Dental consonant
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /d/, /n/, /t/ and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see alveolar consonant) because of the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Latin script they are generally written using the same symbols (like t, d, n).
IPA Number408
Entity (decimal)̪
Unicode (hex)U+032A
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for dental consonant is U+032A ◌̪COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW.
For many languages, such as Albanian, Irish and Russian, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants. Thus, velarized consonants, such as Albanian /ɫ/, tend to be dental or denti-alveolar, and non-velarized consonants tend to be retracted to an alveolar position.[1]
Sanskrit, Hindustani and all other Indic languages have an entire set of dental stops that occur phonemically as voiced and voiceless and with or without aspiration. The nasal /n/ also exists but is quite alveolar and apical in articulation.[citation needed] To native speakers, the English alveolar /t/ and /d/ sound more like the corresponding retroflex consonants of their languages than like dentals.[citation needed]
Spanish /t/ and /d/ are denti-alveolar,[2] while /l/ and /n/ are prototypically alveolar but assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant. Likewise, Italian /t/, /d/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/ are denti-alveolar ([t̪], [d̪], [t̪͡s̪], and [d̪͡z̪] respectively) and /l/ and /n/ become denti-alveolar before a following dental consonant.[3][4]
Although denti-alveolar consonants are often described as dental, it is the point of contact farthest to the back that is most relevant, defines the maximum acoustic space of resonance and gives a characteristic sound to a consonant.[5] In French, the contact that is farthest back is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar.
Dental/denti-alveolar consonants as transcribed by the International Phonetic Alphabet include:
dental nasalRussianбанк[bak]'bank'
voiceless dental plosiveFinnishtutti[ut̪t̪i]'pacifier'
voiced dental plosiveArabicدين[iːn]'religion'
voiceless dental sibilant fricativePolishkosa[kɔa]'scythe'
voiced dental sibilant fricativePolishkoza[kɔa]'goat'
voiceless dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
voiced dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
dental approximantSpanishcodo[koð̞o]'elbow'
dental lateral approximantSpanishalto[at̪o]'tall'
dental trillHungarianró[oː]'to carve'
dental ejective[example needed]
voiced dental implosive[example needed]
dental click release (many different consonants)Xhosaukúcola[ukʼúkǀola]'to grind fine'
See also
  1. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
  2. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:257)
  3. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  4. ^ Real Academia Española (2011)
  5. ^ Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996),[page needed].
Last edited on 5 April 2021, at 23:19
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