. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- ^ Frum, David (May 15, 2019). "Take It From an Iraq War Supporter—War With Iran Would Be a Disaster". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- ^ Engel, Matthew. "Proud wife turns 'axis of evil' speech into a resignation letter". The Guardian. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David (October 3, 2005). "Madame Justice". National Review. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- ^ Nagourney, Adam (March 25, 2010). "Frum Forced Out at Conservative Institute". The New York Times The Caucus blog. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (March 25, 2010). "AEI Says Goodbye". Frum Forum. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (March 24, 2017). "The Republican Waterloo". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- ^ "Inside Politics". The Washington Times. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ Frum, David (October 11, 2007). "Rudy & Me". National Review. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (October 20, 2007). "Make speech free, and all else follows". National Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Arango, Tim (November 16, 2008). "At National Review, a Threat to Its Reputation for Erudition". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (January 18, 2009). "Signing Off". National Review. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- ^ Frum, David (November 18, 2008). "A Note to Readers". National Review. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ "Welcome to NewMajority.com". Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- ^ Frum, David (November 3, 2009). "A Note to Readers". FrumForum. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- ^ Frum, David (June 3, 2013). "All Good Things". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 27, 2013
- ^ David Frum. "Don't Call It a Frum-Back: What's Changed After Three Months Away". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ "An Apology: On Images From Gaza". The Atlantic. July 30, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ Wemple, Erik (July 30, 2014). "The difficulty with David Frum's apology for bogus photo-fakery allegations". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ "James Fallows". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ a b Revesz, Rachael (November 3, 2016). "George W Bush's speechwriter says he voted for Hillary Clinton". The Independent. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- ^ Frum, David (1995). Dead Right. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09825-5.
- ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The 70's, The Decade That Brought You Modern Life - For Better or Worse. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-04196-1.
- ^ Frum, David (April 30, 2012). "Why a pundit wrote a novel". CNN.
- ^ "Hell and the high ground". The Economist. June 2, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- ^ Frum, David (January 16, 2018). Trumpocracy: The Corruption of the American Republic. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-279673-8.
- ^ Ryssdal, Kai and David Frum (October 12, 2011). "David Frum bids farewell to Marketplace". American Public Media. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- ^ "Truthdig - Tag - David Frum". Truthdig. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- ^ "Left, Right & Center: School Shooting; Susan Rice Withdraws and More". KCRW. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- ^ a b c "10 disgraced Iraq War architects who are desperately trying to sabotage the Iran deal". Salon. September 1, 2015.
- ^ "16 Years Later, How the Press That Sold the Iraq War Got Away With It". Rolling Stone. March 22, 2019.
- ^ "David Frum's diary: When Hamas shoots at Israel, they're shooting at my kid". The Spectator. August 9, 2014.
- ^ "Four Lessons From Israel's Clash With Tlaib and Omar". The Atlantic. August 16, 2019.
- ^ Frum, David (March 6, 2009). "Why Rush is Wrong". Newsweek. New York City: IBT Media.
- ^ Rucker, Philip (December 14, 2010). "No Labels group seeking nonpartisan middle ground". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David (June 27, 2011). "I was wrong about same-sex marriage". CNN. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
- ^ Avlon, John (February 28, 2013). "The Pro-Freedom Republicans Are Coming: 131 Sign Gay Marriage Brief". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- ^ "Obama needs a 'Plan B' on guns", CNN, February 18, 2013
- ^ Frum, David (April 18, 2014). "The Lies Edward Snowden Tells". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- ^ @davidfrum (May 15, 2017). "The President should resign" (Tweet) – via Twitter.[better source needed]
- ^ "Munk Debate: The Rise of Populism". Cable Public Affairs Channel. November 2, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- ^ "Munk Debates - Munk Debates". Munkdebates.com. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- ^ "'Technical error' blamed for wrong results at controversial Toronto Munk debate". CTV News. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- ^ Frum, David (October 21, 2018). "David Frum: The Republican Party Needs to Embrace Liberalism". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C.: Emerson Collective.
- ^ Frum, David (April 2019). "If Liberals Won't Enforce Borders, Fascists Will". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C.: Emerson Collective. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- ^ Frum, David (March 21, 2019). "Faith, Reason, and Immigration". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C.: Emerson Collective. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- ^ a b c Frum, David (November 1, 2008). "For John McCain". National Review. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Nagourney, Adam (September 30, 2008). "Concerns About Palin's Readiness as Big Test Nears". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Katchen, Drew (November 9, 2012). "Frum: Conservatives fleeced and 'lied to by conservative entertainment complex'". MSNBC. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- ^ https://wsau.com/blogs/tom-kings-blog/54/when-fiction-seemed-real
- ^ https://www.msnbc.com/the-beat-with-ari/watch/-very-guilty-bush-w-h-staffer-goes-there-on-avalanche-of-ukraine-evidence-72281157668
- ^ Wallsten, Peter (September 14, 2009). "Some fear GOP is being carried to the extreme". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David (August 8, 2011). "Inside Bachmann's Brain". FrumForum.com. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- ^ "Bill Moyers Journal". Transcript. August 14, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Frum, David (June 28, 2012). "Waterloo". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- ^ "David Frum, AEI SPLIT: Conservative's Position 'Terminated' By Major Think Tank". Huffington Post. October 25, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David. "Obamacare: The Republican Waterloo". The Atlantic. March 24, 2017.
- ^ Goldberg, Michelle (September 27, 2011). "Off-Axis". Tablet. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- ^ Frum, David (November 20, 2011). "When Did the GOP Lose Touch With Reality?". New York. New York City: New York Media. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- ^ Frum, David (October 27, 2007). "David's Bookshelf 50". National Review. Archived from the original on October 31, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
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