, pronounced [adˈdawħa]
) is the capital
and most populous city of Qatar
. It has a population of 956,460 (2015).
The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf
in the east of the country, north of Al Wakrah
and south of Al Khor
. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs
and it is the political and economic center of the country.
According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic
, meaning "roundness"—a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline.
A satellite view of Doha on the East coast of Qatar. As with most world cities, Doha developed on the waterfront around the Souq Waqif
area today. It gradually spread out in a radial pattern with the use of ring roads.
Establishment of Al Bidda
The city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda
. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite
Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to. Carsten Niebuhr
, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula
, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as 'Guttur'.
David Seaton, a British political resident
, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He refers to the town as 'Bedih' and describes the geography and defensive structures in the area.
He stated that the town had recently been settled by the Sudan tribe
(singular Al-Suwaidi), whom he considered to be pirates
. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship
, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance.
In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town. He wrote:
Guttur – Or Ul Budee [Al‐Bidda], once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries [forts] near the seashore; but containing no freshwater they are incapable of defense except against sudden incursions of Bedouins, another Ghurry is situated two miles inland and has fresh water with it. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, and if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men.
The same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty
was signed between the East India Company
and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements (some of which were later known as the Trucial Coast
). It acknowledged British
authority in the Persian Gulf and sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, and it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was also a party to it.
Qatar, however, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag.
As punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of the treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between Qatar and the Trucial Coast.
Formation of Doha
Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s.
In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, who was also the chief of the Al-Buainain
MacLeod noted that Al Bidda was the only substantial trading port in the peninsula during this time. Following the founding of Doha, written records often conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the extremely close proximity of the two settlements.
Later that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements. Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description.
Al Bidda: View from the bay, 1823
In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy. He had murdered a native of Bahrain
, prompting the Al Khalifa
sheikh to imprison him. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit
and Ar Ru'ays
. This incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town.
With essentially no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws.
‘Trigonometrical plan of the harbor of El Biddah on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf’, 1823
In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi
named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe (Suwaidi) in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and also arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir
and his associates. Despite the compliance, the British demanded a fine of 300 German krones
in compensation for the damages incurred by pirates off the coast of Al Bidda; namely for the piracies committed by bin Jabir. In February 1841, British naval squadrons arrived in Al Bidda and ordered Al-Suwaidi to meet the British demand, threatening consequences if he declined. Al-Suwaidi ultimately declined on the basis that he was uninvolved in bin Jabir's actions. On 26 February, the British fired on Al Bidda, striking a fort and several houses. Al-Suwaidi then paid the fine in full following threats of further action by the British.
Isa bin Tarif
, a powerful tribal chief from the Al Bin Ali
tribe, moved to Doha in May 1843. He subsequently evicted the ruling Sudan tribe and installed the Al-Maadeed
tribes in positions of power.
Bin Tarif had been loyal to the Al Khalifa, however, shortly after the swearing-in of a new ruler in Bahrain, bin Tarif grew increasingly suspicious of the ruling Al Khalifa and switched his allegiance to the deposed ruler of Bahrain, Abdullah bin Khalifa
, whom he had previously assisted in deposing of. Bin Tarif died in the Battle of Fuwayrit
against the ruling family of Bahrain in 1847.
Arrival of the House of Al Thani
The Al Thani
family migrated to Doha from Fuwayrit
shortly after Bin Tarif's death in 1847 under the leadership of Mohammed bin Thani
In the proceeding years, the Al Thani family assumed control of the town. At various times, they swapped allegiances between the two prevailing powers in the area: the Al Khalifa
of Bahrain and the Bin Saud
Plan of Al Bidda Harbour drawn in 1860 indicating the principal settlements and landmarks
In 1867, many ships and troops were sent from Bahrain to assault the towns Al Wakrah
and Doha over a series of disputes. Abu Dhabi
joined on Bahrain's behalf due to the perception that Al Wakrah served as a refuge for fugitives from Oman
. Later that year, the combined forces sacked the two Qatari towns with around 2,700 men in what would come to be known as the Qatari–Bahraini War
A British record later stated "that the towns of Doha and Wakrah were, at the end of 1867 temporarily blotted out of existence, the houses being dismantled and the inhabitants deported"
The joint Bahraini-Abu Dhabi incursion and subsequent Qatari counterattack prompted the British political agent, Colonel Lewis Pelly
, to impose a settlement in 1868. Pelly's mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the peace treaty that resulted were milestones in Qatar's history. It implicitly recognized Qatar as a distinct entity independent from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani as an important representative of the peninsula's tribes.
A part of Doha as seen in January 1904. Most of the development was low-rise and the use of locally available natural materials like rammed earth and palm fronds was common practice.
In December 1871, the Ottomans
established a presence in the country with 100 of their troops occupying the Musallam fort in Doha. This was accepted by Mohammad bin Thani's son, Jassim Al Thani
, who wished to protect Doha from Saudi incursions.
The Ottoman commander, Major Ömer Bey, compiled a report on Al Bidda in January 1872, stating that it was an "administrative centre" with around 1,000 houses and 4,000 inhabitants.
Disagreement over tribute and interference in internal affairs arose, eventually leading to the Battle of Al Wajbah
in March 1893. Al Bidda fort served as the final point of retreat for Ottoman troops. While they were garrisoned in the fort, their corvette
fired indiscriminately at the townspeople, killing a number of civilians.
The Ottomans eventually surrendered after Jassim Al Thani's troops cut off the town's water supply.
An Ottoman report compiled the same year reported that Al Bidda and Doha had a combined population of 6,000 inhabitants, jointly referring to both towns by the name of 'Katar'. Doha was classified as the eastern section of Katar.
The Ottomans held a passive role in Qatar's politics from the 1890s onward until fully relinquishing control during the beginning of the first World War
The city's coastline in 1904 largely highlights the local community which was based on fishing and pearl diving.
had come to play a pivotal commercial role in Doha by the 20th century. The population increased to around 12,000 inhabitants in the first half of the 20th century due to the flourishing pearl trade.
A British political resident noted that should the supply of pearls drop, Qatar would 'practically cease to exist'.
In 1907, the city accommodated 350 pearling boats with a combined crew size of 6,300 men. By this time, the average prices of pearls had more than doubled since 1877.
The pearl market collapsed that year, forcing Jassim Al Thani to sell the country's pearl harvest at half its value. The aftermath of the collapse resulted in the establishment of the country's first custom house
British administrator and historian J. G. Lorimer
authored an extensive handbook for British agents in the Persian Gulf entitled Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf
in 1908. In it, he gives a comprehensive account of Doha at the time:
"Dohah looking northwest", photographed by the Royal Air Force during a reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula on 9 May 1934
Generally so styled at the present day, but Bedouins sometimes call it Dohat-al-Qatar, and it seems to have been formerly better known as Bida' (Anglice
"Bidder"): it is the chief town of Qatar and is situated on the eastern side of that peninsula, about 63 miles south of its extremity at Ras Rakan
and 45 miles north of Khor-al Odaid
Harbour. Dohah stands on the south side of a deep bay at the south-western corner of a natural harbor which is about 3 miles in extent and is protected on the north-east and south-east sides by natural reefs. The entrance, less than a mile wide, is from the east between the points of the reefs; it is shallow and somewhat difficult, and vessels of more than 15 feet draught cannot pass. The soundings within the basin vary from 3 to 5 fathoms and are regular: the bottom is white mud or clay.
Townsite and quarters, — The south-eastern point of the bay are quite low but the land on the western side is stony desert 40 or 50 feet above the level of the sea. The town is built up the slope of some rising ground between these two extremes and consists of 9 Fanqs or quarters, which are given below in their order from the east to the west and north: the total frontage of the place upon the sea is nearly 2 miles.
An old district in Doha planned with narrow streets and rough plastered walls give a glimpse of the city's past.
Lorimer goes on to list and describe the districts of Doha, which at the time included the still-existing districts of Al Mirqab
, As Salatah
, Al Bidda
Remarking on Doha's appearance, he states:
The general appearance of Dohah is unattractive; the lanes are narrow and irregular the houses dingy and small. There are no date palms or other trees, and the only garden is a small one near the fort, kept up by the Turkish garrison.
As for Doha's population, Lorimer asserts that "the inhabitants of Dohah are estimated to amount, inclusive of the Turkish military garrison of 350 men, to about 12,000 souls". He qualified this statement with a tabulated overview of the various tribes and ethnic groups living in the town.
British protectorate (1916–1971)
In April 1913, the Ottomans agreed to a British request that they withdraw all their troops from Qatar. Ottoman presence in the peninsula ceased, when in August 1915, the Ottoman fort in Al Bidda was evacuated shortly after the start of World War I.
One year later, Qatar agreed to be a British protectorate
with Doha as its official capital.
Buildings at the time were simple dwellings of one or two rooms, built from mud, stone and coral. Oil concessions in the 1920s and 1930s, and subsequent oil drilling in 1939, heralded the beginning of slow economic and social progress in the country. However, revenues were somewhat diminished due to the devaluation of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf
brought on by the introduction of the cultured pearl
and the Great Depression
The collapse of the pearl trade caused a significant population drop throughout the entire country.
It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the country saw significant monetary returns from oil drilling.
A view of Doha in the 1980s showing the Sheraton Hotel
(pyramid-like building in the background) in West Bay
without any of the high-rises around it
Qatar was not long in exploiting the new-found wealth from oil concessions, and slum areas were quickly razed to be replaced by more modern buildings. The first formal boys' school was established in Doha in 1952, followed three years later by the establishment of a girls' school.
Historically, Doha had been a commercial port of local significance. However, the shallow water of the bay prevented bigger ships from entering the port until the 1970s, when its deep-water port was completed. Further changes followed with extensive land reclamation, which led to the development of the crescent-shaped bay.
From the 1950s to 1970s, the population of Doha grew from around 14,000 inhabitants to over 83,000, with foreign immigrants constituting about two-thirds of the overall population.
is an artificial island spanning nearly four square kilometers.
Qatar officially declared its independence in 1971, with Doha as its capital city.
In 1973, the University of Qatar
was opened by emiri decree,
and in 1975 the Qatar National Museum
opened in what was originally the ruler's palace.
During the 1970s, all old neighborhoods in Doha were razed and the inhabitants moved to new suburban developments, such as Al Rayyan
, Madinat Khalifa
and Al Gharafa
. The metropolitan area's population grew from 89,000 in the 1970s to over 434,000 in 1997. Additionally, land policies resulted in the total land area increasing to over 7,100 hectares (about 17,000 acres) by 1995, an increase from 130 hectares in the middle of the 20th century.
In 1983, a hotel and conference center was developed at the north end of the Corniche
. The 15-storey Sheraton hotel
structure in this center would serve as the tallest structure in Doha until the 1990s.
In 1993, the Qatar Open
became the first major sports event to be hosted in the city.
Two years later, Qatar stepped in to host the FIFA World Youth Championship
, with all the matches being played in Doha-based stadiums.
Developments in Doha's West Bay district have seen an increase in the population density of the area with the construction of several high-rises.
A view of a water feature in Sheraton Park with the West Bay skyline in the background.
The Al Jazeera
Arabic news channel began broadcasting from Doha in 1996.
In the late 1990s, the government planned the construction of Education City
, a 2,500 hectare Doha-based complex mainly for educational institutes.
Since the start of the 21st century, Doha attained significant media attention due to the hosting of several global events and the inauguration of a number of architectural mega-projects.
One of the largest projects launched by the government was The Pearl-Qatar
, an artificial island off the coast of West Bay
, which launched its first district in 2004.
In 2006, Doha was selected to host the Asian Games
, leading to the development of a 250-hectare sporting complex known as Aspire Zone
During this time, new cultural attractions were constructed in the city, with older ones being restored. In 2006, the government launched a restoration program to preserve Souq Waqif
's architectural and historical identity. Parts constructed after the 1950s were demolished whereas older structures were refurbished. The restoration was completed in 2008. Katara Cultural Village
was opened in the city in 2010 and has hosted the Doha Tribeca Film Festival
The main outcome of the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2013
was the Trade Facilitation Agreement. The agreement aims to make it easier and cheaper to import and export by improving customs procedures and making rules more transparent. Reducing global trade costs by 1% would increase worldwide income by more than USD 40 billion, 65% of which would go to developing countries. The gains from the Trade Facilitation Agreement are expected to be distributed among all countries and regions, with developing landlocked countries benefiting the most.
The Trade Facilitation Agreement will enter into force upon its ratification by 2/3 of WTO Members. The EU ratified the agreement in October 2015.
In Bali, WTO members also agreed on a series of Doha agriculture and development issues.
A view of Doha from the International Space Station
in 2010 highlights the rapid development the city underwent since the discovery of oil in the 1960s.
Doha is located on the central-east portion of Qatar, bordered by the Persian Gulf
on its coast. Its elevation is 10 m (33 ft).
Doha is highly urbanized. Land reclamation
off the coast has added 400 hectares of land and 30 km of coastline.
Half of the 22 km² of surface area which Hamad International Airport
was constructed on was reclaimed land.
The geology of Doha is primarily composed of weathered unconformity on the top of the Eocene
period Dammam Formation, forming dolomiticlimestone
is a purpose-built artificial island off the coast of Doha, connected to the mainland by a bridge.
is an artificial island
in Doha with a surface area of nearly 400 ha (1,000 acres)
The total project has been estimated to cost $15 billion upon completion.
Other islands off Doha's coast include Palm Tree Island, Shrao's Island, Al Safliya Island
, and Alia Island.
In a 2010 survey of Doha's coastal waters conducted by the Qatar Statistics Authority
, it was found that its maximum depth was 7.5 meters (25 ft) and minimum depth was 2 meters (6 ft 7 in). Furthermore, the waters had an average pH of 7.83, a salinity
of 49.0 psu, an average temperature of 22.7 °C and 5.5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen.
Doha has a hot desert climate
(Köppen climate classification BWh
) with long, extremely hot summers and short, warm winters. The average high temperatures between May and September surpass 38 °C (100 °F) and often approach 45 °C (113 °F). Humidity is usually the lowest in May and June. Dewpoints
can surpass 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Throughout the summer, the city averages almost no precipitation, and less than 20 mm (0.79 in) during other months.
Rainfall is scarce, at a total of 75 mm (2.95 in) per year, falling on isolated days mostly between October to March. The winter's days are relativity warm while the sun is up and cool during the night. The temperature rarely drops below 7 °C (45 °F).
A significant portion of Qatar's population resides within the confines of Doha and its metropolitan area
The district with the highest population density is the central area of Al Najada, which also accommodates the highest total population in the country. The population density across the greater Doha region ranges from 20,000 people per km² to 25 people per km².
Doha witnessed explosive growth rates in population in the first decade of the 21st century, absorbing the majority of the thousands of people then immigrating to Qatar every month.:6
Doha's population is around one million, with the population of the city more than doubling from 2000 to 2010.
Ethnicity and languages
The population of Doha is overwhelmingly composed of expatriates
, with Qatari
nationals forming a minority. The largest portion of expatriates in Qatar are from South-East and South Asian
countries, mainly India
, Sri Lanka
, and Bangladesh
with large numbers of expatriates also coming from the Levant Arab
countries, Djibouti, Somalia
, North Africa, and East Asia
. Doha is also home to many expatriates from Europe
, North America
, South Africa
A typical bilingual
traffic sign in Doha denotes the zone numbers, street names and street numbers of two perpendicular streets.
is the official language of Qatar. English
is commonly used as a second language,
and a rising lingua franca
, especially in commerce.
As there is a large expatriate population in Doha, languages such as Malayalam
are widely spoken.
In 2004, the Foreign Ownership of Real Estate Law was passed, permitting non-Qatari citizens to buy land in designated areas of Doha, including the West Bay Lagoon
, the Qatar Pearl
, and the new Lusail City
Prior to this, expatriates were prohibited from owning land in Qatar. Ownership by foreigners in Qatar entitles them to a renewable residency permit, which allows them to live and work in Qatar.
The majority of residents in Doha are Muslim
account for over 90% of the 150,000 Christian
population in Doha.
Following decrees by the Emir
for the allocation of land to churches
, the first Catholic church, Our Lady of the Rosary
, was opened in Doha in March 2008. The church structure is discreet and Christian symbols are not displayed on the outside of the building.
Several other churches exist in Doha, including the 
St.Isaac and St. George Greek Orthodox Church of Qatar the Syro-Malabar Church
, Malankara Orthodox Church
, Mar Thoma Church
(affiliated with the Anglicans, but not part of the Communion), CSI Church
, Syro-Malankara Church
and a Pentecostal
church. A majority of mosques are either Salafi
At the turn of the 20th century, Doha was divided into 9 main districts.
In the 2010 census, there were more than 60 districts recorded in Doha Municipality
Some of the districts of Doha include:
Shortly after Qatar gained independence, many of the districts of old Doha including Al Najada
, Al Asmakh and Old Al Hitmi
faced gradual decline and as a result, much of their historical architecture has been demolished.
Instead, the government shifted their focus toward the Doha Bay
area, which housed districts such as Al Dafna
and West Bay
West Bay serves as the commercial district of Doha and houses offices of many local and global companies.
Doha is the economic center of Qatar. The city is the headquarters of numerous domestic and international organizations, including the country's largest oil and gas companies, Qatar Petroleum
. Doha's economy is built primarily on the revenue the country has made from its oil
and natural gas
Doha was included in Fortune's 15 best new cities for business in 2011.
Beginning in the late 20th century, the government launched numerous initiatives to diversify the country's economy in order to decrease its dependence on oil and gas resources. Doha International Airport
was constructed in a bid to solidify the city's diversification into the tourism industry.
This was replaced by Hamad International Airport
in 2014. The new airport is almost twice the size of the former and features two of the longest runways in the world.
Thirty-nine new hotels were under construction in the city in 2011.
As a result of Doha's rapid population boom and increased housing demands, real estate prices rose significantly through 2014.
Real estate prices experienced a further spike after Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup
Al Asmakh, a Qatari real estate firm, released a report in 2014 which revealed substantial increases in real estate prices following a peak in 2008. Prices increased 5 to 10% in the first quarter of 2014 from the end of 2013.
A 2015 study conducted by Numbeo
, a crowd-sourced database, named Doha as the 10th most expensive city to live in globally.
This rate of growth led to the development of planned communities in and around the city.
Although the fall in oil prices since 2014
and a diplomatic crisis with Qatar's neighbors
slowed growth in the city's population, government spending was increased to maintain the growth in real estate in metropolitan Doha.
Expatriate workers remitted $60bn between 2006 and 2012, with 54 percent of the workers' remittances
of $60bn routed to Asian countries, followed by Arab nations that accounted for nearly half that volume (28 percent). India was the top destination of the remittances, followed by the Philippines, while the US, Egypt and the neighbouring UAE followed.
Remittances in 2014 totaled $11.2 billion, amounting to 5.3% of Qatar's GDP.:45
Doha's Al Dafna
area with the high-rises seen on the waterfront and the villa compounds and other residential areas seen in the background
In 2011, more than 50 towers were under construction in Doha,
the largest of which was the Doha Convention Center Tower
Constructions were suspended in 2012 following concerns that the tower would impede flight traffic
and the site is being redeveloped into a park.
In 2014, Abdullah Al Attiyah
, a senior government official, announced that Qatar would be spending $65bn on new infrastructure projects in upcoming years in preparation for the 2022 World Cup as well as progressing towards its objectives set out in the Qatar National Vision 2030
Msheireb Downtown Doha
, a 31 hectares development costing an estimated $5bn, was dubbed the largest inner city redevelopment of its kind when launched. Comprises several quarters opened over different phases, Msheireb aims to preserve and enhance the historic downtown area.
Due to excessive heat from the sun during the summer, some Doha-based building companies have implemented various forms of cooling technology to alleviate the extremely torrid
climatic conditions. This can include creating optical phenomena such as shadows
, as well as more expensive techniques like ventilation, coolants, refrigerants, cryogenics, and dehumidifiers.
Discussions regarding temperature control have also been features of various scheduled events involving large crowds.
There are other initiatives that attempt to counter the heat by altering working hours, weather alteration methods such as cloud seeding,
and using whiter
and brighter construction materials to increase the albedo effects
Nonetheless, despite these measures, Doha and other areas of Qatar could become uninhabitable
for humans due to climate change by the 2070s.[better source needed]
One of the largest projects underway in Qatar is Lusail City
, a planned community north of Doha which is estimated to be completed by 2020 at a cost of approximately $45bn. It is designed to accommodate 450,000 people. Al Waab City
, another planned community under development, is estimated to cost QR
In addition to housing 8,000 individuals, it will also have shopping malls, educational, and medical facilities. Gewan Island
is the latest development of UDC
comprising a 400,000 sqm mixed use development.
To support the expanding city and increasing numbers of residents and commuters, Qatar has heavily invested in upgrading the infrastructure of Doha and Qatar. Since 2004, Doha has been undergoing a huge expansion to its transportation network, including the addition of new highways
, a new airport
in 2014, a new seaport
in 2016, and an 85 km metro
system which went operational in 2019.
Dukhan Highway connects the city of Dukhan
on the West coast of the country with the country's capital, Doha.
Several expressway projects were delivered by ASHGHAL or the Public Works Authority, including Industrial Area Road, Doha Expressway, Dukhan Highway Central, North Road, Al Sheehaniya Leatooriya Lijmiliya Road, F-Ring Road, and Salwa Road Phase 2. Works include road widening, underpasses, interchanges, stormwater drainage systems, effluent networks, systems networks, and lighting to improve road travel use and improved safety for all road users.
The latest project, expected to be delivered in 2024 is the Sharq Crossing:
"The estimated $12bn Sharq Crossing undertaking will involve three extensions interconnected by subsea tunnels. As per the original design, the intersection will incorporate three scaffolds spreading over between 600 meters and 1,310 meters, connecting Doha’s Hamad International Airport with the city’s social locale of Katara Cultural Village in the north and the focal business territory of West Bay."
A third of the Doha Metro
is currently fully operational. It consists of four lines: the Red Line, the Gold Line, the Blue Line, and the Green Line. The Blue Line is expected to be completed in the second phase in 2025. Msheireb Station
is the transfer station for all of the metro lines.
Doha International Airport
The Red Line
(also known as Coast Line) will extend through Doha, running from Al Khor
to Al Wakrah and Hamad Airport
via the Red Line North and Red Line South. Doha Metro's Green Line,
or Education Line, connects Doha to Education City
and Al Riffa
. Starting in Old Airport
, the Gold Line
(also known as Historic Line) will end in Al Rayyan and cover a distance of 30.6 km. Lastly, the Blue Line
, or City Line, will only cover the inner city of Doha, and is planned to be semi-circular with a length of 17.5 km.
Doha is the educational center of the country and contains the highest preponderance of schools and colleges.
In 1952, the first formal boys' school was opened in Doha. This was proceeded by the opening of the first formal girls' school three years later.
The first university in the state, Qatar University
, was opened in 1973.
It provided separate faculties for men and women.
In 2009, the government launched the World Innovation Summit for Education
(WISE), a global forum that brings together education stakeholders, opinion leaders and decision makers from all over the world to discuss educational issues.
The first edition was held in Doha in November 2009.
Some of the universities in Doha include:
In 2001, Qatar became the first country in the Middle East to hold a women's tennis tournament with the inauguration of its Qatar Ladies Open
Doha also hosts International Tennis Federation
(ITF) ladies tournaments. Since 2008, the Sony Ericsson Championships
(equivalent to the ATP's season-ending Championships) has taken place in Doha, in the Khalifa International Tennis Complex, and features record prize money of $4.45 million, including a check of $1,485,000 for the winner, which represents the largest single guaranteed payout in women's tennis.
The city submitted a bid
for the 2016 Olympics
On June 4, 2008, the city was eliminated from the shortlist for the 2016 Olympic Games. On August 26, 2011 it was confirmed that Doha would bid
for the 2020 Summer Olympics
Doha however failed to become a Candidate City for the 2020 Games.
In April 2012 Doha was awarded both the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships
and the 2012 World Squash Championships.
The fourth World Mindsports Championships took place in Doha from August 19 to August 27, 2017 with the participation of more than 1,000 competitors.
In 2020, Doha hosted the Qatar ExxonMobil Open
, which received the Tournament of the Year award in the 250 category from the 2019 ATP Awards
. The tournament won the award for the third time in five years.
Stadiums and sport complexes
was launched in 2004 with the aim of creating world-class athletes. It is situated in the Doha Sports City
Complex, which also accommodates the Khalifa International Stadium, the Hamad Aquatic Centre, the Aspire Tower
and the Aspire Dome
. The latter has hosted more than 50 sporting events since its inception, including some events during the 2006 Asian Games
Sporting venues in Doha and its suburbs include:
Doha was chosen as the Arab Capital of Culture
Cultural weeks organized by the Ministry of Culture, which featured both Arab and non-Arab cultures, were held in Doha from April to June to celebrate the city's selection.
- Algeirs, Algeria (since 2013)
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 2018)
- Brasília, Brazil (since 2014)
- Sofia, Bulgaria (since 2012)
- Beijing, China (since 2008)
- Alameda, California (since 2004)
- San Salvador, El Salvador (since 2018)
- Banjul, Gambia (since 2011)
- Tbilisi, Georgia (since 2012)
- Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (since 2011)
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (since 2018)
- Port Louis, Mauritius (since 2007)
- Mogadishu, Somalia (since 2014)
- Tunis, Tunisia (since 1994)
- Ankara, Turkey (since 2016)
- Los Angeles, California, United States (since 2016)
- Miami, Florida, United States (since 2016)
- Libertador, Venezuela (since 2015)
- Beit Sahour, Palestine (since 2009)
Click on the thumbnail to enlarge.
Skyline of Doha West Bay from Sheraton Park.
An old mosque minaret stands out in front of the under-construction National Archive building in the Diwan Amiri Quarter of the Musheireb downtown Doha
Msheireb Enrichment Centre moored off Doha Corniche is a learning center focused on the history and developments of Doha, particularly the Musheirib district.
, Al Waab
is one of the city's green spaces that forms a part of the Aspire zone.
Doha skyline from the Museum of Islamic Art.
Doha skyline at night.
Aerial view of a part of the city.
The Katara cultural village
is designed to be a hub of human interaction connecting theatre, literature, music, visual art, conventions and exhibitions in a planned development on the waterfront.
The post office
building in Qatar sits located on the main Corniche street.
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