: محافظة ديالى
) or Diyala Province
is a governorate
in eastern Iraq
- Governor: Muthana al-Timimi
- Deputy Governor: Mohammed Jassim al-Jubouri
A large portion of the province is drained by the Diyala River
, a major tributary of the Tigris
. Because of its proximity to two major sources of water, Diyala's main industry is agriculture, primarily dates
grown in large groves. The province also contains one of the largest olive
groves in the Middle East.
It is also recognized as the orange
capital of the Middle East. The Hamrin Mountains
pass through the governorate.
The population and the ethnic composition of this province has been in a major state of flux since the Coalition invasion of 2003
and the removal of the Sunni
Arab government of Saddam Hussein
from Baghdad. That government and those before it, had all been Sunni Arabs and as such, supportive of the Sunni Arab interests at the expense of all other ethnic and confessional minorities such as the Shia
and even Iraqi Turkmen
. This changed drastically starting in 2003, with the Sunni Arabs becoming the ones subjected to intimidation and expulsion all over the province.
Presently, an estimated population of some 1,800,000 people live in this province. Sunni arab once a majority until 2003, have been losing their positions due to violence of the Iraqi Civil War
(2006–07) and since summer of 2014, due to resurgent Ba'ath
in the company of the ISIS
. Nearly half the Sunni Arab population has been pushed out of the province. Presently, the Sunni Arab population constitute no more than 32 percent of the population of the Diyala Governorate while for. In contrast, the Feyli Kurds who were deported from this area from the 1960 to 1990s by various Sunni Arab governments in Baghdad are returning-as have other Kurds. They now dominate the entire Khanaqin district and all others bordering on Iran in this province. At the lowest point during the rule of Saddam Hussein, their numbers had fallen to just 7% of the total. Today, they are around 32% as they take up their old homes in places such a Jalula/Jalawla and Al-Sadiyah living togother with 3% Sunni kurds, make kurds constitute no less than one third of the province. The rest of the residents are Iraqi Turkmen (around 6%) predominantly in Kifri mostly Sunnis with Shia turkmen being 1% of the province, but in smaller pockets at Jalawla, Al-Sadiyah, Miqdadiya and other smaller pockets dispersed around the province, as well as shia arab making more than one quarter of Diyala Governorate.
Districts of the Diyala Governorate
Diyala Governorate comprises six districts, listed below with their areas
and populations as estimated in 2003:
Cities, towns, and villages
The Diyala Province boasts the Diyala Media Center which has one of the Middle East's tallest radio and television antennas at 349 metres (1,047 ft). The Diyala Media Center was built under contract by a Japanese architectural firm in 1989. It is one of Iraq's few independent radio and television stations that offer local television and radio news coverage as well as rebroadcasting state-run television.
There is evidence that Al-Qaeda in Iraq
moved its base of operations from Anbar
province to Diyala in 2006 and during late 2006, Baqubah and much of the Diyala province were reported to have come under Sunni insurgent control.
This insurgent control is reported to have continued through 2007 and into early 2008.
In June 2007, US forces launched Operation Arrowhead Ripper
with night air assaults in Baqubah
. By August 19, Baqubah was largely secured, although some insurgent presence remained in the city and surrounding areas.
Fighting continued in the Diyala River
valley but by the beginning of October, US and Iraqi forces held most of the province while the insurgents were in retreat to the north and west. On October 27 the Islamic State of Iraq attacked a police base in Baqubah, killing 28 Iraqi policemen and police recruits, showing that insurgent cells still remain in the province.
Mid-2008 saw many changes in Diyala province with an increased effort by U.S. Forces and a substantial Iraqi Army presence, and in the Baqubah region, Islamic State of Iraq's activity was dramatically hampered, and the Sons of Iraq
program served only to further weaken Islamic State in Iraq.
Declaration of autonomy
In December 2011, the governing council in Diyala province declared itself a semi-autonomous region within Iraq.
This comes two months after Saladin Governorate
made a similar declaration. The council in Diyala, using Article 119 of the Iraqi Constitution
as justification, made the declaration because of suspicion of the Shi'a
-dominated government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
. Unlike Salahuddin province however, Diyala province is more ethnically and religiously mixed, and such an announcement led to the outbreak of protests in the province.
- ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
- ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2012/11/iraqi-deputy-governor-sentenced-for-armed-attacks.html
- ^ Biggest Olive Groves in Middle East – in Diyala
- ^ COSIT (Central Organization for Statistics and Information Technology), Baghdad.
- ^ NGO Co-ordination Committee.
- ^ "Republic of iraq (IQ): Asia/Iraq/Diyala". Tageo.com. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- ^ Engel, Richard (December 27, 2006). "Reporting under al-Qaida control". Blogging Baghdad: The Untold Story. MSNBC. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- ^ Engel, Richard (January 17, 2007). "Dangers of the Baghdad plan". Worldblog. MSNBC. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- ^ "DoD Special Security Operations Briefing with Maj. Gen. Mixon from Iraq". News Transcript. U.S. Department of Defense. May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- ^ "Iraq's Diyala province demands semi-autonomous status". Xinhua. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- ^ Hammoudi, Laith. "A second Iraqi province seeks autonomy from Baghdad". Miami Herald. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 03:57
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.