Disputed territories of Northern Iraq
- Borders of the Kurdistan Region (disputed)
- Kurdistan Region
- Unrecognised incorporated territory
- Other claimed and controlled territory
- Other claimed territory
- Rest of Iraq
Tensions between Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan in 2012
Tensions between Iraqi Kurdistan and the central Iraqi government mounted through 2011–2012 on the issues of power sharing, oil production and territorial control. In April 2012, Masoud Barzani
, president of the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan Region
, demanded that officials agree to their demands or face secession from Baghdad by September 2012.
In September 2012, the Iraqi government ordered the Kurdistan Regional Government
(KRG) to transfer its powers over Peshmerga to the central government and relations were strained further by the formation of a new command center (Tigris Operation Command) for Iraqi forces to operate in a disputed area over which both Baghdad and the KRG claim jurisdiction.
On 16 November 2012, a military clash between the Iraqi forces and the Peshmerga resulted in one person being killed.
CNN reported that 2 people were killed (one of them an Iraqi soldier) and 10 wounded in clashes at the town of Tuz Khurmato
On the night of November 19, clashes between security forces of the central Iraqi government and the KRG forces in Tigrit left 12 Iraqi soldiers and one civilian dead, according to Doğan News Agency
The clash erupted when Iraqi soldiers attempted to enter northern Iraq; Peshmarga tried to prevent the Iraqi soldiers from entering the area upon Barzani's instructions.
On November 25, it was reported that Iraqi Kurdistan sent reinforcements to a disputed area where its troops were involved in a standoff with the Iraqi army, despite calls on both sides for dialogue to calm the situation.
The Committee for implementing article 140 defines the disputed territories as those areas that were Arabised and whose borders were modified between 17 July 1968 and 9 April 2003. Those areas include parts of four governorates
in pre-1968 borders.
One of the major problems in trying to implement Article 140 was a discrepancy in the definition of 'disputed area'.
The article only refers to regions that would go through this normalization process as "Kirkuk and other disputed areas".
In 2003, Kurdish negotiator Mahmud Othman suggested that Kurdish-majority areas south of the Green Line be attached to the KRG immediately, and 'mixed areas' should be questioned on a case-by-case basis.
Sunni Arabs felt as if Kurds should gain no additional land as a result of the US invasion.
Reattaching Kirkuk districts to reflect the 1975 boundaries posed many problems for Iraqis and brought along unintended consequences
The disputed territories include Makhmur District
which has been separated from the rest of the governorate since 1991. As of the 2017 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict
, the district is contested between the federal government and Iraqi Kurdistan.
Districts of Kirkuk Governorate
Kirkuk province borders were altered, the Kurdish-dominated districts were added to Erbil and Sulamaniya Governorates. The Arab districts were added to Kirkuk Governorate. Turkmen villages were added to Diyala and Salahuddin Governorates.
On 12 June 2014, all of Kirkuk Governorate was taken by Kurdish forces when Iraqi army fled following the success of the ISIL 2014 Northern Iraq offensive
. Kirkuk Governorate is currently under the control of the Iraqi central government.
Diyala and other governorates
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- ^ a b Coles, Isabel (November 18, 2012). "Iraqi Kurdish leader says region will defend itself". Reuters. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- ^ Tawfeeq, Mohammed (November 16, 2012). "Two dead, 10 wounded after Iraqi, Kurdish forces clash in northern Iraq". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- ^ a b Akan, Selim (November 21, 2012). "Iraq tensions added to regional turmoil". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- ^ "Iraqi Kurdistan send more troops into standoff with Iraq Arab-led army". Ekurd.net. November 25, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- ^ نبذة عن لجنة تنفيذ المادة (140) من دستور جمهورية العراق(in Arabic)
- ^ Peshmerga repel Iraqi forces attack in Makhmour Rudaw. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- ^ Dagher, Sam (April 25, 2008). "Can the U.N. avert a Kirkuk border war?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- ^ "Iraqi forces complete Kirkuk province takeover after clashes with Kurds". Reuters. October 20, 2017.
- ^ Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 43, ISBN 0-8122-4176-2
Last edited on 26 March 2021, at 14:30
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