examples are to school
, from school
, meaning to instruct; to shelve
, from shelf
, meaning to put on shelves; and to symbolize
, from symbol
, meaning to be a symbol for.
Some common denominalizing affixes
in English are -ize/-ise
), and zero
A variety of semantic relations are expressed between the base noun X and the derived verb. Although there is no simple relationship between the affix and the semantic relation,
there are semantic regularities that can define certain subclasses. 
Some common terms used to refer to these subclasses include: 
- resultative: to make something into an X, e.g., victimize, cash
- locative: to put something in X, e.g., box, hospitalize
- instrumental: to use X, e.g., sponge, hammer
- ablative: to remove something from X, e.g., deplane, unsaddle
- privative: to remove X from something, e.g., pit (olives), behead, bone, defrost
- ornative: to add X to something or to cover something with X, e.g., rubberize, salt
- similative: to act like or resemble X, e.g., tyrannize, guard
- performative: to do or perform X, e.g., botanize, tango
Many Latin verbs are denominal.
For example, the first conjugation
(to crown) is derived from corona
while the fourth conjugation verbs mollire
(to soften) and servire
(to serve) derive from mollis
(soft) and servus
(a slave), respectively.
- ^ a b Clark, Eve V.; Clark, Herbert H. (December 1979). "When Nouns Surface as Verbs". Language. 55 (4): 767–811. doi:10.2307/412745.
- ^ a b Carolyn A. Gottfurcht, Denominal Verb Formation in English, Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2008 full text
- ^ Rimell, Laura D. (2012). Nominal Roots as Event Predicates in English Denominal Conversion Verbs.
- ^ Kastovsky, Dieter (1973). "Causatives". Foundations of Language. 10 (2): 255–315. ISSN 0015-900X.
- ^ Plag, Ingo (1999). Morphological Productivity: Structural Constraints in English Derivation. De Gruyter Mouton. doi:10.1515/9783110802863. ISBN 978-3-11-080286-3.
- ^ Jacques, Guillaume (2012). "From denominal derivation to incorporation". Lingua. 122 (11): 1207–1231. ISSN 0024-3841.
- ^ Jacques, Guillaume (2014). "Denominal affixes as sources of antipassive markers in Japhug Rgyalrong". Lingua. 138: 1–22. ISSN 0024-3841.
- ^ a b Moreland, Floyd L.; Fleischer, Rita M. (1990). Latin: An Intensive Course. London, England: University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 0520031830.
- ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. IV (2004). "13.13". Indo-European Languages and Culture. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0315-2.
Last edited on 9 March 2021, at 00:16
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