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Demographics of Europe
See also: Demographics of the European Union and Ethnic groups in Europe
Figures for the population of Europe vary according to the particular definition of Europe's boundaries. In 2018, Europe had a total population of over 751 million people.[1][2] Russia is the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 146 million.
Population density in the European Union and the EFTA countries, along with candidate countries (2017)
Population growth and decline as of 2009 in Europe and the Middle East
Europe's population growth is low, and its median age high. Most of Europe is in a mode of sub-replacement fertility, which means that each new(-born) generation is becoming less populous than the older.[3] Nonetheless most West-European countries still have growing populations mainly due to immigration within Europe and from outside Europe and some due to increases in life expectancy and population momentum. Some current and past factors in European demography have included emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population.
History
Further information: World population estimates § By world region
See also: Medieval demography
Estimates for historical population sizes of Europe (including Central Asia, listed under "former USSR") based on Maddison (2007),[4] in millions, with estimated percentage of world population:
Population of Europe, in millions, by year
YearPopulation
(% of world total)
AD 134 (15%)
100040 (15%)
150078 (18%)
1600112 (20%)
1700127 (21%)
1820224 (21%)
1913498 (28%)
2000742 (13%)
Historical Population of Europe and former USSR, AD 1–1998
Source: Maddison and others (University of Groningen).[5]
Population by year (in thousands)
Country/region11000150016001700182018701913195019731998[5]2020
Austria5007002000250025003369452067676935758680788901
Belgium300400140016002000342450967666864097381019711493
Denmark1803606006507001155188829834269502253035823
Finland20403004004001169175430274009466651535536
France5000650015000185002147131246384404146341836521185880567287
Germany3000350012000160001500024905392316505868371789568202983191
Italy7000500010500131001330020176278883724847105547515759259258
the Netherlands2003009501500190023553615616410114134381570017425
Norway100200300400500970173524473265396144325368
Sweden200400550760126025854164562170158137885110379
Switzerland300300650100012001829266438644694644171308667
United Kingdom800200039426170856521226313934564950363562235923767886
Portugal50060010001100200032974353600485128634996810305
Spain4500400068008240877012203162012026327868348103937147431
Greece200010001000150015002312755489291083510689
13 small countries100113276358394657
Total Western Europe2470025413572687377881460132888187532261007305060358390388399
Albania2002002002003004371215229631082878
Bulgaria50080080012501250218742007251862182576917
Czechoslovakia10001250300045004500719012393145631568616366
− Czech Rep.1022189301029510702
- Slovakia3463464253915460
Hungary3005001250125015004571933810432102379770
Poland45012004000500060001042625753333633866638268
Romania8008002000200025006389736016311208282250319266
Yugoslavia1500175022502750275052151657821088
Eastern Europe4750650013500169501880036415521827960487289110490121006
Former USSR390071001695020700265505476588672156192180050249748290866
- Russia102833132434147671146171
- Ukraine3114236905482745037041902
World2308202682734378185558286034101041092127001417910202524531391348259076807800000
Percentages of world population, by year
Country/region110001500160017001820187019131950197319982018
Austria0.20.30.50.40.40.30.40.40.30.20.1
Belgium0.10.10.30.30.30.30.40.40.30.20.2
Denmark0.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.20.20.10.1
Finland0.00.00.10.10.10.10.10.20.20.10.1
France2.22.43.43.33.63.03.02.31.71.31.0
Germany1.31.32.72.92.52.43.13.62.72.01.4
Italy3.01.92.42.42.21.92.22.11.91.41.0
Netherlands0.10.10.20.30.30.20.30.30.40.30.3
Norway0.00.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.1
Sweden0.10.10.10.10.20.20.30.30.30.20.1
Switzerland0.10.10.10.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.1
United Kingdom0.30.70.91.11.42.02.52.52.01.41.0
Portugal0.20.20.20.20.30.30.30.30.30.20.2
Spain1.91.51.61.51.51.21.31.11.10.90.7
Other0.90.40.30.30.30.30.40.40.50.40.3
Total Western Europe10.79.513.113.313.512.814.814.612.19.26.6
Eastern Europe2.12.43.13.03.13.54.14.43.52.82.0
Former USSR1.72.63.93.74.45.37.08.77.16.44.9
Sum14.514.520.120.021.021.625.927.722.718.413.59.8[6]
World100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Note: These numbers do not include the population of European countries' colonies. Only population within Europe.
Total population
330,000,000 people lived in Europe in 1916.[7] In 1950 there were 549,000,000.[8] The population of Europe in 2015 was estimated to be 741 million according to the United Nations,[8] which was slightly less than 11% of the world population. The precise figure depends on the exact definition of the geographic extent of Europe. The population of the European Union (EU) was 509 million as of 2015.[9] Non-EU countries situated in Europe in their entirety[10] account for another 94 million. Five transcontinental countries[11] have a total of 247 million people, of which about half reside in Europe proper.
As it stands now, around 10% of the world's people live in Europe. If demographic trends keep their pace, its share may fall to around 7% in 2050, but still amounting to 716 million people in absolute numbers, according to the United Nations estimate.[8] (The decline in the percentage is partly due to high fertility rates in other parts of the world.) The sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy in most European states mean a declining and aging population. High immigration and emigration levels within and from outside the continent are taking place and quickly changing countries, specificly in Western Europe, from a single ethnic group to a multicultural society. These trends change societies' economies as well as their political and social institutions.
Vital statistics
Birth and death rates, by year
YearAverage
population
Live birthsDeathsNatural
change
Crude rates (per 1000)
BirthsDeathsNatural changeFertility
1950552,650,63712,279,6316,077,2946,202,33722.211.011.2
1951558,223,19712,169,6826,325,0195,844,66321.811.310.5
1952563,493,47512,177,6236,001,8396,175,78421.610.711.0
1953569,038,33811,941,8946,019,7185,922,17621.010.610.4
1954574,789,67012,324,9415,898,0466,426,89521.410.311.2
1955580,851,70512,212,3265,799,6776,412,64921.010.011.0
1956586,901,63412,146,2665,829,4716,316,79520.79.910.8
1957592,961,19312,266,9845,933,3926,333,59220.710.010.7
1958599,136,26712,252,1825,600,0086,652,17420.49.311.1
1959605,348,89712,265,7965,761,6456,504,15120.39.510.7
1960611,080,34512,250,4965,714,9986,535,49820.09.410.7
1961617,765,54312,128,2825,686,4536,441,82919.69.210.4
1962624,539,79911,878,3056,011,1845,867,12119.09.69.4
1963631,178,74811,815,8195,990,3395,825,48018.79.59.2
1964636,849,20411,635,9835,802,0605,833,92318.39.19.2
1965642,428,28911,263,7956,035,1035,228,69217.59.48.1
1966647,361,67211,159,8006,028,4145,131,38617.29.37.9
1967651,746,12911,143,8196,178,0074,965,81217.19.57.6
1968656,477,45910,974,4586,386,2354,588,22316.79.77.0
1969660,989,82510,837,6466,633,5864,204,06016.410.06.4
1970664,048,77710,710,3416,579,9724,130,36916.19.96.2
1971668,951,35210,813,5876,644,5574,169,03016.29.96.2
1972673,335,59310,640,8326,691,4553,949,37715.89.95.9
1973677,566,69210,404,6446,806,7973,597,84715.410.05.3
1974681,644,89910,539,2146,787,7663,751,44815.510.05.5
1975685,723,15110,386,2537,034,4053,351,84815.110.34.9
1976688,988,35310,380,3327,108,3683,271,96415.110.34.7
1977692,598,70610,273,7747,071,6833,202,09114.810.24.6
1978695,805,43610,240,2847,207,3283,032,95614.710.44.4
1979699,351,91610,250,7807,294,7942,955,98614.710.44.2
1980702,641,86010,299,3627,452,6922,846,67014.710.64.1
1981705,680,14710,173,6337,419,1892,754,44414.410.53.9
1982708,358,98210,217,9227,352,2202,865,70214.410.44.0
1983711,003,28810,281,9667,568,7022,713,26414.510.63.8
1984713,601,04910,180,6017,613,1262,567,47514.310.73.6
1985716,205,71110,074,1377,730,4122,343,72514.110.83.3
1986719,150,44010,207,8847,481,6322,726,25214.210.43.8
1987722,244,37310,148,9387,469,1322,679,80614.110.33.7
1988725,546,17610,017,5727,560,8262,456,74613.810.43.4
1989728,372,2779,638,8717,585,5132,053,35813.210.42.8
1990730,830,0659,422,3277,745,7521,676,57512.910.62.3
1991733,009,7819,023,7247,873,7741,149,95012.310.71.6
1992730,096,4768,545,2467,936,689608,55711.710.90.8
1993731,078,2718,080,3138,416,692-336,37911.111.5-0.5
1994731,823,4997,917,7738,518,141-600,36810.811.6-0.8
1995732,194,9217,706,9178,514,506-807,58910.511.6-1.1
1996735,716,9367,645,9558,403,761-757,80610.411.4-1.0
1997735,626,6807,532,3038,270,485-738,18210.211.2-1.0
1998735,357,1897,448,1908,211,210-763,02010.111.2-1.0
1999735,220,2237,306,5988,399,803-1,093,2059.911.4-1.5
2000735,281,8367,391,2388,404,825-1,013,58710.111.4-1.4
2001734,479,0997,311,7888,376,261-1,064,47310.011.4-1.4
2002734,113,6757,363,6648,537,143-1,173,47910.011.6-1.6
2003734,835,7377,510,1058,676,316-1,166,21110.211.8-1.6
2004735,580,7567,630,6908,384,784-754,09410.411.4-1.0
2005736,717,3757,595,8068,521,892-926,08610.311.6-1.3
2006737,678,8087,742,8558,277,039-534,18410.511.2-0.7
2007738,915,0577,953,1568,245,072-291,91610.811.2-0.4
2008740,211,5368,261,7918,274,493-12,70211.211.20.0
2009741,816,2058,272,1298,175,40896,72111.211.00.1
2010743,090,8108,276,1708,192,16984,00111.111.00.1
2011742,829,6008,125,1218,011,717113,40410.910.80.2
2012744,057,8158,225,8158,126,63099,18511.110.90.1
2013745,572,3128,057,8038,069,336-11,53310.810.80.0
2014746,962,8438,112,7338,016,66196,07210.910.70.1
2015749,227,3458,006,6958,263,948-257,25310.711.0-0.3
2016750,610,0367,978,9108,138,734-159,82410.610.8-0.2
2017751,412,6377,641,6108,200,819-559,20910.210.9-0.7
2018751,612,0937,401,5728,252,295-850,7239.811.0-1.1
2019
YearAverage
population
Live birthsDeathsNatural
change
Crude rates (per 1000)
BirthsDeathsNatural changeFertility
Population by country
Modern political map
Council of Europe members, with the ten founding states in yellow
According to different definitions, such as consideration of the concept of Central Europe, the following territories and regions may be subject to various other categorisations aside from geographic conventions.
Population and area of European countries/territories
Country (or territory)Population
[1][2]
Area
(km2)[12]
Density
(per km2)
Capital
 Albania(more)
2,882,74028,748100Tirana
 Andorra(more)
77,006468165Andorra la Vella
 Armenia(more)2,951,74529,74399Yerevan
 Austria(more)
8,891,38883,871106Vienna
 Azerbaijan(more)9,949,53786,600115Baku
 Belarus(more)9,452,617207,60046Minsk
 Belgium(more)
11,482,17830,528376Brussels
 Bosnia and Herzegovina(more)3,323,92551,20965Sarajevo
 Bulgaria(more)7,051,608110,90064Sofia
 Croatia(more)4,156,40556,59473Zagreb
 Cyprus(more)
1,189,2659,251129Nicosia
 Czech Republic(more)
10,665,67778,866135Prague
 Denmark(more)
5,752,12643,094133Copenhagen
 Estonia(more)
1,322,92045,22729Tallinn
 Faroe Islands(Denmark)(more)
49,7091,39935.6Tórshavn
 Finland(more)5,522,576336,85216Helsinki
 France(more)
64,990,511551,500118Paris
 Georgia(more)
4,002,94269,70057Tbilisi
 Germany(more)83,124,418357,137233Berlin
 Gibraltar(UK) (more)33,71865,620Gibraltar
 Greece(more)
10,522,246131,95780Athens
 Guernsey(more)[d]
65,345631,037St. Peter Port
 Hungary(more)9,707,49993,026104Budapest
 Iceland(more)
336,713103,0003Reykjavík
 Ireland(more)4,818,69069,82569Dublin
 Isle of Man (more)[d]84,077572147Douglas
 Italy(more)
60,627,291301,339201Rome
 Jersey(more)[d]97,857116844Saint Helier
 Kosovo(more)*[p]
1,859,20310,887171Pristina
 Latvia(more)1,928,45964,56230Riga
 Liechtenstein(more)37,910160237Vaduz
 Lithuania(more)2,801,26465,30043Vilnius
 Luxembourg(more)604,2452,586234Luxembourg
 Malta(more)
439,2483161,390Valletta
 Moldova(more)4,051,94433,846120Chişinău
 Monaco(more)
38,682219,341Monaco
 Montenegro(more)627,80913,81245Podgorica
 Netherlands(more)
17,059,56037,354457Amsterdam
 North Macedonia(more)2,082,95725,71381Skopje
 Norway(more)
5,337,962323,78716Oslo
 Poland(more)37,921,592311,888122Warsaw
 Portugal(more)[f]
10,256,19392,212111Lisbon
 Romania(more)
19,506,114238,39182Bucharest
 Russia(more)
145,734,03817,098,2469Moscow
 San Marino (more)
33,78561554San Marino
 Serbia(more)[g]
8,802,75488,361100Belgrade
 Slovakia(more)
5,453,01449,036111Bratislava
 Slovenia(more)2,077,83720,273102Ljubljana
 Spain(more)
46,692,858505,99292Madrid
 Svalbard and Jan Mayen(Norway}
2,86862,4220Longyearbyen
 Sweden(more)9,971,638450,29522Stockholm
 Switzerland(more)
8,525,61141,285207Bern
 Transnistria(more)505,0004,163121.3Tiraspol
 Turkey(more)
82,340,088783,562105Ankara
 Ukraine(more)
44,246,156603,50073Kyiv
 United Kingdom(more)67,141,684242,495277London
 Vatican City (more)
8420.41,913.6Vatican City
 Åland Islands(Finland) (more)
28,6661,58018Mariehamn
Age
Main article: Aging of Europe
Mirroring their mostly sub-replacement fertility and high life expectancy, European countries tend to have older populations overall. They had nine of the top ten highest median ages in national populations in 2005. Only Japan had an older population.[13]
Religion
Main article: Religion in Europe
Further information: Christianity in Europe and Islam in Europe
Over the last several centuries, religious practice has been on the decline in a process of secularization. Several European countries have experienced a decline in church attendance as well as a decline in the number of people professing a religious belief. The 2010 Eurobarometer survey found that, on average, 51% of the citizens of the European Union that they believe there is a God, 26% believe there is some sort of spirit or life force and 20% don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force. 3% declined to answer.[14] The Eurobarometer survey must be taken with caution, however, as there are discrepancies between it and national census results. For example, in the United Kingdom, the 2001 census revealed that over 70% of the population regarded themselves as "Christians" with only 15% professing to have no religion, though the wording of the question has been criticized as "misleading" by the British Humanist Association.[15] The 2011 census showed a dramatic reduction to less than 60% of the population regarding themselves as "Christians".[16]
Despite its decline, Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe. According to a survey published in 2010, 76.2% of Europeans identified themselves as Christians.[17][18] Catholics were the largest Christian group in Europe, accounting for more than 48% of European Christians.[19] The second-largest Christian group in Europe was the Orthodox, who made up 32% of European Christians.[19] And about 19% of European Christians were part of the Protestant tradition. Europe constitutes in absolute terms the world's largest Christian population.[20]
According to a 2003 study,[21] 47% of French people declared themselves as agnostics in 2003. This situation is often called "Post-Christian Europe". A decrease in religiousness and church attendance in western Europe (especially in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden) has been noted. According to a survey published in 2012, atheists and agnostics make up about 18.2% of the European population.[22] According to the same survey the religiously unaffiliated make up the majority of the population only in two European countries: Czech Republic (75%) and Estonia (60%).[22]
According to another survey about Religiosity in the European Union from 2012 by Eurobarometer, Christianity was the largest religion in the Union (accounting for 72% of the total population), Catholics were with 48% the largest Christian group in the Union, Protestants made up 12%, Eastern Orthodox made up 8% and other Christians accounted for 4% of the total population.[23] non-believers/agnostics accounted for 16%, atheists accounted for 7% and Muslims accounted for 2%.[24]
Muslims are younger and have more children than non-Muslims in Europe overall.[25]
Age and fertility rate for women in Europe
ReligionMedian age, 2016Total fertility rate, 2015–2020[fn 1][25]
Muslims30 yo2.6 children/woman
Non-Muslims44 yo1.6 children/woman
Fertility and migration drove Muslim population growth in Europe between 2010 and 2016.[26]
Estimated population change between 2010 and 2016 due to three factors (millions)
ReligionNatural increaseNet migrationReligious switching[26]
Muslims+2.92+3.48−0.16
Non-Muslims−1.67+1.29+0.16
Ethnic groups
Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe
Further information: Immigration to Europe
Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. (including Europeans in Siberia)[27]
The largest ethnic groups are the Russians, with 117 million, and the Germans, with 72 million. In some countries such as the United Kingdom, France and Spain, the designation of nationality may controversially take on ethnic aspects, subsuming smaller ethnic groups such as Scots, Welsh, Bretons and Basques, making it difficult to quantify a "British" or "French" ethnicity, for example.
Approximately 20 million non-Europeans live in the EU, 4% of the overall population.[28] There are an estimated 10 million Romani people in Europe.[29]
Language
Main article: Languages of Europe
Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. This family is divided into a number of branches, including Romance, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Celtic and Greek. The Uralic languages, which include Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, also have a significant presence in Europe. The Turkic family also has several European members, while the North Caucasian and Kartvelian families are important in the southeastern extremity of geographical Europe. The Basque language of the western Pyrenees is an isolate unrelated to any other group, while Maltese is the only Semitic language in Europe with national language status. The most spoken language of Europe is Russian, which belongs to the group of Slavic languages.
The European Union, which excludes many European countries (e.g. Norway, Russia, Switzerland, United Kingdom), recognised 23 official languages as of 2007.[31] According to the same source, the eight most natively spoken languages in the EU were (percentage of total EU population[31]):
  1. 19% German
  2. 13% French
  3. 12% English
  4. 11% Italian
  5. 9% Spanish
  6. 9% Polish
  7. 7% Romanian
  8. 5% Dutch
These figures change when foreign language skills are taken into account. The list below shows the top eight European languages ordered by total number of speakers in the EU:[31]
  1. 49% English
  2. 35% German
  3. 26% French
  4. 16% Italian
  5. 15% Spanish
  6. 10% Polish
  7. 7% Russian
  8. 6% Dutch
This makes German the most frequently spoken native language and English the most frequently spoken non-native language overall in the European Union, with German the second-most common language overall.
Languages that are not official state languages are protected in many European countries by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. These can include languages spoken by relatively many people, such as Catalan and Basque in Spain, as well as languages spoken by relatively few such as Cornish and Scottish Gaelic in the United Kingdom.
Genetic origins
Main article: Genetic history of Europe
Further information: White people and Caucasoid
Homo sapiens appeared in Europe roughly 40,000 years ago, with the settlement of the Cro-Magnons. Over the prehistoric period there was continuous settlement in Europe, notably by the immediate descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans who migrated west after the advent of the Neolithic revolution.[32]
Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA
Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have suggested substantial genetic homogeneity of European populations,[33] with only a few geographic or linguistic isolates appearing to be genetic isolates as well.[34] On the other hand, analyses of the Y chromosome[35][36] and of autosomal diversity[37] have shown a general gradient of genetic similarity running from the southeast to the northwest of the continent.
Population structure
A study in May 2009[38] that examined 19 populations from Europe using 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) highlighted the genetic diversity of European populations corresponding to the northwest to southeast gradient and distinguished "several distinct regions" within Europe:
In this study, Fst (Fixation index) was found to correlate considerably with geographic distances ranging from ≤0.0010 for neighbouring populations to 0.0230 for Southern Italy and Finland. For comparisons, pair-wise Fst of non-European samples were as follows: Europeans – Yoruba (West Africans) 0.1530; Europeans – Chinese 0.1100; Yoruba (West Africans) – Chinese 0.1900.[39]
A recent genetic study published in the "European Journal of Human Genetics" in Nature (2019) showed that populations of Europe, South Asia (India), Western Asia, Northern Africa, and parts of Central Asia are closely related to each other. These mentioned groups are distinguishable from selected control populations in East Asia, Western Africa and Eastern Africa (Somali & Ethiopian Jews, selected as outlier clusters).[40]
See also
Notes
^ a: Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, or Africa.
^ b: Includes Transnistria, a region that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence; however, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
^ c: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. However, the population and area figures include the entire state.
^ d: Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom. Other Channel Islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey include Alderney and Sark.
^ e: Cyprus is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus.
^ f: Figures for Portugal include the Azores and Madeira archipelagos, both in Northern Atlantic.
^ g: Area figure for Serbia includes Kosovo, a province that unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and whose sovereign status is unclear. Population and density figures are 2010 estimates and are given without the disputed territory of Kosovo.
^ h: Figures for France include metropolitan France but not overseas departments and territories as they are not part of the European continent.
^ j: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers. However, area and population figures refer to the entire country.
^ k: Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe. The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
^ m: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the population and area figures include the entire state. This also includes Georgian estimates for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared and de facto achieved independence. The International recognition, however, is limited.
^ o: The total figures for area and population includes the whole of the transcontinental countries. The precision of these figure is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extend of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.
^ p: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is a 2007 estimate.
^ r: Abkhazia and South Ossetia unilaterally declared their independence from Georgia on 25 August 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their sovereign status is unclear. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.
^ The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman.
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