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Demographics of Jordan
Jordan has a population of approximately 9,531,712 inhabitants (Female: 47%; Males: 53%) as of 2015. Jordanians (Arabic: أردنيون‎‎) are the citizens of Jordan, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry. Some 98% percent of Jordanians are Arabs, while the remaining 2% are other ethnic minorities.[1] Around 2.9 million were non-citizens, a figure including refugees, legal and illegal immigrants.[2] Jordan's annual population growth rate stood at 2.05% in 2017, with an average of three children per woman. There were 1,977,534 households in Jordan in 2015, with an average of 4.8 persons per household.[2]
Demographics of Jordan

Jordan population pyramid in 2020
Population2015 census: 9,531,712 (92nd)
2019 estimate: 10,392,309 (86th)
Density116/km2 (300/sq mi) (70th)
Growth rate2.05% (2017 est.)
Birth rate23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate3.4 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy74.8 years (2017 est.)
 • male73.4 years
 • female76.3 years
Fertility rate2.7 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years34.68%
15–64 years61.87%
65 and over3.45%
Sex ratio
Total1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.00 male(s)/female
65 and over0.89 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityJordanians
Major ethnicArab
Minor ethnicArmenians, Chechens, Circassians
Language
OfficialArabic
SpokenArabic, English
The official language is Arabic, while English is the second most widely spoken language by Jordanians. It is also widely used in commerce and government. In 2016, about 84% of Jordan's population live in urban towns and cities.[1] Many Jordanians and people of Jordanian descent live across the world, mainly in the United States, United Arab Emirates, Canada, France, Sweden and Spain.
In 2016, Jordan was named as the largest refugee hosting country per capita in the world, followed by Turkey, Pakistan and Lebanon.[3] The kingdom of Jordan hosts refugees mainly from Palestine, Syria, Iraq and many other countries. There are also hundreds of thousands of workers from Egypt, Indonesia and South Asia, who work as domestic and construction workers.
Definition
The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the Mandatory Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River.[4]
Ethnic and religious groups
Ethnic groups in Jordan[5]
Ethnic groups
Arabs
98%
Circassian, Chechens
1%
Armenian
1%
Arab
Arab Jordanians are either descended from families and clans who were living in the cities and towns in Transjordan prior to the 1948 war, most notably in the governorates of Jerash, Ajlun, Balqa, Irbid, Madaba, Al Karak, Aqaba, Amman and some other towns in the country, or from the Palestinian families who sought refuge in Jordan in different times in the 20th century, mostly during and after the wars of 1948 and 1967. Many Christians are natives especially in towns such as Fuhies, Madaba, Al Karak, Ajlun, or have Bedouin origins, and a significant number came in 1948 and 1967 mainly from Jerusalem, Jaffa, Lydda, Bethlehem, and other Palestinian cities. Along to some other Arab ethnicities, mostly from Syria and Iraq.
Druze
The Druze people are believed to constitute about 0.5% of the total population of Jordan, which is around 32,000.[6] The Druze, who refer to themselves as al-Muwahhideen, or "believers in one God," are concentrated in the rural, mountainous areas west and north of Amman. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims,[7][8][9][10][11] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.[12]
Bedouins arabs
The other group of Jordanians is descended from Bedouins (of which, less than 1% live a nomadic lifestyle). Bedouin settlements are concentrated in the wasteland south and east of the country.
Armenians
Main article: Armenians in Jordan
There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009.[13] An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church,[13] and predominantly speak the Western dialect[14] of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.[15]
Assyrians
Main article: Assyrians in Jordan
There is an Assyrian refugee population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan as refugees since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refugees.
Circassians
Main article: Circassians in Jordan
By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Authorities directed the Circassian immigrants to settle in Jordan. The Circassians are Sunni Muslims and are estimated to number 20,000 to 80,000 people.
Chechens
Main article: Chechens in Jordan
There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.
Refugees
Further information: Iraqis in Jordan, Syrians in Jordan, and Palestinians in Jordan
Jordan is a home to 2,175,491 registered Palestine refugees.[16] Out of those 2,175,491 refugees, 634,182 have not been given Jordanian citizenship.[17] Jordan also hosts around 1.4 million Syrian refugees who fled to the country due to the Syrian Civil War since 2011. About 31,163 Yemenis and 22,700 Libyan refugees live in Jordan as of January 2015.[2] There are thousands of Lebanese refugees who came to Jordan when civil strife and war and the 2006 war broke out in their native country. Up to 1 million Iraqis came to Jordan following the Iraq War in 2003.[18] In 2015, their number was 130,911. About 2,500 Iraqi Mandaean refugees have been resettled in Jordan.
Religion
Main article: Religion in Jordan

Marsa Zayed mosque in Aqaba.

An eastern Orthodox church during a snowstorm in Amman.
Religions of Jordan (2010 ) [5]
Religionspercent
Islam
97.2%
Christian
2.7%
Buddhist
0.4%
Hindu
0.1%
Folk religionist
0.1%
Unaffiliated
0.2%
Other
0.2%
Health and education
Main articles: Health in Jordan and Education in Jordan
Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region.[19] Qualified medics, favourable investment climate and Jordan's stability have contributed to the success of this sector.[20]
Jordan has a very advanced education system. The school education system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam (Tawjihi).[21] Scholars may attend either private or public schools.
Access to higher education is open to holders of the General Secondary Education Certificate, who can then choose between private Community Colleges, public Community Colleges or universities (public and private). The credit-hour system, which entitles students to select courses according to a study plan, is implemented at universities. The number of public universities has reached (10), besides (17) universities that are private, and (51) community colleges. Numbers of universities accompanied by significant increase in number of students enrolled to study in these universities, where the number of enrolled students in both public and private universities is estimated at nearly (236) thousand; (28) thousand out of the total are from Arab or foreign nationalities.[22]
PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
1950–195546.51985–199069.2
1955–196050.71990–199570.4
1960–196554.61995–200071.3
1965–197058.42000–200572.2
1970–197561.92005–201073.0
1975–198064.92010–201573.8
1980–198567.2
Source: UN World Population Prospects[23]
Statistics
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1952586,200—    
1961900,800+53.7%
19701,508,200+67.4%
19802,233,200+48.1%
19903,468,000+55.3%
20004,857,000+40.1%
20106,698,000+37.9%
201710,053,000+50.1%
Source:[24][25]
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
Total population
10,086,876 (According to the Population Clock as of February 14, 2018).[26]
Gender ratio
Age structure
Structure of the population [27]
Structure of the population (01.10.2004) (Census)
Age GroupMaleFemaleTotal%
Total2 626 2872 477 3525 103 639100
0-4333 216317 115650 33112,74
5-9329 133313 738642 87112,60
10-14313 083297 046610 12911,95
15-19287 693272 145559 83810,97
20-24279 600260 593540 19310,58
25-29239 774216 487456 2618,94
30-34207 178191 991399 1697,82
35-39167 737155 689323 4266,34
40-44123 945117 455241 4004,73
45-4987 09883 358170 4563,34
50-5464 60763 633128 2402,51
55-5955 76557 956113 7212,23
60-6452 08446 70398 7871,94
65-6937 09534 72871 8231,41
70-7423 46723 35346 8200,92
75-7912 65111 61724 2680,48
80+10 13711 92322 0600,43
80-846 1447 44113 5850,27
85-892 4442 5885 0320,10
90-941 0121 3042 3160,05
95-995375901 1270,02
unknown2 0241 8223 8460,08
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0-14975 432927 8991 903 33137,29
15-641 565 4811 466 0103 031 49159,40
65+83 35081 621164 9713,23
Structure of the population (31.12.2013) (Estimates) (Excluding foreigners, including registered Palestinian): refugees. :
Age GroupMaleFemaleTotal%
Total3 366 0003 174 0006 530 000100
0-4427 485405 300832 78512,75
5-9422 095400 880822 97512,60
10-14401 900379 680781 58011,97
15-19368 915347 720716 63510,97
20-24358 485333 170691 65510,59
25-29307 650276 855584 5058,95
30-34265 915245 520511 4357,83
35-39215 425199 015414 4406,35
40-44158 875149 975308 8504,73
45-49111 750106 630218 3803,34
50-5482 80581 320164 1252,51
55-5971 36074 040145 4002,23
60-6466 64559 800126 4451,94
65-6947 48544 28091 7651,41
70-7430 04029 78559 8250,92
75-7916 19514 81531 0100,48
80-847 8659 49517 3600,27
85-893 1303 3006 4300,10
90-941 2951 6652 9600,05
95+6857551 4400,02
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0-141 251 4801 185 8602 437 34037,33
15-642 007 8251 874 0453 881 87059,45
65+106 695104 095210 7903,23
Median age
Population growth rate
2.05% (2017 est.)
Birth rate
23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Births and deaths[28][29]
Average population

Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Total fertility rate (TFR)
195151,518
1952586,20046,146
195349,228
195453,170
195558,037
195655,374
195760,582
195869,594
195963,643
196078,520
1961900,80070,775
196286,397
196384,544
196486,327
196591,857
196694,299
196770,956
196869,483
196973,443
19701,508,20076,828
197177,758
197280,327
197381,302
197481,490
197581,659
197684,380
197779,882
197884,195
19792,133,00091,622
19802,233,000
19812,319,00095,628
19822,409,00097,794
19832,502,00098,398
19842,599,000102,521
19852,700,000102,712
19862,805,000112,451
19872,914,000107,519
19883,027,000116,346
19893,144,000115,742
19903,468,000116,520
19913,701,000150,177
19923,844,000155,684
19933,993,000149,493
19944,139,400140,444
19954,264,000141,319
19964,383,000142,404
19974,506,000130,6334.4
19984,623,000133,714
19994,738,000135,266
20004,857,000126,01613,339112,677
20014,918,000142,95616,164126,79229.13.325.8
20025,038,000146,07717,220128,85729.03.425.6
20035,164,000148,29416,937131,35728.73.325.4
20045,414,000150,24817,011133,23727.83.124.6
20055,678,000152,27617,883134,39326.83.123.7
20065,843,000162,97220,397142,57527.93.524.4
20076,017,000185,01120,924164,08730.73.527.33.6
20086,200,000181,32819,403161,92529.23.126.13.6
20096,392,000179,87220,251159,62128.13.225.03.8
20106,594,000183,94821,550162,39827.93.324.63.8
20116,846,000178,43521,730156,70526.13.222.93.8
20127,210,000177,69522,785154,91024.63.221.53.5
20137,771,000178,14323,898154,24522.93.119.93.5
20148,459,000188,90225,782163,12022.33.019.33.5
20159,182,000198,01826,640171,37821.62.918.73.38
20169,798,000197,78927,608170,18120.42.917.63.38
201710,053,000211,44127,516183,92521.02.718.32.7
201810,309,000207,91727,753180,16420.22.717.52.7
201910,554,000197,28729,836167,45120.66.014.62.7
Death rate
3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 84.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.26% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Maternal mortality rate
58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
Total fertility rate
3.19 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [30] Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):
YearCBR (Total)TFR (Total)CBR (Urban)TFR (Urban)CBR (Rural)TFR (Rural)
19767.4
19836.6
199036.15.57 (3.94)33.94.75 (3.36)39.06.85 (4.76)
199733.14.35 (2.9)32.54.22 (2.9)35.55.00 (3.1)
200229.03.7 (2.6)28.43.5 (2.5)31.34.2 (2.8)
200728.13.6 (2.8)28.13.6 (2.8)28.23.7 (2.8)
200930.63.8 (3.0)30.63.8 (2.9)30.74.0 (3.1)
201227.23.5 (2.4)26.73.4 (2.4)29.83.9 (2.7)
2017-1821.62.7 (2.2)21.32.7 (2.1)23.73.1 (2.4)
Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) by nationality
YearJordanianSyrianOther nationality
2017-20182.6 (2.1)4.7 (3.7)1.9 (1.7)
Health expenditures
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density
2.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
35.5% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
3% (2012)
Literacy rate
15–24 years (in 2015):[31]
15 years and older (in 2015):[31]
UN estimates[32]
PeriodLive births per yearDeaths per yearNatural change per yearCBR1CDR1NC1TFR1IMR1
1950–195526 00011 00015 00047.419.328.17.38160.9
1955–196038 00013 00025 00049.416.532.97.38128.9
1960–196554 00015 00040 00053.614.539.18.00103.2
1965–197073 00016 00057 00052.311.840.58.0082.8
1970–197590 00017 00073 00049.09.439.67.7968.3
1975–198092 00016 00076 00042.87.535.37.3856.5
1980–1985101 00017 00085 00039.76.533.27.0544.4
1985–1990117 00018 00099 00037.55.731.86.4436.0
1990–1995132 00019 000113 00033.94.929.05.1430.6
1995–2000147 00021 000127 00032.04.527.54.3426.7
2000–2005143 00021 000122 00028.14.223.93.6023.6
2005–2010152 00023 000128 00026.44.122.33.2721.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Public attitudes
One World Values Survey reported 51.4% of Jordanians responded that they would prefer not to have neighbors of a different race.[33]
See also
Demographics of the Middle East
Bibliography
Gandolfo, Luisa (24 December 2012). Palestinians in Jordan: The Politics of Identity. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-095-7.
References
  1. ^ a b "The World Fact book – Jordan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Ghazal, Mohammad (22 January 2016). "Population stands at around 9.5 million, including 2.9 million guests". The Jordan Times. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Jordan tops list of refugee-host countries — Amnesty". Jordan Times. 2016-10-04. Archived from the original on 2018-11-24. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  4. ^ "American Jewish Yearbook p.528" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  5. ^ a b "Middle East :: JORDAN". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
  6. ^ International Religious Freedom Report, US State Department, 2005
  7. ^ Pintak, Lawrence (2019). America & Islam: Soundbites, Suicide Bombs and the Road to Donald Trump. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9781788315593.
  8. ^ Jonas, Margaret (2011). The Templar Spirit: The Esoteric Inspiration, Rituals and Beliefs of the Knights Templar. Temple Lodge Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781906999254. [Druze] often they are not regarded as being Muslim at all, nor do all the Druze consider themselves as Muslim
  9. ^ "Are the Druze People Arabs or Muslims? Deciphering Who They Are". Arab America. Arab America. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  10. ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
  11. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634. While they appear parallel to those of normative Islam, in the Druze religion they are different in meaning and interpretation. The religion is consider distinct from the Ismaili as well as from other Muslims belief and practice... Most Druze consider themselves fully assimilated in American society and do not necessarily identify as Muslims..
  12. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780030525964. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above..
  13. ^ a b "Jordan: Religions & Peoples". i-cias.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  14. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:ARM". ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  15. ^ "Jordan - history - geography". britannica.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
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  17. ^ "Population stands at around 9.5 million, including 2.9 million guests". Jordan Times. 2016-01-30. Archived from the original on 2018-02-08. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
  18. ^ "Doors closing on fleeing Iraqis". 2007. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  19. ^ "Jordan profile – Overview". BBC. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  20. ^ Malkawi, Khetam (30 May 2015). "Sector leaders highlight potential for further growth in medical tourism". The Jordan Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  21. ^ "المملكة الاردنية الهاشمية - وزارة التربية و التعليم Ministry of Education - Hashemit Kingdom of Jordan". www.moe.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  22. ^ "Brief on Higher Education Sector in Jordan". www.mohe.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  23. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  24. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
  25. ^ "Population - Estimated population of 2017 and some of selected data". Department of Statistics. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  26. ^ "Department of Statistics". dosweb.dos.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2018-02-12. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  28. ^ "كتاب الاحصائي السنوي 2011". www.dos.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  29. ^ "Department of Statistics". dosweb.dos.gov.jo. Archived from the original on 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
  30. ^ "The DHS Program - Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". www.dhsprogram.com. Archived from the original on 2015-05-07. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
  31. ^ a b Learning, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong (2017-09-08). "Effective Literacy Programmes". litbase.uil.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 2018-07-27. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  32. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". un.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  33. ^ "A fascinating map of the world's most and least racially tolerant countries". Archived from the original on 2017-04-30. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
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