is the most populous country in the entire Middle East
and the third-most populous on the African continent
, after Nigeria
of the country's 100 million people
live along the banks of the Nile
and in the Nile Delta, which fans out north of Cairo; and along the Suez Canal
. These regions are among the world's most densely populated, containing an average of over 1,540 per km², as compared to 96 persons per km² for the country as a whole.
2010 population density
Small communities spread throughout the desert
regions of Egypt are clustered around historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated
land reclaimed from the desert. However, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the megacities in search of employment and a higher standard of living
According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics
and other proponents of demographic structural approach (cliodynamics
), the basic problem Egypt has is an unemployment rate driven by a demographic youth bulge
: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times as high for college graduates
as it is for people who have gone through elementary school, particularly educated urban youth, who comprised most of the people that were seen out in the streets during the Egyptian revolution of 2011
. An estimated 51.2% of Egyptians are under the age of 25, with just 4.3% over the age of 65, making it one of the most youthful populations in the world.
Egypt has a population of 92,000,000 (2016).
According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth
in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million and 41%.
Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
Percentage Distribution of Population in Censuses (1976,1986,1996,2006) by Age Group
Percentage Distribution of Population in Censuses by Age Group
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2010)
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2010) :
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2012)
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2012) :
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 January 2013)
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 January 2013) :
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2013)
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2013):
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2014)
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 July 2014) in thousands:
Household population by age and sex (DHS 2014)
Household population by age and sex (DHS 2014).
Total Population in thousands: 114 428 (Males 56 926, Females 57 501)
Recent population growth in Egypt, Data of FAO
, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.
Historical Population Over Time
Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1 January 2015):
Historical and Present Population Distribution:
Egyptians have a long history of mobility, primarily across the Arab world, but emigration became much more popular once it was recognised as a right in the 1971 Constitution.
According to the International Organization for Migration
, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute actively to the development of their country through remittances (US$7.8 billion in 2009), circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia
, 332,600 in Libya
, 226,850 in Jordan
, 190,550 in Kuwait
with the rest elsewhere in the region) and the remaining 30% are living mostly North America (318,000 in the United States
, 110,000 in Canada
) and Europe (90,000 in Italy
Urban and Rural Population
Future Population Projections
The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) had released high/medium/low population projections for 2011–2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census.
The 2020 high variant was 92.6 million, the medium – 91.0 million, the low – 90.0 million. The 2030 high variant is 104.4 million, the medium – 101.7 million, the low – 99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 population figure of 84.6 million is higher than the projected high of 83 million. In fact, due to an unexpected rise in the fertility rate (from 3.0 to 3.5), the population already surpassed 91 million on 5 June 2016 while reaching 92 million on 30 November, average population age remaining stable despite a rising life expectancy.
- Number of births for January-November 2019 = 2,093,400
- Number of births for January-November 2020 = 2,083,600
- Number of deaths for January-November 2019 = 516,500
- Number of deaths for January-November 2020 = 596,300
- Natural growth for January-November 2019 = 1,576,900
- Natural growth for January-November 2020 = 1,487,300
Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey)
Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):
Life expectancy at birth
Demographics by Governorate
Urban and Rural Population of Governorates
Data taken from CAPMAS:
Population Density by Governorate
Egyptian Population Density in pre-2013 administrative divisions[needs update]
Data taken from CAPMAS:
Information for population is in thousands, pop density – persons/km2
and area is in km2
The CIA World Factbook
lists Egyptians as 99.7%, and "other" as 0.3% (2006 census).
"Other" refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt
, who come to Egypt to work for international companies, diplomats, etc.
The vast majority of the population of Egypt consists of Egyptians
, Egyptians make up 95% of the population.
The vast majority of Egyptians are native speakers of Egyptian Arabic.
Minorities in Egypt include the Copts
who represent around 10% of the entire population[a]
and live all over the country, the Berber
-speaking community of the Siwa Oasis
(Siwis) and the Nubian people
clustered along the Nile in the southernmost part of Egypt
. There are also sizable minorities of Beja
. There are also refugees mainly composed of Sudanese
, and the over all refugees are estimated to be around 3–5 million,
those from war-zone areas like Iraq
, South Sudan
, and Eritrea
The country was also host to many different communities during the colonial period, including Greeks
, and also from war-torn areas; the Lebanese
, and other minority groups like Jews
, though most either left or were compelled to leave after political developments in the 1950s. The country still hosts some 90,000 refugees and asylum seekers, mostly Palestinians
is the official language of Egypt, with the vast majority of Egyptians speaking Egyptian Arabic
. In The Upper Nile valley, Sa'idi Arabic
is prevalent. The Coptic language
is used in the Coptic church for the majority of prayers, hymns, masses, and meditations. English
is widely understood as well as French
. Siwa language
used in ethnic Berber tribal areas in the western desert (Siwa), and Nubian language
is widely used among the ethnic Nubians in the southern areas.
Religion in Egypt (est. 2017)
The literacy rate in modern Egyptian society is highly debated. Education is free through university and compulsory from ages six through 15, though enforcement may be lax. Rates for primary and secondary education have strengthened in recent years. The vast majority of children enter primary school though a significant number drop out. There are approx. 200,000 primary and secondary schools with some 10 million students, 13 major universities with more than 500,000 students, and 67 teacher colleges. Major universities include Cairo University
(100,000 students), Ain Shams University, Alexandria University
, the 1,000-year-old Al-Azhar University
, one of the world's major centers of Islamic learning and the AUC (American University in Cairo
), . The former first lady has created many project towards the advancement of Egyptian education and the efforts to force education to the remaining 7–9% of students who drop out illegally. Child labor is a contributing factor to these dropouts but it is considered a serious crime to work children under the legal age and charges are taken very seriously at this time.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
Population pyramid in 2016. Many of those 30 and younger are educated citizens who are experiencing difficulty finding work.
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook
, unless otherwise indicated.
Infant mortality rate
22.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.7 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
age 15 and over can read and writetotal population:
82.1% (2015 est.)female:
65.6% (2015 est.)
^ a b c
In 2017, the Wall Street Journal
reported that "the vast majority of Egypt's estimated 9.5 million Christians, approximately 10% of the country's population, are Orthodox Copts."
In 2019, the Associated Press cited an estimate of 10 million Copts in Egypt.
In 2015, the Wall Street Journal
reported: "The Egyptian government estimates about 5 million Copts, but the Coptic Orthodox Church says 15-18 million. Reliable numbers are hard to find but estimates suggest they make up somewhere between 6% and 18% of the population."
In 2004, BBC News reported that Copts were 5–10% of the Egyptian population.
The CIA World Factbook
reported a 2015 estimate that 10% of the Egyptian population is Christian (including both Copts and non-Copts).
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- ^ a b "Egypt in Figures 2017". CAPMAS. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
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- ^ Francis X. Rocca & Dahlia Kholaif, Pope Francis Calls on Egypt’s Catholics to Embrace Forgiveness, Wall Street Journal (April 29, 2017).
- ^ Noha Elhennawy, Egyptian woman fights unequal Islamic inheritance laws, Associated Press (November 15, 2019).
- ^ "Five Things to Know About Egypt's Coptic Christians". Wall Street Journal. 16 February 2015.
- ^ "Egyptian Coptic protesters freed". BBC News. 22 December 2004.
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- ^ a b "Who are the 5 million refugees and immigrants in Egypt?". brookings.edu. 4 October 2016.
- ^ "2.2 million and extend into Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea", refworld.com
- ^ International Religious Freedom Report for 2014 US Department of State
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- ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Egypt
- ^ CIA World Factbook – Egypt
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Last edited on 13 May 2021, at 17:49
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