The Epistles of Wisdom
is the foundational text of the Druze faith.
The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism
, a branch of Shia Islam
and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness.
Druze believe in theophany
or the transmigration of the soul
Druze believe that at the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (al-ʻaql al-kullī
The Druze faith is one of the major religious groups
in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. They are found primarily in Lebanon
, and Israel
, with small communities in Jordan
. They make up 5.5% of the population of Lebanon, 3% of Syria and 1.6% of Israel. The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon
and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze
(literally the "Mountain of the Druzes").
The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims and today's more urbanized Christians. They are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not fully allow non Druzes in.
The Druze community played a critically important role in shaping the history of the Levant
, where it continues to play a significant political role. As a religious minority in every country in which they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution
by different Muslim regimes.
Most recently, Druze were targeted by Islamic extremists
The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī
(from Persian darzi
, "seamster") who was an early preacher
. Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic
the name has been used to identify them, possibly by their historical opponents as a way to attach their community with ad-Darazi poor perception.
Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and held closed meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom
. During this stage a dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and Hamza bin Ali
mainly concerning ad-Darazi's ghuluww
("exaggeration"), which refers to the belief that God was incarnated
in human beings (especially 'Ali
and his descendants, including Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
, who was the caliph
at the time) and to ad-Darazi naming himself "The Sword of the Faith", which led Hamza to write an epistle refuting the need for the sword to spread the faith and several epistles refuting the beliefs of the ghulat
In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters.
Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf" who is narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons. In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic dārisah
("she who studies").
Others have speculated that the word comes from the Persian word Darazo
"bliss") or from Shaykh
Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith.
In the early stages of the movement, the word "Druze" is rarely mentioned by historians, and in Druze religious texts only the word Muwaḥḥidūn
("Unitarian") appears. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch
, who clearly refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī, rather than the followers of Hamza ibn 'Alī.
As for Western sources, Benjamin of Tudela
, the Jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or around 1165, was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name. The word Dogziyin
("Druzes") occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in 'soul eternity' and reincarnation
He also stated that "they loved the Jews".
Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.
The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30–40% in Lebanon, 6–7% in Israel, and 1–2% in Jordan. About 2% of the Druze population are also scattered within other countries in the Middle East.
Large communities of Druze also live outside the Middle East
, in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America (mainly Venezuela,
Colombia and Brazil[dubious – discuss]
), the United States, and West Africa. They are Arabs who speak the Arabic language
and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant
The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.
The Druze faith began as an Isma'ili movement that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch. The divine call
or unitarian call is the Druze period of time that was opened at sunset on Thursday 30 May 1017 by the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah and closed in 1043 by al-Muqtana Baha'uddin
, henceforth prohibiting anyone else from converting to the Druze faith.
The faith was preached by Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar from Zozan
, Khorasan, in the Samanid Empire
He came to Fatimid Egypt in 1014 or 1016
and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. The order's meetings were held in the Raydan Mosque, near the Al-Hakim Mosque
In 1017, Hamza officially revealed the Druze faith and began to preach the Unitarian doctrine. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call.
Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. Ye are now safe from any hand which may bring harm unto you. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. Let those who are present convey this message unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and the common people. It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come.
Al-Hakim became a central figure in the Druze faith even though his own religious position was disputed among scholars. John Esposito
states that al-Hakim believed that "he was not only the divinely appointed religio-political leader, but also the cosmic intellect
linking God with creation",
while others like Nissim Dana and Mordechai Nisan
state that he is perceived as the manifestation and the reincarnation of God or presumably the image of God.[page needed]
Little information is known about the early life of al-Darazi. According to most sources, he was born in Bukhara
. He is believed to have been of Persian origins and his title al-Darazi
is Persian in origin, meaning "the tailor".
He arrived in Cairo in 1015, or 1017, after which he joined the newly emerged Druze movement.
Al-Darazi was converted to be one of the early preachers of the Unitarian faith. At that time, the movement enlisted a large number of adherents.
However, he was later considered a renegade
and is usually described by the Druze as following the traits of satan
in particular, arrogance.
This view is based on the observation that as the number of his followers grew, he became obsessed with his leadership and gave himself the title "The Sword of the Faith". In the Epistles of Wisdom
, Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad warns al-Darazi, saying, "Faith does not need a sword to aid it". However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. This attitude led to disputes between Ad-Darazi and Hamza ibn Ali, who disliked his behaviour.
Al-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the daʻwah
rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title "Lord of the Guides" because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as "Guide of the Consented".
By 1018, al-Darazi had gathered around him partisans – "Darazites" – who believed that universal reason
became incarnated in Adam
at the beginning of the world, was then passed from him to the prophets, then into Ali and hence into his descendants, the Fatimid Caliphs.
Al-Darazi wrote a book laying out this doctrine. He read from his book in the principal mosque in Cairo, which caused riots and protests against his claims and many of his followers were killed. Hamza ibn Ali refuted his ideology calling him "the insolent one and Satan".
The controversy created by al-Darazi led Caliph al-Hakim to suspend the Druze daʻwah in 1018.
In an attempt to gain the support of al-Hakim, al-Darazi started preaching that al-Hakim and his ancestors were the incarnation
It is believed that al-Darazi allowed wine, forbidden marriages and taught metempsychosis
although it has argued that his actions might have been exaggerated by contemporary and later historians and polemicists. An inherently modest man, al-Hakim did not believe that he was God, and felt al-Darazi was trying to depict himself as a new prophet.
Al-Hakim preferred Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad over him and al-Darazi was executed in 1018, leaving Hamza the sole leader of the new faith.
The call was suspended briefly between 19 May 1018 and 9 May 1019 during the apostasy
of al-Darazi and again between 1021 and 1026 during a period of persecution by Ali az-Zahir
for those who had sworn the oath
to accept the call.
Persecutions started forty days after the disappearance into Occultation
of al-Hakim, who was thought to have been converting people to the Unitarian faith for over twenty years prior.
Al-Hakim convinced some heretical followers such as al-Darazi of his soteriologicaldivinity
and officially declared the Divine call after issuing a decree promoting religious freedom.
The call summoned people to a true unitarian belief that removed all attributes (wise, just, outside, inside, etc.) from God.
It promoted absolute monotheism
and the concepts of supporting your fellow man, true speech and pursuit of oneness with God. These concepts superseded all ritual
, law and dogma
and requirements for pilgrimage
, holy days
, charity, devotion
and particular worship of any prophet or person was downplayed. Sharia
was opposed and Druze traditions started during the call continue today, such as meeting for reading, prayer and social gathering on a Thursday instead of a Friday at Khalwats
instead of mosques. Such gatherings and traditions were not compulsory and people were encouraged to pursue a state of compliance with the real law of nature governing the universe.
Epistle thirteen of the Epistles of Wisdom
called it "A spiritual doctrine without any ritualistic imposition".
The time of the call was seen as a revolution of truth, with missionaries
preaching its message all around the Middle East. These messengers were sent out with the Druze epistles and took written vows
from believers, whose souls
are thought to still exist in the Druze of today. The souls of those who took the vows during the call are believed to be continuously reincarnating in successive generations of Druze until the return of al-Hakim to proclaim a second Divine call and establish a Golden Age
Some Druze and non-Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and Sami Makarem
state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early preacher al-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical.
These sources assert that al-Hakim rejected al-Darazi's claims of divinity,[page needed]
and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali.
Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride – presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister Sitt al-Mulk
. The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin.
Closing of the faith
Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son, ʻAlī al-Zahir
. The Unitarian Druze movement, which existed in the Fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir as the caliph, but followed Hamzah as its Imam
The young caliph's regent, Sitt al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021.
At the same time, Bahāʼ al-Dīn was assigned the leadership of the Unitarians by Hamza.
For the next seven years, the Druze faced extreme persecution by the new caliph, al-Zahir, who wanted to eradicate the faith.
This was the result of a power struggle inside of the Fatimid empire in which the Druze were viewed with suspicion because of their refusal to recognize the new caliph as their Imam. Many spies, mainly the followers of al-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to infiltrate the Druze community. The spies set about agitating trouble and soiling the reputation of the Druze. This resulted in friction with the new caliph who clashed militarily with the Druze community. The clashes ranged from Antioch
, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid army,
"this mass persecution known by the Druze as the period of the mihna
The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 prominent Druze were killed, followed by that of Aleppo
As a result, the faith went underground, in hope of survival, as those captured were either forced to renounce their faith or be killed. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria". In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader.
In 1043, Bahāʼ al-Din declared that the sect would no longer accept new adherents, and since that time, proselytism has been prohibited.
During the Crusades
It was during the period of Crusader rule in Levant (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf
Mountains. As powerful warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the Crusades
, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk
rulers of Egypt (1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Levant, and later to help them safeguard the Lebanese coast against Crusader retaliation by sea.
In the early period of the Crusader
era, the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs
and the Arslans
. From their fortresses in the Gharb area (now in Aley District
of southern Mount Lebanon Governorate
), the Tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding Beirut and the marine plain against the Franks
. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders
, the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni
Muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma'an
family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. The origin of the family goes back to a Prince Ma'an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mustarshid
(1118–35 CE). The Ma'ans chose for their abode the Chouf
District in south-western Lebanon (southern Mount Lebanon Governorate
), overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut
, and made their headquarters in Baaqlin
, which is still a leading Druze village. They were invested with feudal authority by Sultan Nur ad-Din
and furnished respectable contingents to the Muslim ranks in their struggle against the Crusaders.[page needed]
believed that Druze have a high level of infidelity
, besides being apostates
. Thus, they are not trustworthy and should not be forgiven. He teaches also that Muslims
cannot accept Druze penitence nor keep them alive, and Druze property should be confiscated, and their women enslaved.
Having cleared the holy land of the Franks, the Mamluk
sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria. In 1305, after the issuing of a fatwa
by the scholar Ibn Taymiyyah
, calling for jihad
against all non-Sunni
Muslims like the Druze, Alawites
, and Twelver Shia
Muslims, al-Malik al-Nasir
inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druze at Keserwan
, and forced outward compliance on their part to Orthodox Sunni Islam. Later, under the Ottoman
, they were severely attacked at Saoufar
in the 1585 Ottoman expedition
, after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli
As a result of the Ottoman experience with the rebellious Druze, the word Durzi
in Turkish came, and continues, to mean someone who is the ultimate thug.
One influential Islamic sage
of that time[who?]
labeled them as infidels
and argued that, even though they might behave like Muslims on the outside, this is no more than a pretense. He also declared that confiscation of Druze property and even the death sentence would conform to the laws of Islam.
Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes
(districts) of the Chouf
would be granted in iltizam
("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs
, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of Mount Lebanon, Druze and Christian areas alike.
With the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by Sultan Selim I
in 1516, the Ma'ans
were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an
(the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze
. The latter title has since been usurped by the Hawran
region, which since the middle of the 19th century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power.[page needed]
Under Fakhr-al-Dīn II
(Fakhreddin II), the Druze dominion increased until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Safad
in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Din's castle
at Tadmur (Palmyra
), the ancient capital of Zenobia
. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. Fakhr-al-Din became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople
. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany
containing secret military clauses. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany
in 1613 and 1615 respectively.
In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon afterwards. Through a clever policy of bribery and warfare, he extended his domains to cover all of modern Lebanon, some of Syria and northern Galilee.
In 1632 Küçük Ahmet Pasha was named Lord of Damascus
. Küçük Ahmet Pasha was a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of the sultan Murad IV
, who ordered the pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din.
This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym
was the beginning of his defeat. He later took refuge in Jezzine
's grotto, closely followed by Küçük Ahmet Pasha who eventually caught up with him and his family.
Fakhr-al-Din was captured, taken to Istanbul
, and imprisoned with two of his sons in the infamous Yedi Kule prison. The Sultan had Fakhr-al-Din and his sons killed on 13 April 1635 in Istanbul
, bringing an end to an era in the history of Lebanon, which would not regain its current boundaries until it was proclaimed a mandate state and republic in 1920. One version recounts that the younger son was spared, raised in the harem and went on to become Ottoman Ambassador to India.
Fakhr-al-Din II was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences. Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines
a consulate, and Christian missionaries were admitted into the country. Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Din II beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule. See the new biography of this Prince, based on original sources, by TJ Gorton: Renaissance Emir: a Druze Warlord at the Court of the Medici
(London, Quartet Books, 2013), for an updated view of his life.
Fakhr ad Din II was succeeded in 1635 by his nephew Ahmed Ma'an
, who ruled through his death in 1658. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in Constantinople.) Emir Mulhim exercised Iltizam
taxation rights in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. Mulhim's forces battled and defeated those of Mustafa Pasha, Beylerbey
of Damascus, in 1642, but he is reported by historians to have been otherwise loyal to Ottoman rule.
Following Mulhim's death, his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz entered into a power struggle
with other Ottoman-backed Druze leaders. In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks
(districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon
, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control.
Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Beylerbey of Damascus in 1662.
Ahmad however emerged victorious in the power struggle
among the Druze in 1667, but the Maʿnīs lost control of Safad
and retreated to controlling the iltizam of the Shuf mountains and Kisrawan.
Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, without heir, in 1697.
As early as the days of Saladin
, and while the Ma'ans were still in complete control over southern Lebanon, the Shihab tribe, originally Hijaz
Arabs, but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in 1172, and settled in Wadi al-Taym
at the foot of mount Hermon
. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym
. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects.
The Shihab leadership continued until the middle of the 19th century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of Amir Bashir Shihab II
(1788–1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the most powerful feudal lord Lebanon produced. Though governor of the Druze Mountain, Bashir was a crypto-Christian
, and it was he whose aid Napoleon
solicited in 1799 during his campaign against Syria.
Having consolidated his conquests in Syria (1831–1838), Ibrahim Pasha
, son of the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha
, made the fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and Druzes of the Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army. This was contrary to the principles of the life of independence which these mountaineers had always lived, and resulted in a general uprising
against Egyptian rule.
The Druzes of Wadi al-Taym and Ḥawran, under the leadership of Shibli al-Aryan, distinguished themselves in their stubborn resistance at their inaccessible headquarters, al-Laja
, lying southeast of Damascus.[page needed]
Qaysites and the Yemenites
Meeting of Druze and Ottoman leaders in Damascus
, about the control of Jebel Druze
The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites
. The Qaysite party represented the Bedouin
Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. Druzes and Christians grouped in political, rather than religious, parties; the party lines in Lebanon obliterated ethnic and religious lines and the people grouped themselves into one or the other of these two parties regardless of their religious affiliations. The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara
in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. Many Yemenite Druzes thereupon migrated to the Hauran
region, laying the foundation of Druze power there.[page needed]
Civil War of 1860
After the Shehab dynasty
converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. Also, the Druze formed an alliance with Britain
and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites.
The Maronite-Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement,
directed against the Druze, Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks. The civil war was not therefore a religious war,
except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian.
The movement culminated with the 1859–60 massacre and defeat of the Christians by the Druzes. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus
, Deir al-Qamar
, and other towns of Lebanon.
The European powers then determined to intervene, and authorized the landing in Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort d'Hautpoul
, whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock at the mouth of Nahr al-Kalb
. French intervention on behalf of the Maronites did not help the Maronite national movement, since France was restricted in 1860 by the British government, which did not want the Ottoman Empire
dismembered. But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly.
Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. This autonomy was maintained until World War I.[page needed][page needed]
Rebellion in Hauran
The Hauran rebellion was a violent Druze uprising against Ottoman authority in the Syrian province, which erupted in May 1909. The rebellion was led by al-Atrash
family, originated in local disputes and Druze unwillingness to pay taxes and conscript into the Ottoman Army. The rebellion ended in brutal suppression of the Druze by General Sami Pasha al-Farouqi, significant depopulation of the Hauran region and execution of the Druze leaders in 1910. In the outcome of the revolt, 2,000 Druze were killed, a similar number wounded, and hundreds of Druze fighters imprisoned. Al-Farouqi also disarmed the population, extracted significant taxes, and launched a census of the region.
, and Jordan
, the Druzites have official recognition as a separate religious community with its own religious court system. Druzites are known for their loyalty to the countries they reside in,[page needed][verification needed]
though they have a strong community feeling, in which they identify themselves as related even across borders of countries.
Despite their practice of blending with dominant groups to avoid persecution, and because the Druze religion does not endorse separatist sentiments, but urges blending with the communities they reside in, the Druze have had a history of resistance to occupying powers, and they have at times enjoyed more freedom than most other groups living in the Levant
Druze warriors preparing to go to battle with Sultan Pasha al-Atrash in 1925
In Syria, most Druzites live in the Jebel al-Druze
, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so.[page needed]
Other notable communities live in the Harim Mountains
, the Damascus
suburb of Jaramana
, and on the southeast slopes of Mount Hermon
. A large Syrian Druze community historically lived in the Golan Heights
, but following wars with Israel in 1967
, many of these Druze fled to other parts of Syria; most of those who remained live in a handful of villages in the disputed zone, while only a few live in the narrow remnant of Quneitra Governorate
that is still under effective Syrian control.
Druze celebrating their independence in 1925.
The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druze of Syria's southwestern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French
. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash
, the Druze provided much of the military force behind the Syrian Revolution
of 1925–27. In 1945, Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jebel al-Druze
, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jebel al-Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British
assistance. At independence the Druze, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield. They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government.[page needed]
When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli
(1943–49) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous", and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus". Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine
. One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army
was "useless", and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze".[page needed]
During the four years of Adib Shishakli
's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) (on 25 August 1952: Adib al-Shishakli
created the Arab Liberation Movement
(ALM), a progressive party with pan-Arabist
and socialist views),
the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian government. Shishakli believed that among his many opponents in Syria, the Druzes were the most potentially dangerous, and he was determined to crush them. He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: The head is the Jebel al-Druze, the stomach Homs
, and the tail Aleppo
. If I crush the head, the serpent will die." Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. According to Druze accounts, Shishakli encouraged neighboring bedouin
tribes to plunder the defenseless population and allowed his own troops to run amok.[page needed]
Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were in the employ of the British and Hashimites
, at others that they were fighting for Israel
against the Arabs
. He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discovered in the Jabal. Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred. This propaganda also was broadcast in the Arab world, mainly Egypt
. Shishakli was assassinated in Brazil
on 27 September 1964 by a Druze seeking revenge for Shishakli's bombardment of the Jebel al-Druze.[page needed]
He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite
and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. The head is the Jabal Druze, if I crush the head the serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132).
To this end, al-Shishakli encouraged the stigmatization of minorities. He saw minority demands as tantamount to treason. His increasingly chauvinistic notions of Arab nationalism
were predicated on the denial that "minorities" existed in Syria.[page needed]
After the Shishakli's military campaign, the Druze community lost much of its political influence, but many Druze military officers played important roles in the Ba'ath
government currently ruling Syria.[page needed]
In 1967, a community of Druze in the Golan Heights came under Israeli control, today numbering 23,000 (in 2019).
The Druzite community in Lebanon played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon,
and even though they are a minority they play an important role in the Lebanese political scene. Before and during the Lebanese Civil War
(1975–90), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism
and Palestinian resistance
represented by the PLO
. Most of the community supported the Progressive Socialist Party
formed by their leader Kamal Jumblatt
and they fought alongside other leftist and Palestinian parties against the Lebanese Front
that was mainly constituted of Christians
. After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt
on 16 March 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt
took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's legacy after winning the Mountain War
and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until 1990.
In August 2001, Maronite Catholic Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir
toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region
of Mount Lebanon
and visited Mukhtara
, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt. The tumultuous reception that Sfeir received not only signified a historic reconciliation between Maronites
and Druze, who fought a bloody war in 1983–1984, but underscored the fact that the banner of Lebanese sovereignty had broad multi-confessional appeal
and was a cornerstone for the Cedar Revolution
in 2005. Jumblatt's post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family. He also accused Damascus
of being behind the 1977 assassination of his father, Kamal Jumblatt, expressing for the first time what many knew he privately suspected. The BBC
describes Jumblatt as "the leader of Lebanon's most powerful Druze clan and heir to a leftist political dynasty".
The second largest political party supported by Druze is the Lebanese Democratic Party
led by Prince Talal Arslan
, the son of Lebanese independence hero Emir Majid Arslan
Scouts march to Jethro's tomb. Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to such "Druze Zionist" movements.
The Druzites form a religious minority in Israel
of more than 100,000, mostly residing in the north of the country.
In 2004, there were 102,000 Druze living in the country.
In 2010, the population of Israeli Druze citizens grew to over 125,000. At the end of 2018, there were 143,000.
Most Israeli Druze
identify ethnically as Arabs.
Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to "Druze Zionist
Some scholars maintain that Israel has tried to separate the Druze from other Arab communities, and that the effort has influenced the way Israel's Druze perceive their modern identity.
In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. The Druze are Arabic
-speaking citizens of Israel and serve in the Israel Defense Forces
, just as most citizens do in Israel. Members of the community have attained top positions in Israeli politics and public service.
The number of Druze parliament members usually exceeds their proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within several political parties.
The Druzites form a religious minority in Jordan
of around 32,000, mostly residing in the northwestern part of the country.
The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity. The main Druze doctrine states that God
is both transcendent
, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present.
In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes (tanzīh
). In God, there are no attributes distinct from his essence. He is wise, mighty, and just, not by wisdom, might, and justice, but by his own essence. God is "the whole of existence", rather than "above existence" or on his throne, which would make him "limited". There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible.[page needed]
Unlike the Mu'tazila
, however, and similar to some branches of Sufism
, the Druze believe in the concept of Tajalli
").[page needed] Tajalli
is often misunderstood by scholars and writers and is usually confused with the concept of incarnation
[Incarnation] is the core spiritual beliefs in the Druze and some other intellectual and spiritual traditions ... In a mystical sense, it refers to the light of God experienced by certain mystics who have reached a high level of purity in their spiritual journey. Thus, God is perceived as the Lahut
[the divine] who manifests His Light in the Station (Maqaam
) of the Nasut
[material realm] without the Nasut becoming Lahut. This is like one's image in the mirror: One is in the mirror, but does not become the mirror. The Druze manuscripts are emphatic and warn against the belief that the Nasut is God ... Neglecting this warning, individual seekers, scholars, and other spectators have considered al-Hakim and other figures divine. ... In the Druze scriptural view, Tajalli takes a central stage. One author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the person.[page needed]
Druze Sacred texts include the Quran
and the Kitab Al Hikma
(Epistles of Wisdom).
Other ancient Druze writings include the Rasa'il al-Hind (Epistles of India)
and the previously lost (or hidden) manuscripts such as al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi
and al-Sharia al-Ruhaniyya
as well as others including didactic
Reincarnation is a paramount principle in the Druze faith.
Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality
of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. Furthermore, a male Druze can be reincarnated only as another male Druze and a female Druze only as another female Druze. A Druze cannot be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. Additionally, souls cannot be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite.
The cycle of rebirth is continuous and the only way to escape is through successive reincarnations. When this occurs, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind and achieves the ultimate happiness.
Pact of Time Custodian
The Pact of Time Custodian (Mithāq Walī al-zamān) is considered the entrance to the Druze religion, and they believe that all Druze in their past lives have signed this Charter, and Druze believe that this Charter embodies with human souls after death.
I rely on our Moula Al-Hakim the lonely God, the individual, the eternal, who is out of couples and numbers, (someone) the son of (someone) has approved recognition enjoined on himself and on his soul, in a healthy of his mind and his body, permissibility aversive is obedient and not forced, to repudiate from all creeds, articles and all religions and beliefs on the differences varieties, and he does not know something except obedience of almighty Moulana Al-Hakim, and obedience is worship and that it does not engage in worship anyone ever attended or wait, and that he had handed his soul and his body and his money and all he owns to almighty Maulana Al-Hakim.
The Druze also use a similar formula, called al-'ahd, when one is initiated into the ʻUqqāl.
The Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious leaders and holy books have esoteric
meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic
in nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers.
These layers, according to the Druze, are as follows:
- The obvious or exoteric (zahir), accessible to anyone who can read or hear;
- The hidden or esoteric (batin), accessible to those who are willing to search and learn through the concept of exegesis;
- And the hidden of the hidden, a concept known as anagoge, inaccessible to all but a few really enlightened individuals who truly understand the nature of the universe.
Druze do not believe that the esoteric meaning abrogates or necessarily abolishes the exoteric one. Hamza bin Ali refutes such claims by stating that if the esoteric interpretation of taharah
(purity) is purity of the heart and soul, it doesn't mean that a person can discard his physical purity, as salat
(prayer) is useless if a person is untruthful in his speech and that the esoteric and exoteric meanings complement each other.
Seven Druze precepts
The Druze follow seven moral precepts or duties that are considered the core of the faith.
The Seven Druze precepts are:
- Veracity in speech and the truthfulness of the tongue.
- Protection and mutual aid to the brethren in faith.
- Renunciation of all forms of former worship (specifically, invalid creeds) and false belief.
- Repudiation of the devil (Iblis), and all forces of evil (translated from Arabic Toghyan, meaning "despotism").
- Confession of God's unity.
- Acquiescence in God's acts no matter what they be.
- Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both secret and public.
Complicating their identity is the custom of taqiyya
—concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from Ismailism and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many teachings are kept secretive. This is done in order to keep the religion from those who are not yet prepared to accept the teachings and therefore could misunderstand it, as well as to protect the community when it is in danger. Some claim to be Muslim or Christian in order to avoid persecution; some do not.
Druze in different states can have radically different lifestyles.
Recognition of prophets in the Druze religion is divided into three sort-of subcategories, the prophet themselves (natiq
), their disciples (asas
), and witnesses to their message (hujjah
). For example, Muhammad
is considered a natiq
is considered an asas
, but both are considered prophets. Each major prophet had seven minor prophets, and each minor prophet had twelve disciples.
The number 5 contains an unstated significance within the Druze faith, it's believed in this area that great prophets come in groups of five. In the time of the ancient Greeks, these five were represented by Pythagoras
, and Empedocles
. In the first century, the five were represented by Jesus Christ
, John the Baptist
, Saint Matthew
, Saint Mark
, and Saint Luke
. In the time of the faith's foundation, the five were Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad
, Muḥammad ibn Wahb al-Qurashī, Abū'l-Khayr Salama ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Samurri, Ismāʿīl ibn Muḥammad at-Tamīmī, and Al-Muqtana Baha'uddin
The Druze allow divorce, although it is discouraged; circumcision is not necessary; when al-Hakim returns, all faithful Druze will join him in his march from China
and on to conquer the world; apostasy
they usually have religious services on Thursday
and follow Sunni Hanafi
law on issues which their own faith has no particular rulings about.
The Druze strictly avoid iconography
, but use five colors ("Five Limits" خمس حدود
) as a religious symbol:
green, red, yellow, blue, and white. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd
, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. Each ḥadd
is color-coded in the following manner:
- Green for ʻAql "the Universal Mind/Intelligence/Nous",
- Red for Nafs "the Universal Soul/Anima mundi",
- Yellow for Kalima "the Word/Logos",
- Blue for Sabiq "the Potentiality/Cause/Precedent", and
- White for Tali "the Future/Effect/Immanence".
The mind generates qualia
and gives consciousness.
The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible world. The Sabq
is the ability to perceive and learn from the past and plan for the future and predict it.
The colors can be arranged in vertically descending stripes (as a flag) or a five-pointed star
The stripes are a diagrammatic cut of the spheres in neoplatonic philosophy, while the five-pointed star embodies the golden ratio
, as a symbol of temperance
and a life of moderation.
Prayer houses and holy places
Jethro shrine and temple of Druze in Hittin
, northern Israel
Holy places of the Druze are archaeological sites important to the community and associated with religious holidays
– the most notable example being Nabi Shu'ayb
, dedicated to Jethro
, who is a central figure of the Druze religion. Druze make pilgrimages to this site on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb
One of the most important features of the Druze village having a central role in social life is the khalwat
—a house of prayer, retreat and religious unity. The khalwat
may be known as majlis
in local languages.
The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. If it is a mausoleum
the Druze call it mazār
and if it is a shrine
they call it maqām
. The holy places become more important to the community in times of adversity and calamity. The holy places and shrines
of the Druze are scattered in various villages, in places where they are protected and cared for. They are found in Syria
Initiates and "ignorant" members
) wearing religious dress
The Druzes do not recognize any religious hierarchy. As such, there is no "Druze clergy". Those few initiated in the Druze holy books are called ʿuqqāl
while the "ignorant", regular members of the group are called juhhāl
Given the strict religious, intellectual and spiritual requirements, most of the Druzes are not initiated and might be referred to as al-Juhhāl
), literally "the Ignorant", but in practice referring to the non-initiated Druzes; however, that term is seldom used by the Druzes. Those are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of the ʻuqqāl
. The cohesiveness and frequent inter-community social interaction however makes it in sort that that most Druzes have an idea about their broad ethical requirements and have some sense of what their theology consists of (albeit often flawed).
The initiated religious group, which includes both men and women (less than 10% of the population), is called al-ʻUqqāl
"the Knowledgeable Initiates"). They might or might not dress differently, although most wear a costume that was characteristic of mountain people
in previous centuries. Women can opt to wear al-mandīl
, a loose white veil
, especially in the presence of other people. They wear al-mandīl
on their heads to cover their hair and wrap it around their mouths. They wear black shirts and long skirts covering their legs to their ankles. Male ʻuqqāl
often grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called the shirwal
, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority of the ʻuqqāl
. Traditionally the Druze women have played an important role both socially and religiously inside the community.
have equal rights to al-Juhhāl
, but establish a hierarchy of respect based on religious service. The most influential of al-ʻuqqāl
, recognized religious leaders, and from this group the spiritual leaders of the Druze are assigned. While the Shaykh al-ʻAql
, which is an official position in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, is elected by the local community and serves as the head of the Druze religious council, judges from the Druze religious courts are usually elected for this position. Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-ʻAql
is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position.
The Druze believe in the unity of God, and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". Their theology
has a Neo-Platonic
view about how God interacts with the world through emanations and is similar to some gnostic
and other esoteric
sects. Druze philosophy also shows Sufi
Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety
, patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism
. They reject nicotine
, and other drugs
, and often the consumption of pork (to those Uqqāl and not necessarily to be required by the Juhhāl). Druze reject polygamy
, believe in reincarnation
, and are not obliged to observe most of the religious rituals. The Druze believe that rituals are symbolic and have an individualistic effect on the person, for which reason Druze are free to perform them, or not. The community does celebrate Eid al-Adha
, however, considered their most significant holiday.
(in Levantine Arabic, متة
/mæte/) is a popular drink consumed by the Druze brought to the Levant
by Syrian migrants from Argentina
in the 19th century.
Mate is made by steeping dried leaves of the South American
plant yerba mate
in hot water and is served with a metal straw (بمبيجة
) from a gourd (فنجان
). Mate is often the first item served when entering a Druze home. It is a social drink and can be shared between multiple participants. After each drinker, the metal straw is cleaned with lemon rind. Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs, biscuits, and chips.
Druze and other religions
Relationship with Muslims
Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution.
The Druze faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili
. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam
, most Druze do not identify as Muslims
and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam
The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate
, Sunni Ottoman Empire
and Egypt Eyalet
The persecution of the Druze included massacres
, demolishing Druze prayer houses and holy places and forced conversion
Those act of persecution in the Druze's narrative, were meant to eradicate the whole community according to the Druze narrative.
Most recently, the Syrian Civil War
, which began in 2011, saw persecution of the Druze at the hands of Islamic extremists
Since Druze either emerged from Islam and share certain beliefs with Islam, its position of whether it is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial among Muslim scholars. Druze are not considered Muslims
by those belonging to orthodox Islamic schools of thought. Ibn Taymiyya
a prominent Muslim scholar muhaddith
, dismissed the Druze as non-Muslims,
and his fatwa
cited that Druzes: "Are not at the level of ′Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book
) nor mushrikin
). Rather, they are from the most deviant kuffār (Infidel
) ... Their women can be taken as slaves and their property can be seized ... they are be killed whenever they are found and cursed as they described ... It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",
which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates
have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze.
While for Ibn Abidin
, whose work Radd al-Muhtar 'ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar
is still considered the authoritative text of Hanafi
the Druze are neither Muslims nor apostates
In 1959, in an ecumenical move driven by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser
's effort to broaden his political appeal after the establishment of the United Arab Republic
the Islamic scholar Mahmud Shaltut
at Al Azhar University
classified the Druze as Muslims,
even though most Druze no longer consider themselves Muslim.
declares that the Druze are Muslims because they recite the twofold Shahada
, and believe in the Qur'an
and do not oppose Islam in word or deed.
was not accepted by all in the Islamic world, many dissenting scholars have argued the Druze recite the Shahada
as a form of taqiya
; a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution. Some sects of Islam, including all Shia denominations, don’t recognize the religious authority of Al Azhar University
, those that do sometimes challenge the religious legitimacy of Shaltut’s fatwa because it was issued for political reasons, as Gamal Abdel Nasser
saw it as a tool to spread his appeal and influence across the entire Arab world
In 2012, due to a drift towards Salafism
in Al-Azhar, and the ascension of the Muslim Brotherhood
into Egyptian political leadership, the dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies at Al-Azhar issued a fatwa strongly opposed to the 1959 fatwa
Relationship with Christians
Relationship with Jews
The relationship between the Druze and Jews
has been controversial, Anti-Jewish
bias material is contained in the Druze literature such as the Epistles of Wisdom
; for example in an epistle ascribed to one of the founders of Druzism, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana
probably written sometime between AD 1027 and AD 1042, accused the Jews with the crucifixion of Jesus
On the other hand, Benjamin of Tudela
, a Jewish traveler
from the 12th century, pointed out that the Druze maintained good commercial relations with the Jews nearby, and according to him this was because the Druze liked the Jewish people.
Yet, the Jews and Druze lived isolated from each other, except in few mixed towns such as Deir al-Qamar
The Deir el Qamar Synagogue
was built in 1638, during the Ottoman era in Lebanon, to serve the local Jewish population, some of whom were part of the immediate entourage of the Druze Emir Fakhr-al-Din II
In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism
and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups
and both practice endogamy
and both typically do not proselytize
. The belief in reincarnation
had first existed among Jewish mystics
in the Ancient World, among whom differing explanations were given of the afterlife, although with a universal belief in an immortal soul.
Figures in the Hebrew Bible
such as Adam
, and Moses
are considered important prophets of God in the Druze faith, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history.
Both religions venerate Elijah
and other common figures. In the Hebrew Bible Jethro
' father-in-law, a Kenite
shepherd and priest of Midian
Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet.
The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym
in Southern Lebanon
, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat)
which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari
, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates
where they had been Christianized
prior to their migration into the Lebanon. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq
seem also to point in the direction of this origin. Arabian tribes emigrated via the Persian Gulf
and stopped in Iraq on the route that was later to lead them to Syria. The first feudal Druze family, the Tanukhids
, which made for itself a name in fighting the Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an Arab tribe from Mesopotamia
where it occupied the position of a ruling family and apparently was Christianized.[page needed]
Travelers like Niebuhr
, and scholars like Max von Oppenheim
, undoubtedly echoing the popular Druze belief regarding their own origin, have classified them as Arabs
Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes
The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
states that the Druzes are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood".
According to Jewish contemporary literature, the Druze, who were visited and described in 1165 by Benjamin of Tudela
, were pictured as descendants of the Itureans
tribe, which used to reside in the northern parts of the Golan plateau
through Hellenistic and Roman periods. The word Druzes, in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, occurs as "Dogziyin", but it is clear that this is a scribal error.
Archaeological assessments of the Druze region have also proposed the possibility of Druze descending from Itureans,
who had inhabited Mount Lebanon
and Golan Heights
in late classic antiquity, but their traces fade in the Middle Ages.
In a 2005 study of ASPM gene variants
, Mekel-Bobrov et al. found that the Israeli
Druze people of the Mount Carmel
region have among the highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM- Haplogroup D, at 52.2% occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele.
While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the Haplogroup D allele is thought[by whom?]
to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase.
A 2004 DNA
study has shown that Israeli Druze are remarkable for the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L
, which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al. 2004).
This haplogroup originates from prehistoric South Asia
and has spread from Pakistan
into southern Iran
. A 2008 study done on larger samples showed that L-M20 averages 27% in Mount Carmel Druze, 2% in Galilee Druze, 8% in Lebanese Druze, and it was not found in a sample of 59 Syrian Druze (Slush et al. 2008).
Cruciani in 2007 found E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) [a subclade of E1b1b1a (E-M78)] in high levels (>10% of the male population) in Cypriot and Druze lineages. Recent genetic clustering analyses of ethnic groups are consistent with the close ancestral relationship between the Druze and Cypriots, and also identified similarity to the general Syrian
populations, as well as a variety of Jewish
groups (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Iraqi, and Moroccan) (Behar et al. 2010).
Also, a new study concluded that the Druze harbor a remarkable diversity of mitochondrial DNA
lineages that appear to have separated from each other thousands of years ago. But instead of dispersing throughout the world after their separation, the full range of lineages can still be found within the Druze population.
The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup
, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East
at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent.
These findings are consistent with the Druze oral tradition
, that claims that the adherents of the faith came from diverse ancestral lineages stretching back tens of thousands of years.
The Shroud of Turin
analysis shows significant traces of mitochondrial DNA unique to the Druze community.
A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. A total of 311 Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the Golan Heights
, 183 from the Galilee
, and 35 from Mount Carmel
, as well as 27 Druze immigrants from Syria and 29 from Lebanon (Slush et al. 2008). The researchers found the following frequencies of Y-chromosomal and MtDNA haplogroups:
- Mount Carmel: L 27%, R 27%, J 18%, E 15%, G 12%.
- Galilee: J 31%, R 20%, E 18%, G 14%, K 11%, Q 4%, L 2%.
- Golan Heights: J 54%, E 29%, I 8%, G 4%, C 4%.
- Lebanon: J 58%, K 17%, Q 8%, R 8%, L 8%.
- Syria: J 39%, E 29%, R 14%, G 14%, K 4%.
- Maternal MtDNA haplogroup frequencies: H 32%, X 13%, K 12.5%, U 10 %, T 7.5%, HV 4.8 %, J 4.8%, I 3.5%, pre HV 3%, L2a3 2.25%, N1b 2.25%, M1 1.6%, W 1.29%.
A 2016 study based on testing samples of Druze in the Syria (region)
in comparison with ancient humans (including Anatolian and Armenian), and on Geographic Population Structure (GPS) tool by converting genetic distances into geographic distances, concluded that Druze might hail from the Zagros Mountains
and the surroundings of Lake Van
in eastern Anatolia
, then they later migrated south to settle in the mountainous regions in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.
A 2020 study on remains from Canaanaite
(Bronze Age southern Levantine
) populations suggests a significant degree of genetic continuity in currently Arabic-speaking Levantine populations (including the Druze, Lebanese, Palestinians
, and Syrians) as well as in most Jewish groups (including Sephardi Jews
, Ashkenazi Jews
, Mizrahi Jews
, and Maghrebi Jews
) from the populations of the Bronze Age Levant, suggesting that the aforementioned groups all derive more than half of their overall ancestry (atDNA
) from Canaanite/Bronze Age Levantine populations,
albeit with varying sources and degrees of admixture from differing host or invading populations depending on each group.
- ^ Carl Skutsch (7 November 2013). Skutsch, Carl (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-135-19388-1. Total Population: 800,000
- ^ Robert Brenton Betts (1 January 1990). The Druze (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-300-04810-0. The total population of Druze throughout the world probably approaches one million.
- ^ Donna Marsh (11 May 2015). Doing Business in the Middle East: A cultural and practical guide for all Business Professionals (revised ed.). Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1-4721-3567-4. It is believed there are no more than 1 million Druze worldwide; most live in the Levant.
- ^ Samy Swayd (10 March 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Druzes (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4422-4617-1. The Druze world population at present is perhaps nearing two million; ...
- ^ a b c Hendrix, Scott; Okeja, Uchenna, eds. (2018). The World's Greatest Religious Leaders: How Religious Figures Helped Shape World History [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 11. ISBN 978-1440841385.
- ^ Daftary, Ferhad. "ḤĀKEM BE-AMR-ALLĀH". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- ^ "Syria region map" (PNG). gulf2000.columbia.edu.
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- ^ J.Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 9781135980788. The Druze symbol is a fivecolored star, witheach color representing cosmic principles believedbythe Druze
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- ^ Swayd, Samy (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Druzes. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 132. ISBN 9781442246171. Some Muslim rulers and jurists have advocated the persecution of members of the Druze Movement beginning with the seventh Fatimi Caliph Al-Zahir, in 1022. Recurring period of persecutions in subsequent centuries ... failure to elucidate their beliefs and practices, have contributed to the ambiguous relationship between Muslims and Druzes
- ^ K. Zartman, Jonathan (2020). Conflict in the Modern Middle East: An Encyclopedia of Civil War, Revolutions, and Regime Change. ABC-CLIO. p. 199. ISBN 9781440865039. Historically, Islam classified Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians as protected “People of the Book,” a secondary status subject to payment of a poll tax. Nevertheless, Zoroastrians suffered significant persecution. Other religions such as the Alawites, Alevis, and Druze often suffered more.
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- ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
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- ^ Parsons, L. (2000). The Druze between Palestine and Israel 1947–49. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 9780230595989. With the succession of al-Zahir to the Fatimid caliphate a mass persecution (known by the Druze as the period of the mihna) of the Muwaḥḥidūn was instigated ...
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- ^ R. Williams, Victoria (2020). Indigenous Peoples: An Encyclopedia of Culture, History, and Threats to Survival [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 318. ISBN 9781440861185. As Druze is a nonritualistic religion without requirements to pray, fast, make pilgrimages, or observe days of rest, the Druze are not considered an Islamic people by Sunni Muslims.
- ^ Roald, Anne Sofie (2011). Religious Minorities in the Middle East: Domination, Self-Empowerment, Accommodation. BRILL. p. 255. ISBN 9789004207424. Therefore, many of these scholars follow Ibn Taymiyya'sfatwa from the beginning of the fourteenth century that declared the Druzes and the Alawis as heretics outside Islam ...
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