Government through the King's Privy Council
was replaced with a new body called the Council of State
, which due to fundamental disagreements within a weakened Parliament was dominated by the Army. Many people became active in politics, suggesting alternative forms of government to replace the old order.
In 1649 Gerrard Winstanley
and 14 others published a pamphlet
in which they called themselves the "True Levellers" to distinguish their ideas from those of the Levellers
. Once they put their idea into practice and started to cultivate common land, both opponents and supporters began to call them "Diggers". The Diggers' beliefs were informed by Winstanley's writings which envisioned an ecological interrelationship between humans and nature, acknowledging the inherent connections between people and their surroundings; Winstanley declared that "true freedom lies where a man receives his nourishment and preservation, and that is in the use of the earth".
An undercurrent of political thought which has run through English society for many generations and resurfaced from time to time (for example, in the Peasants' Revolt
in 1381) was present in some of the political factions of the 17th century, including those who formed the Diggers.
It involved the common belief that England had become subjugated by the "Norman Yoke
". This legend offered an explanation that at one time a golden Era
had existed in England before the Norman Conquest
in 1066. From the Conquest on, the Diggers argued, the "common people of England" had been robbed of their birthrights and exploited by a foreign ruling-class.
The Diggers advocated for an early form of public health insurance and communal ownership in opposition to individual ownership.
St George's Hill, Weybridge, Surrey
The Council of State received a letter in April 1649 reporting that several individuals had begun to plant vegetables in common land on St George's Hill
near Cobham, Surrey
at a time when harvests were bad and food prices
Sanders reported that they had invited "all to come in and help them, and promise them meat, drink, and clothes." They intended to pull down all enclosures
and cause the local populace to come and work with them. They claimed that their number would be several thousand within ten days. "It is feared they have some design in hand." In the same month, the Diggers issued their most famous pamphlet and manifesto, called "The True Levellers Standard Advanced".
Where exactly in St. George's Hill the Diggers were is a matter of dispute. Sanders alleges that they worked "on that side of the hill next to Campe Close."
George Greenwood, however, speculated that the Diggers were "somewhere near Silvermere Farm on the Byfleet Road rather than on the unprofitable slopes of St. George's Hill itself."
At the behest of the local landowners, the commander of the New Model Army
, Sir Thomas Fairfax
, duly arrived with his troops and interviewed Winstanley and another prominent member of the Diggers, William Everard
. Everard suspected that the Diggers were in serious trouble and soon left the group. Fairfax, meanwhile, having concluded that Diggers were doing no harm, advised the local landowners to use the courts.
Winstanley remained and continued to write about the treatment they received. The harassment from the Lord of the Manor
, Francis Drake (not the famous Francis Drake
, who had died more than 50 years before), was both deliberate and systematic: he organised gangs in an attack on the Diggers, including numerous beatings and an arson attack on one of the communal houses. Following a court case, in which the Diggers were forbidden to speak in their own defence, they were found guilty of being Ranters
, a radical sect associated with liberal sexuality (though in fact Winstanley
had reprimanded Ranter Laurence Clarkson
for his sexual practices).
If they had not left the land after losing the court case then the army could have been used to enforce the law and evict them; so they abandoned Saint George's Hill in August 1649, much to the relief of the local freeholders
Little Heath near Cobham
Some of the evicted Diggers moved a short distance to Little Heath
in Surrey. 11 acres (4.5 ha) were cultivated, six houses built, winter crops harvested, and several pamphlets published. After initially expressing some sympathy for them, the local lord of the manor of Cobham
, Parson John Platt
, became their chief enemy. He used his power to stop local people helping them and he organised attacks on the Diggers and their property. By April 1650, Platt and other local landowners succeeded in driving the Diggers from Little Heath.
A Declaration of the Grounds and Reasons why we the Poor Inhabitants of the Town of Wellingborrow, in the County of Northampton, have begun and give consent to dig up, manure and sow Corn upon the Common, and waste ground, called Bareshanke belonging to the Inhabitants of Wellinborrow, by those that have Subscribed and hundreds more that give Consent....
This colony was probably founded as a result of contact with the Surrey Diggers. In late March 1650, four emissaries from the Surrey colony were arrested in Buckinghamshire bearing a letter signed by the Surrey Diggers including Gerrard Winstanley and Robert Coster inciting people to start Digger colonies and to provide money for the Surrey Diggers. According to the newspaper A Perfect Diurnall
the emissaries had travelled a circuit through the counties of Surrey
, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire
, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire
, Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire before being apprehended.
On 15 April 1650 the Council of State ordered Mr Pentlow, a justice of the peace
for Northamptonshire to proceed against "the Levellers in those parts" and to have them tried at the next Quarter Session.
The Iver Diggers
recorded that nine of the Wellingborough Diggers were arrested and imprisoned in Northampton jail and although no charges could be proved against them the justice refused to release them.
Captain William Thompson
, the leader of the failed "Banbury mutiny
", was killed in a skirmish close to the community by soldiers loyal to Oliver Cromwell in May 1649.
Another colony of Diggers connected to the Surrey and Wellingborough colony was set up in Iver
, Buckinghamshire about 14 miles (23 km) from the Surrey Diggers colony at St George's Hill.
The Iver Diggers' "Declaration of the grounds and Reasons, why we the poor Inhabitants of the Parrish of Iver in Buckinghamshire ...
revealed that there were further Digger colonies in Barnet in Hertfordshire, Enfield in Middlesex, Dunstable in Bedfordshire, Bosworth in Leicestershire and further colonies at unknown locations in Gloucestershire
. It also revealed that after the failure of the Surrey colony, the Diggers had left their children to be cared for by parish funds.
The San Francisco Diggers were a radical community-action group of activists and Street Theatre actors operating from 1966 to 1968, based in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco
In 2011, an annual festival began in Wigan
to celebrate the Diggers. In 2012, the second annual festival proved a great success and the sixth took place in 2016.
, a festival has also been held annually since 2011.
Bolton Diggers were established in 2013 and have promoted the commons as a foil to privatisation
. They have established community food gardens, cooperatives and the Common Wealth café, a pay-as-you-feel café using surplus food from supermarkets.
Influence on literature and popular culture
- In 1966, a faction of the San Francisco Mime Troupe formed a Diggers group in the hippie community in the Haight–Ashbury district of San Francisco. A strongly anti-establishment group, they handed out free food in Golden Gate Park
- "The World Turned Upside Down" by Leon Rosselson, 1975, a song about the Diggers and their activities on St. George's Hill in 1649; this song was performed by Dick Gaughan on his album Handful of Earth, 1981; by the Barracudas on their album Endeavour to Persevere, 1984; by Out of the Rain on their album A Common Treasury, 1985; by Billy Bragg on his Between the Wars EP, 1985; by Chumbawamba on the b-side of their single Timebomb, 1993; by Four to the Bar on Another Son in 1995; by Attila the Stockbroker with Barnstormer on The Siege of Shoreham, 1996; by Oysterband on their albums Shouting End of life and Alive and Shouting, 1995 and 1996; by Karan Casey (formerly of the Irish band Solas), on her Songlines album, 1997; by Clandestine, a Houston-based Celtic group, on their To Anybody at All album, 1999; by the Fagans, an Australian folk group, on their album, Turning Fine, 2002; and by Seattle Celt-rock band Coventry on the album Red Hair and Black Leather, 2005; and by Vancouver punk bank The Rebel Spell on the album "Beautiful Future", 2011; and Ramshackle Glory on the album "Live the Dream", 2016
- Winstanley, a fictionalised 1975 film portrait of the Diggers, directed by Kevin Brownlow, was based upon the novel Comrade Jacob by David Caute.
- As Meat Loves Salt by Maria McCann, Harcourt, 2001 (ISBN 0-15-601226-X) deals in part with the founding and destruction of a fictional Digger colony at Page Common near London.
- Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy is strongly influenced by Winstanley's writings, including the idea of the Republic of Heaven.
- Caryl Churchill's 1976 play Light Shining in Buckinghamshire, named after the Digger pamphlet and set in the English Civil War, charts the rise and fall of the Diggers and other radical ideas from the 1640s.
- Jonathon Kemp's 2010 play The Digger's Daughter tells the tale of the Diggers and quotes much of Winstanley's teaching directly.
- Truth Lifting up its Head above Scandals (1649, dedication dated 16 October 1648), Gerrard Winstanley
- The New Law of Righteousness (26 January 1649), Gerrard Winstanley
- The True Levellers Standard A D V A N C E D: or, The State of Community opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men William Everard, John Palmer, John South, John Courton. William Taylor, Christopher Clifford, John Barker. Gerrard Winstanley, Richard Goodgroome, Thomas Starre, William Hoggrill, Robert Sawyer, Thomas Eder, Henry Bickerstaffe, John Taylor, &c. (20 April 1649)
- A DECLARATION FROM THE Poor oppressed People OF ENGLAND, DIRECTED To all that call themselves, or are called Lords of Manors, through this NATION... Gerrard Winstanley, John Coulton, John Palmer, Thomas Star, Samuel Webb, John Hayman, Thomas Edcer, William Hogrill, Daniel Weeden, Richard Wheeler, Nathaniel Yates, William Clifford, John Harrison, Thomas Hayden, James Hall. James Manley, Thomas Barnard, John South, Robert Sayer, Christopher Clifford, John Beechee, William Coomes, Christopher Boncher, Richard Taylor, Urian Worthington, Nathaniel Holcombe, Giles Childe (senior), John Webb, Thomas Yarwel, William Bonnington. John Ash, Ralph Ayer, John Pra, John Wilkinson, Anthony Spire, Thomas East, Allen Brown, Edward Parret, Richard Gray, John Mordy, John Bachilor, William Childe, William Hatham, Edward Wicher, William Tench. (1 June 1649).
- A LETTER TO The Lord Fairfax, AND His Councell of War, WITH Divers Questions to the Lawyers, and Ministers: Proving it an undeniable Equity, That the common People ought to dig, plow, plant and dwell upon the Commons, with-out hiring them, or paying Rent to any. On the behalf of those who have begun to dig upon George-Hill in Surrey. Gerrard Winstanly (9 June 1649)
- A Declaration of The bloudie and unchristian acting of William Star and John Taylor of Walton (22 June 1649), Gerrard Winstanley
- An Appeal To the House of Commons; desiring their answer: whether the common-people shall have the quiet enjoyment of the commons and waste land; ... (11 July 1649), Gerrard Winstanley, John Barker, and Thomas Star
- A Watch-Word to the City of London, and the Armie (26 August 1649), Gerrard Winstanley
- To His Excellency the Lord Fairfax and the Counsell of Warre the Brotherly Request of those that are called Diggers sheweth (December 1649), John Heyman, An. Wrenn, Hen. Barton, Jon Coulton (in the behalf of others called the Diggers), Robert Cosler, John Plamer, Jacob Heard (in The Clarke Papers volume 2, )
- To My Lord Generall and his Councell of Warr (8 December 1649), Gerrard Winstanley (in The Clarke Papers volume 2, )
- The Diggers Song (circa 1649,1650) (in The Clarke Papers volume 2, ), attributed to Gerrard Winstanley by the historian C. H. Firth, the editor of The Clarke Papers.
- The Declaration and Standard of the Levellers of England, delivered in a speech to His Excellency the Lord Gen. Fairfax, on Friday last at White-Hall ..., William Everard
- Several Pieces gathered into one volume (1650, Preface dated 20 December 1649), A second edition of five of Gerrard Winstanley's works printed for Giles Calvert, the printer for nearly all the Diggers writings.
- A New-yeers Gift FOR THE PARLIAMENT AND ARMIE: SHEWING, What the KINGLY Power is; And that the CAUSE of those They call DIGGERS (1 January 1650), Gerrard Winstanley
- Englands Spirit Unfoulded or an incouragement to take the Engagement ... (Ca. February or March 1650), Jerrard [sic] Winstanley.
- A Vindication of Those Whose Endeavors is Only to Make the Earth a Common Treasury, Called Diggers (4 March 1650), Gerrard Winstanley
- Fire in the Bush (19 March 1650), Gerrard Winstanley
- An appeale to all Englishmen, to judge between bondage and freedome, sent from those that began to digge upon George Hill in Surrey; but now are carrying on, that publick work upon the little heath in the parish of Cobham..., (26 March 1650), Jerard [sic] Winstanley [and 24 others]
- A Letter taken at Wellingborough (March 1650), probably written by Gerrard Winstanley.
- An Humble Request, to the Ministers of both Universities, and to all Lawyers in every Inns-a-court (9 April 1650), Gerrard Winstanley
- Letter to Lady Eleanor Davies (4 December 1650), Gerrard Winstanley
- The Law of Freedom in a Platform, or True Magistracy Restored (1652), Gerrard Winstanley
- ^ See Nicolas Walter, Anarchism and Religion (The Anarchist Library, 1991), p.3
- ^ E.g. "That we may work in righteousness, and lay the Foundation of making the Earth a Common Treasury for All, both Rich and Poor, That every one that is born in the Land, may be fed by the Earth his Mother that brought him forth, according to the Reason that rules in the Creation. Not Inclosing any part into any particular hand, but all as one man, working together, and feeding together as Sons of one Father, members of one Family; not one Lording over another, but all looking upon each other, as equals in the Creation;" in The True Levellers Standard A D V A N C E D: or, The State of Community opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men
- ^ Acts 4:32, Today's English Version: "The group of believers was one in mind and heart. No one said that any of his belongings was his own, but they all shared with one another everything they had."
- ^ "The True Levellers Standard A D V A N C E D" specifically mentions Acts 4.32
- ^ a b The True Levellers Standard A D V A N C E D: or, The State of Community opened, and Presented to the Sons of Men
- ^ Grant, Neil. Hamlyn Children's History of Britain: From the Stone Age to the Present Day, 2nd Rev edition (Dean, 1992), p.144
- ^ Peter Stearns; Cissie Fairchilds; Adele Lindenmeyr; Mary Jo Maynes; Roy Porter; Pamela radcliff; Guido Ruggiero, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of European Social History: From 1350 to 2000 - Volume 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 290. ISBN 0-684-80577-4.
- ^ Barnard, Toby (1982). The English Republic 1649-1660. Taylor & Francis.
- ^ Bradstock, Andrew (2000). Winstanley and the Diggers, 1649-1999. Taylor & Francis.
- ^ Gurney, John (2007). Brave Community. Manchester University Press. p. 138.
- ^ "Little Heath - Surrey Diggers Trail". www.diggerstrail.org.uk. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- ^ Bradstock, Andrew (2000). Winstanley and the Diggers, 1649-199. Taylor & Francis.
- ^ "A Declaration by the Diggers of Wellingborough – 1650". www.rogerlovejoy.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- ^ a b Thomas, Keith (1969). "Another Digger Broadside". Past and Present. 42 (42): 57–68. doi:10.1093/past/42.1.57. JSTOR 650182.
- ^ Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1650 (London, 1876) p. 106.
- ^ A Declaration of the Grounds and Reasons (Iver) from Hopton, Andrew, ed. Digger Tracts, 1649–50. London: Aporia, 1989. (transcribed by Clifford Stetner)
- ^ "Wigan Diggers' Festival". Wigan Diggers' Festival. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- ^ About the Diggers, The Wellingborough Diggers' Festival diggersfestival.org.uk, accessed 7 November 2018
- ^ "Up to 40 people per day visit free soup kitchen in Bolton town centre". The Bolton News. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- ^ Miles, Barry (2003). Hippie. Sterling Press. p. 106. ISBN 1-4027-1442-4.
- ^ Loewenstein, David (2001). Representing revolution in Milton and his contemporaries: religion, politics, and polemics in radical Puritanism (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 315. ISBN 0-521-77032-7.
- ^ Winstanley, Gerrard (2009). The complete works of Gerrard Winstanley. 2. Oxford University Press. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-19-957606-7.
- Campbell, Heather M, ed. (2009). The Britannica Guide to Political Science and Social Movements That Changed the Modern World. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-1-61530-062-4.
- Laurence, Ann (February 1980). "Two Ranter Poems". The Review of English Studies (New Series ed.). 31 (121): 56–59 . doi:10.1093/res/xxxi.121.56. JSTOR 514052.
- Vann, Richard T. (January–March 1965). "The Later Life of Gerrard Winstanley". Journal of the History of Ideas. 26 (1): 133–136. doi:10.2307/2708404. JSTOR 2708404.
- Bernstein, Eduard. Chapter IX: The "True" Levellers and Their Practical Communism from Cromwell and Communism
- Fox, Jim. 1642–52: Levellers and Diggers in the English Revolution, website libcom.org, from Revolutions Per Minute
- Staff at Elmbridge Museum. Surrey Diggers Trail, facsimile at The Diggers Heritage Project
- Staff. The English Diggers (1649–50), Digger Archives
- Staff. English Dissenters: Diggers, ExLibris
- Staff. An index page: Diggers, Ranters and other radical Puritans at Street Corner Society
Last edited on 1 March 2021, at 11:02
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