part of Angus
, the city developed into a burgh
in the late 12th century and established itself as an important east coast trading port.
Rapid expansion was brought on by the Industrial Revolution
, particularly in the 19th century when Dundee was the centre of the global jute
This, along with its other major industries, gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute, jam and journalism".
Today, Dundee is promoted as "One City, Many Discoveries" in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery
, Robert Falcon Scott
's Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed at Discovery Point. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital entertainment
industry, including mobile app development and gaming. Dundee has two universities – the University of Dundee
and the Abertay University
. In 2014, Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO
City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research, comics and video games.
With the decline of traditional industry, the city has adopted a plan to regenerate and reinvent itself as a cultural centre.
In pursuit of this, a £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre started in 2001 and is expected to be completed within a 30-year period. The V&A Dundee
– the first branch of the V&A
to operate outside of London – is the main centre piece of the waterfront project.
In recent years, Dundee's international profile has risen. GQ
magazine named Dundee the 'Coolest Little City in Britain' in 2015 and The Wall Street Journal
ranked Dundee at number 5 on its 'Worldwide Hot Destinations' list for 2018.
The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: the common Celtic
place-name element dun
, meaning fort; and a second part that may derive from a Celtic element, cognate with the Gaelic dè
, meaning 'fire'.
While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant,
Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion
's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David
(later Earl of Huntingdon
) in the late 12th century.
The situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth.
The earldom was passed down to David's descendants, amongst whom was John Balliol
. The town became a Royal Burgh
on John's coronation as king in 1292.
The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence
and recaptured by Robert the Bruce
in early 1312.
The original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327.
The burgh suffered considerably during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing
of 1543 to 1550, and was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley
from 1547. In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground.
In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose
The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck
The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite
cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee
raised the Stuart
standard on the Dundee Law
The town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, and on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III
(the Old Pretender), made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king.
A notable resident of Dundee was Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, Baron of Lundie
(1 July 1731 to 4 August 1804). He was born in Dundee on 1 July 1731, the son of Alexander Duncan of Lundie, Provost of Dundee. Adam was educated in Dundee and later joined the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial. He rose to be admiral and in October 1797 defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown (north of Haarlem). This was seen as one of the most significant actions in naval history.
The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century.
Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg
linen produced for export.
Expansion of the whaling
industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base.
Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.
The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles, particularly for cheaper, tough fabrics.
The discovery that the dry fibres of jute
could be lubricated with whale oil
(of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks) to allow it to be processed in mechanised mills resulted in the Dundee mills rapidly converting from linen to jute, which sold at a quarter of the price of flax.
Interruption of Prussian
flax imports during the Crimean War
and of cotton during the American Civil War
resulted in a period of inflated prosperity for Dundee and the jute industry dominated Dundee throughout the latter half of the 19th century.
Unprecedented immigration, notably of Irish workers, led to accelerated urban expansion, and at the height of the industry's success, Dundee supported 62 jute mills, employing some 50,000 workers.
Cox Brothers, who owned the massive Camperdown Works
, were one of the largest jute manufacturers in Europe and employed more than 5,000 workers.
The rise of the textile industries brought with it an expansion of supporting industries, notably of the whaling, maritime and shipbuilding industries,
and extensive development of the waterfront area started in 1815 to cope with increased demand for port capacity.
At its height, 200 ships per year were built there, including Robert Falcon Scott
's Antarctic research vessel, the RRS Discovery
. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.
A significant whaling industry was also based in Dundee, largely existing to supply the jute mills with whale oil
. Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.
The original Tay Bridge
(from the south) the day after the disaster. The collapsed section can be seen near the northern end
While the city's economy was dominated by the jute industry, it also became known for smaller industries. Most notable among these were James Keiller's and Sons
, established in 1795, which pioneered commercial marmalade
and the publishing firm DC Thomson
, which was founded in the city in 1905. Dundee was said to be built on the 'three Js': Jute, Jam and Journalism.
The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history, the Tay Bridge disaster
. The first Tay Rail Bridge
was opened in 1878. It collapsed some 18 months later during a storm, as a passenger train passed over it, resulting in the loss of 75 lives.
The most destructive fire in the city's history
came in 1906, reportedly sending "rivers of burning whisky" through the street.
The jute industry fell into decline in the early 20th century, partly due to reduced demand for jute products and partly due to an inability to compete with the emerging industry in Calcutta
This gave rise to unemployment levels far in excess of the national average, peaking in the inter-war period,
but major recovery was seen in the post-war period, thanks to the arrival first of American light engineering companies like Timex
, and subsequent expansion into microelectronics.
A£1 billion master plan to regenerate Dundee Waterfront is expected to last for a 30-year period between 2001 and 2031.
The aims of the project are to reconnect the city centre to the waterfront; to improve facilities for walking, cyclists and buses; to replace the existing inner ring road with a pair of east/west tree-lined boulevards; and to provide a new civic square and a regenerated railway station and arrival space at the western edge. A new Victoria and Albert Museum
opened on 15 September 2018.
Coat of arms of the city of Dundee
Dundee was granted Royal Burgh
status on the coronation of John Balliol
as King of Scotland in 1292.
The city has two mottos—Latin
: Dei Donum
(Gift of God
) and Prudentia et Candore
(With Thought and Purity) although usually only the latter is used for civic purposes.
Prior to 1996, Dundee was governed by the City of Dundee District Council. This was formed in 1975, implementing boundaries imposed in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973
. Under these boundaries, the Angus burgh and district of Monifieth, and the Perth electoral division of Longforgan
(which included Invergowrie
) were annexed to the county of the city of Dundee. In 1996, the Dundee City unitary authority was created following implementation of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994
This placed Monifieth
in the unitary authorities of Angus
and Perth and Kinross
, largely reinstating the pre-1975 county
boundaries. Some controversy has ensued as a result of these boundary changes, with Dundee city councillors arguing for the return of Monifieth and Invergowrie.
Dundee is one of 32 council areas of Scotland
and is represented by the Dundee City Council – a local council composed of 29 elected councillors
. Previously the city was a county of a city
and later a district
of the Tayside region
. Council meetings take place in the City Chambers
, which opened in 1933 in City Square. The civic head and chair of the council is known as the Lord Provost
, a position similar to that of mayor in other cities. The political head of the council is known as the Leader of the council or Leader of the Administration. The Leader chairs the Policy & Resources Committee. Dundee House
, the new headquarters for the city council on North Lindsay Street, opened in August 2011.
This has replaced Tayside House
which was demolished in 2013 as part of the Dundee Waterfront improvements.
Westminster and Holyrood
2014 Scottish independence referendum
On 18 September 2014, Dundee was one of four council areas to vote "Yes" in the Scottish independence referendum
, with 57.3% voting "Yes" on a 78.8% turnout. With the highest Yes vote for any local authority in Scotland, some in the Yes Scotland
campaign nicknamed Dundee the 'Yes City', including former First Minister Alex Salmond
Dundee sits on the north bank of the Firth of Tay
on the eastern, North Sea
Coast of Scotland. The city lies 36.1 miles (58 km) NNE
and 360.6 miles (580 km) NNW
The built-up area occupies a roughly rectangular shape 8.3 miles (13 km) long by 2.5 miles (4 km) wide, aligned in an east to west direction and occupies an area of 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi).
The town is bisected by a line of hills stretching from Balgay Hill (elevation of 143 m) in the west end of the city, through the Dundee Law
(174 m) which occupies the centre of the built up area, to Gallow Hill (83 m), between Baxter Park
and the Eastern Cemetery. North of this ridge lies a valley through which cuts the Dighty Water burn
, the elevation falling to around 45 m. North of the Dighty valley lie the Sidlaw Hills
, the most prominent hill being Craigowl Hill
The western and eastern boundaries of the city are marked by two burns
that are tributaries of the River Tay
. On the westernmost boundary of the city, the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn, forming the Invergowrie
burn, which meets the Tay at Invergowrie basin.
The Dighty Water enters Dundee from the village of Strathmartine
and marks the boundaries of a number of northern districts of the city, joining the Tay between Barnhill
The Scouring burn in the west end of the city and Dens Burn in the east, both of which played important roles in the industrial development of the city, have now been culverted
The land surrounding Dundee, particularly that in the lower lying areas to the west and east of the city, bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for arable farming. It is predominantly of a brown forest soil
type with some gleying
, the lower parts being formed from raised beach sands and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas.
View from The Law, overlooking Dundee City Centre and the Tay Road Bridge
Very little of pre-Reformation
Dundee remains, the destruction suffered in the War of the Rough Wooing
being almost total, with only scattered, roofless shells remaining.
The area occupied by the medieval burgh of Dundee extends between East Port and West Port, which formerly held the gates to the walled city. The shoreline has been altered considerably since the early 19th century through development of the harbour area and land reclamation.
Several areas on the periphery of the burgh saw industrial development with the building of textile mills from the end of the 18th century. Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery, and areas around the Lochee Burn (Lochee
), Scouring Burn (Blackness
) and Dens Burn (Dens Road area) saw particular concentrations of mills.
The post war period saw expansion of industry to estates along the Kingsway.
Working class housing spread rapidly and without control throughout the Victorian era, particularly in the Hawkhill, Blackness Road, Dens Road and Hilltown areas.
Despite the comparative wealth of Victorian Dundee as a whole, living standards for the working classes were very poor. A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the jute industry resulted in insanitary, squalid and cramped housing for much of the population.
While gradual improvements and slum clearance
began in the late 19th century, the building of the groundbreaking Logie
housing estate marked the beginning of Dundee's expansion through the building of planned housing estates, under the vision of city architect James Thomson
, whose legacy also includes the housing estate of Craigiebank
and the beginnings of an improved transport infrastructure by planning the Kingsway bypass.
Modernisation of the city centre continued in the post-war period. The medieval Overgate was demolished in the early 1960s to make way for a shopping centre, followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Centre.
The Tay Road Bridge
, completed in 1966 had as its northern landfall the docklands of central Dundee, and the new associated road system resulted in the city centre being cut off from the river.
An acute shortage of housing in the late 1940s was addressed by a series of large housing estates built in the northern environs including the Fintry, Craigie, Charleston and Douglas areas in the 1950s and early 1960s.
These were followed by increasingly cost-effective and sometimes poorly planned housing in throughout the 1960s.
Much of this, in particular the high-rise blocks of flats at Lochee, Kirkton, Trottick, Whitfield, Ardler and Menzieshill, and the prefabricated Skarne housing blocks at Whitfield, have been demolished since the 1990s or are scheduled for future demolition.
The climate, like the rest of lowland Scotland, is Oceanic
Mean temperature and rainfall are typical for the east coast of Scotland, and with the city's sheltered estuarine position, mean daily maxima are slightly higher than coastal areas to the North, particularly in spring and summer.
The summers are still chilly when compared with similar latitudes in continental Europe, something compensated for by the mild winters, similar to the rest of the British Isles. The nearest official Met Office
weather station is Mylnefield, Invergowrie
which is about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the City Centre.
A record high of 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) was recorded in July 2013.
The warmest month was July 2006,
with an average temperature of 17.4 °C (63.3 °F) (average high 22.5 °C (72.5 °F), average low 12.3 °C (54.1 °F)). In an 'average' year the warmest day should reach
25.2 °C (77.4 °F), and in total just 1.63 days
should equal or exceed a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) per year, illustrating the rarity of such warmth.
This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2013)
Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the 1971 census.
According to the 2001 census, the City of Dundee had a population of 154,674.
A more recent population estimate of the City of Dundee has been recorded at 156,561 in 2012. The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (20%).
The median age of males and females living in Dundee was 37 and 40 years, respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.
The place of birth of the town's residents was 94.16% United Kingdom (including 87.85% from Scotland), 0.42% Republic of Ireland
, 1.33% from other European Union
(EU) countries, and 3.09% from elsewhere in the world. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 35.92% in full-time employment, 10.42% in part-time employment, 4.25% self-employed, 5.18% unemployed, 7.82% students with jobs, 4.73% students without jobs, 15.15% retired, 4.54% looking after home or family, 7.92% permanently sick or disabled, and 4.00% economically inactive for other reasons. Compared with the average demography of Scotland, Dundee has both low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and for people over 75 years old.
Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recognisable by their distinctive dialect of Scots
as well as their accent
, which most noticeably substitutes the monophthong
/ɛ/ (pronounced "eh") in place of the diphthong
/aj/ (pronounced "ai").
Dundee, and Scotland more generally, saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.
Of particular significance was an influx of Irish workers in the early to mid-19th century, attracted by the prospect of employment in the textiles industries. In 1851, 18.9% of people living in Dundee were of Irish birth.
The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy, fleeing poverty and famine, in the 19th century Jews, fleeing from the Russia controlled portions of partitioned Poland
and from German occupation in the 20th. Today, Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population, and has around 4,000 Asian residents which is the fourth-largest Asian community in Scotland. The city also has 1.0% of residents from a Black/African/Caribbean background.
Dundee has a higher proportion of university students – one in seven of the population – than any other town in Europe, except Heidelberg
The 14.2% come from all around the world to attend the local universities and colleges. Dundee is a major attraction for Northern Irish students who make up 5% of the total student population. The city's universities are believed to hold the highest percentage of Northern Irish students outside of Northern Ireland
and have a big impact on the local economy and culture. However, this has declined in recent years due to the increase of tuition fees for students elsewhere in the UK. Dundee also has a lot of students from abroad, mostly from the Republic of Ireland
and other EU countries
but with an increasing number from countries from the Far East and Nigeria
Cox's Stack, a chimney from the former Camperdown Works
jute mill. The chimney takes its name from jute baron James Cox who later became Provost
of the city
The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. NCR Corporation
selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late 1945,
primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine. Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June 1947. A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant the 250,000th cash register was produced.
By the 1960s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers
, and later ATMs
, at several of its Dundee plants. The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.
Astral, a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold refrigerators
and spin dryers
was merged into Morphy Richards
and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people. The development in Dundee of a Michelin tyre
-production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade
on 30 April 1969.
Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade. To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone
in January 1984. In 1983, the first Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computers
were produced in Dundee by Timex
. In the same year the company broke production records, despite a sit-in
by workers protesting against job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six-month industrial dispute
The Michelin Tyre factory closed in June 2020, with the loss of 850 jobs.
Ninewells Hospital, one of the largest employers in the Dundee area
Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with around 325,000 people within 30 minutes' drive of the city centre and 860,000 people within one hour.
Many people from North East Fife
, Angus and Perth and Kinross
commute to the city.
As of 2015, there were 395 employers who employed 250 or more staff; over a five-year period (2011–2015) the number of registered enterprises in Dundee increased by 20.9% from 2,655 to 3,210.
The largest employers in the city are NHS Tayside
, Dundee City Council, University of Dundee
, Tayside Contracts, Tesco
, D. C. Thomson & Co
Other employers include limited and private companies such as NCR
, Alliance Trust
, Royal Bank of Scotland
, Stagecoach Strathtay
, Scottish Citylink
, Rochen Limited
, C J Lang & Son (SPAR Scotland
), Joinery and Timber Creations, HBOS
, Xplore Dundee
, and W. L. Gore and Associates
. Between 2009 and 2014 the hardest-hit sectors, in terms of jobs, were Information and Communication, Construction and Manufacturing which each lost around 500 full-time jobs. By contrast, the Professional, Scientific and Technical sector saw an upsurge in jobs in addition to the Business Administration and Support Service sector which increased by approximately 1,000 full-time and 300 part-time jobs in the same six-year period.
Gross median weekly earnings of full-time employees in Dundee in 2015 was £523.50; men received £563.40 and women £451.80.
Gross weekly pay for all employees in Dundee has increased from £325.00 in 2000 to £380.00 in 2015.
Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotland and has been ranked 4th in Retail Rankings in Scotland. The city centre offers a wide variety of retailers, department stores and independent/specialist stores. The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as Marks and Spencer
. The main pedestrian area also connects the two large shopping centres; the 420,000-square-foot (39,000-square-metre) Overgate Centre which is anchored by Debenhams
, Argos, and The Perfume Shop and the 310,000-square-foot (29,000-square-metre) Wellgate Centre by Home Bargains
, T. J. Hughes
, B&M, Superdrug, Iceland, Holland & Barrett, Poundland, Savers, The Works, Hydro Electric, Bright house,
Other retail areas in the city include Gallagher Retail Park, Kingsway East Retail Park and Kingsway West Retail Park.
St Mary's Tower, oldest building in Dundee, dating to late 15th century
The oldest building in the city is St Mary's Tower, which dates from the late 15th century.
This forms part of the City Churches, which consist of St Clement's Church, dating to 1787–8 and built by Samuel Bell, Old St Paul's and St David's Church, built in 1841–42 by William Burn
, and St Mary's Church, rebuilt in 1843–44, also by Burn, following a fire.
Other significant churches in the city include the Gothic Revival Episcopal Cathedral of St Paul's, built by Sir George Gilbert Scott
in 1853 on the former site of Dundee Castle in the High Street,
and the Catholic St. Andrew's Cathedral
, built in 1835 by George Mathewson in Nethergate.
As a result of the destruction suffered during the Rough Wooing
, little of the mediaeval city (aside from St Mary's Tower) remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the Early Modern Era
. A notable example is the Wishart Arch (or East Port) in Cowgate. It is the last surviving portion of the city walls. Dating from prior to 1548, it owes its continued existence to its association with the Protestant martyr George Wishart
, who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Port in 1544.
Another is the building complex on the High Street known as Gardyne's Land
, parts of which date from around 1560. The Howff
burial ground in the northern part of the City Centre also dates from this time; it was given to the city by Mary Queen of Scots in 1564, having previously served as the grounds of a Franciscan
Claypotts Castle, dating from the late 16th century
Several castles can be found in Dundee, mostly from the Early Modern Era. The earliest parts of Mains Castle
in Caird Park were built by David Graham in 1562 on the site of a hunting lodge of 1460. Dudhope Castle
, originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family, dates to the late 16th century and was built on the site of a keep of 1460. Claypotts Castle
, a striking Z plan castle in West Ferry, was built by John Strachan and dates from 1569 to 1588.
In 1495 Broughty Castle
was built and remained in use as a major defensive structure until 1932, playing a role in the Anglo-Scottish Wars
and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
. The castle stands on a shallow tip projecting into the Firth, alongside two beaches, one of sand, the other of pebbles. The ruins of Powrie Castle
, north of Fintry, date from the 16th-century castle north.[clarification needed]
Dundee's industrial history as a centre for textile production is apparent throughout the city. Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict, many have been converted for other uses. Of particular note are the Tay Works, built by the Gilroy Brothers c.1850–1865, Camperdown Works
in Lochee, which built and owned by Cox Brothers, one of Europe's largest jute manufacturing companies, and begun in 1849,
and Upper Dens Mill and Lower Dens Works, built by the Baxter Brothers in the mid-19th century.
James Duncan Mitchell, died on the Lusitania in 1915, interred at Western Cemetery, Dundee.
A more recent landmark is the 140-foot (43 m) Tower Building of the University of Dundee
built between 1959 and 1961. At the time of its construction only the Old Steeple was taller in the city. The Tower was built to replace the original college buildings which stood on the site.
The building houses the university's main administration and includes galleries and the university's Archive, Records Management and Museum Services.
Many 1960s landmark multi-storey housing buildings were demolished in the late 2000s. The former Tayside House block, nicknamed 'Faulty Towers' by many local people, was demolished in 2013 as part of the waterfront redevelopment program.
According to the architectural historian Charles McKean
and his co-authors of Lost Dundee, the best views in the city were from Tayside House, because these were the only views from which the building itself could not be seen.
Dundee bus station
Dundee is served by the A90 road
which connects the city to the M90
in the west, and Forfar
in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a dual carriageway
and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway. East of the A90's Forfar Road junction, the Kingsway East continues as the A972
, and meets the A92
at the Scott Fyffe roundabout. Travelling east, the A92 connects the city to Arbroath
and to the south with Fife
via the Tay Road Bridge
links the city with coastal settlements to the east, including, Monifieth
. Progressing westward from where the A92 meets the Tay Road Bridge at the Riverside Roundabout, the A85
follows the southern boundary of the city along Riverside Drive and towards the A90 at the Swallow Roundabout. The A85 multiplexes with the A90 and diverges again at Perth.
Also meeting the A92 and A85 at the Riverside Roundabout is the A991
Inner Ring Road, which surrounds the perimeter of the city centre, returning to the A92 on the east side of the Tay Road Bridge. The A923
Dundee to Dunkeld
road meets the A991 at the Dudhope Roundabout, and the A929
links the A991 to the A90 via Forfar Road.
Dundee has an extensive network of bus routes. The Seagate bus station is the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. Xplore Dundee
operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay
. The city's two railway stations are the main Dundee station
near the waterfront, which has now finished re-construction as part of the waterfront re-development program, and the much smaller Broughty Ferry station
at the eastern end of the city.
offers commercial flights to London City Airport
and Belfast City
by Scotland's Airline - Loganair .The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the city centre, adjacent to the River Tay.
The nearest major international airport is Edinburgh Airport
, 59.2 miles (95.3 km) to the south.
The nearest international passenger seaport is Newcastle.
The cargo port of Dundee is one of the largest economic generators in the city and is operated by Forth Ports
. Seafarers arriving at the port are offered welfare and pastoral assistance by seafarers charity Apostleship of the Sea
Colleges and universities
The University of Dundee
Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 20,000.
The Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education was established in Dundee in Blackness Road in 2002. It is a research-led institution of higher education which are currently offering programmes accredited by SQA
in the study of Islam
, Arabic language and Islamic Economics and Finance. It is an independent institution. It is named after its patron, Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Morgan Academy Dundee
Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20,300. There are 37 primary state schools and 8 secondary state schools in the city. There are 11 primary and 2 secondary Roman Catholic denominational schools which, as in the rest of Scotland, are open to children of all denominations. The remainder are non-denominational.
There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties aged between five and 18 from Dundee and the surrounding area.
Dundee Parish Church, St Mary's is one of three of the Dundee's City Churches which are joined together; only two function as places of worship: St. Mary's and St. Clement's (the Old Steeple) which can be seen in the background.
The Church of Scotland Presbytery
of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, although changing population patterns have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.
Due to their city centre location, the City Churches, Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's)
and the Steeple Church
, are the most prominent Church of Scotland
buildings in Dundee. They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of St Mary
, of which only the 15th-century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland.
Dundee was unusual among Scottish medieval burghs in having two parish kirks; the second, dedicated to St Clement
, has disappeared, but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.
Other presbyterian groups include the Free Church which meet at St. Peters (the historic church of Robert Murray M'Cheyne
) where prominent theologians David Robertson
and Sinclair B. Ferguson
In the Middle Ages
Dundee was also the site of houses of the Dominicans
(Blackfriars), and Franciscans
(Greyfriars), and had a number of hospitals and chapels. These establishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation
, in the mid-16th century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street (also referred to as the Dek-tarn street) and The Howff
burial ground, respectively.
There are Methodist
, United Reformed Church
and Salvation Army
churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the Unitarians
the Society of Friends
the Jehovah's Witnesses
, Seventh-day Adventists
and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Other religious communities
are served by the Dundee Central Mosque
built in 2000 to replace their former premises on the Hilltown.
There are three other mosques in the city including; Jamia Masjid Tajdare Madina on Victoria Road, Jame Masjid Bilal on Dura Street and Al Maktoum Mosque on Wilkie's Lane. Alongside these there is an Islamic Society on the University of Dundee
community is served by the Guru Nanak Gurdwara
on Victoria Road, which serves its community in Dundee.
A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the early 19th century.
There is a small Orthodox synagogue
at Dudhope Park
that was built in the 1960s,
with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5 km) to the east.
Dundee Buddhist Group is a Buddhist
Temple based in Reform Street.
There is also a Hindu mandir
in Taylor's Lane situated in the West End
of the city.
Dundee made a bid to be named the 2017 UK City of Culture
, and on 19 June 2013 was named as one of the four short-listed cities alongside Hull
and Swansea Bay
Ultimately, Dundee's bid was unsuccessful, with Hull winning the contest.
Dundee came in fifth place in a newspaper survey regarding numbers of cultural venues in the United Kingdom, ahead of other Scottish cities.
Museums and galleries
"The Riders of the Sidhe" John Duncan 1911 McManus Galleries, Dundee
Dundee Contemporary Arts
(abbreviated DCA) opened in 1999 is an international art centre in the Nethergate close to Dundee Rep, which houses two contemporary art galleries, a two-screen arthouse cinema, a print studio, a visual research centre and a café bar.
Britain's only full-time public observatory
, Mills Observatory
at the summit of the city's Balgay
Hill, was given to the city by linen manufacturer and keen amateur scientist John Mills in 1935.
Sensation Science Centre
in the Greenmarket is a science centre based on the five senses with a series of interactive shows and exhibits.Verdant Works
is a museum dedicated to the once dominant jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill.
The University of Dundee
also runs several public museums and galleries, including the D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum and the Tayside Medical History Museum. The university, through Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design
also offers the Cooper Gallery for contemporary art, and its archives including: the abcD (artists' books collection Dundee); the REWIND Archive (video art collection); and the Richard Demarco
The V&A Dundee
Museum of Design opened in September 2018 and is built south of Craig Harbour onto the River Tay
in a building designed by Kengo Kuma
. It was officially opened by the Earl and Countess of Strathearn
It is the centrepiece of the city's waterfront redevelopment. The new museum may bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs.
The city's archival records are mostly kept by two archives: Dundee City Archives, operated by Dundee City Council
and the University of Dundee
's Archive Services. Dundee City Archives holds the official records of the city and of the former Tayside Regional Council
The archive also holds the records of various people, groups and organisations connected to the city. The university's Archive Services hold a wide range of material relating to the university and its predecessor institutions and to individuals associated with the university, such as D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson
. Archive Services also holds the archives of several individuals, businesses and organisations based in Dundee and the surrounding area.
The records held include a substantial number of business archives relating to the jute and linen industry in Dundee; records of other businesses including the archives of the Alliance Trust
and the department store G. L. Wilson; the records of the Brechin Diocese of the Scottish Episcopal Church
; and the NHS Tayside
The same archive also holds the Michael Peto
collection which includes thousands of the photojournalist
's photographs, negatives, slides, publications and papers.
Dundee has a strong literary heritage, with several authors having been born, lived or studied in the city. These include A. L. Kennedy
, Rosamunde Pilcher
, Kate Atkinson
, Thomas Dick
, Mary Shelley
, Mick McCluskey, John Burnside
and Neil Forsyth
. The Dundee International Book Prize
is a biennial competition open to new authors, offering a prize of £10,000 and publication by Polygon Books. Past winners have included: Andrew Murray Scott, Claire-Marie Watson and Malcolm Archibald. William McGonagall
, regularly cited as the "world's worst poet",
worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars. Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work The Tay Bridge Disaster
Dundee's poetic heritage is represented by the 2013 poetry anthology Whaleback City'
edited by W. N. Herbert and Andy Jackson (Dundee University Press) containing poems by McGonagall, Don Paterson, Douglas Dunn, John Burnside and many others. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city.
The Dundee Mountain Film Festival (DMFF), held in the last weekend of November, presents the best presenters and films of the year in mountaineering, mountain culture and adventure sport, along with an art and trade exhibition.
DMFF is also one of the members of International Alliance for Mountain Film (IAMF)
among other important international mountain film
Dundee has hosted the National Mod
a number of times – 1902, 1913, 1937, 1959 and 1974.
Popular music groups such as the 1970s soul-funk
outfit Average White Band
, the Associates
, the band Spare Snare
, Danny Wilson
, The Hazey Janes
, and the Indie rock
bands The View
and The Law
are from Dundee. Musician, songwriter and performer Michael Marra
was born and raised in Dundee. Ricky Ross
of Deacon Blue
and singer-songwriter KT Tunstall
are former pupils of the High School of Dundee
, although Tunstall is not a native of the city.
The Northern Irish indie rock band Snow Patrol
was formed by students at the University of Dundee
. Brian Molko
, lead singer of Placebo
, grew up in the city
as did Ian Cussick
, singer of Lake
. At the end of June, Dundee hosts an annual blues
festival known as the Dundee Blues Bonanza
Dundee is home to one of eleven BBC Scotland
broadcasting centres, located within the Nethergate Centre. STV North
's Tayside news and advertising operations are based in the Seabraes area of the city, from where an STV News Tayside
opt-out bulletin is broadcast, (though not on Digital Satellite), within the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six
. The city also had a community internet TV station called The Dundee Channel which was launched on 1 September 2009.
The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October 1980.
The station split frequencies in January 1995 launching Tay FM
for a younger audience and Tay 2
playing classic hits. In 1999, Discovery 102 was launched, later to be renamed Wave 102
following a claim by The Discovery Channel
that the station could mistakenly be linked to its brand.
Sports and recreation
Dundee has two professional football
, founded in 1893, and Dundee United
, founded in 1909 as Dundee Hibernian. Dundee currently play in the Scottish Championship
which is the second tier, United are playing in the top tier, known as the Scottish Premiership
. Their grounds Dens Park
and Tannadice Park
are just 100 metres apart, closer together than any other football stadiums in the UK. The Dundee derby
is one of the most highly anticipated fixtures in Scottish football. Dundee is one of four British cities to have produced two European Cup
semi-finalists. Dundee lost to A.C. Milan
and Dundee United lost to A.S. Roma
Dundee also reached the semi-finals of the forerunner to the UEFA Cup in 1968
and Dundee United were runners-up in the UEFA Cup in 1987
There are also seven junior football teams in the area: Dundee North End
, East Craigie
, Lochee Harp
, Lochee United
, Dundee Violet
, Broughty Athletic
, the main ice hockey
team, play at the Dundee Ice Arena
. The team joined the Elite League
in the 2010/2011 season.
They are one of three professional ice hockey teams in Scotland, and play against teams from England, Wales
and Northern Ireland
in the Elite League. in the 2013/2014 season, Dundee Stars won the Gardiner Conference trophy, their only one to date. The majority of the players are from Canada and the United States. Omar Pacha is the current head coach and general manager of the Dundee Stars. There are also two amateur ice hockey teams, Dundee Tigers
and Dundee Comets
, who both play in the Scottish National League
Local sports clubs include Dundee Handball Club
, Grove Menzieshill Hockey Club; Dundee Wanderers Hockey Club, Dundee Volleyball Club,
Dundee Northern Lights Floorball
Club, Dundee Hawkhill Harriers, Dundee City Aquatics, Dundee Hurricanes
and Dundee & Angus Radio Controlled Car Klub (DARCCK).
The new £36 million Olympia leisure centre with multi-storey car park
was scheduled to open in late 2012, but only three weeks from the original opening date, the date was pushed back by a further six months.
Waste management is handled by Dundee City Council
. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that currently only serves 15,500 households in Dundee. Cans, glass and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis. Compostable
material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks.
Paper is collected for recycling on a four-weekly basis.
Recycling centres and points are at a number of locations in Dundee.
Items accepted include steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. Recent figures taken in 2008, suggest the city council has a recycling rate of 36.1%.
Law enforcement is provided by Police Scotland. The headquarters of the Dundee Branch of Police Scotland is situated in West Bell Street.
There are also four police stations which serve the city: Maryfield, Lochee, Downfield and Longhaugh.
is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside
. Ninewells Hospital
, is the only hospital with an accident and emergency department in the area. Primary Health Care in Dundee is supplied by a number of General Practices.
Dundee is also served by the East Central Region of the Scottish Ambulance Service
which covers the city, Tayside and Kingdom of Fife.
There is one ambulance station for the city; on West School Road.
The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service
operate three fire stations, covering the city and surrounding villages. The main station is at Blackness Road and there is a control room at Macalpine Road fire station.
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- ^ Shona Robison, MSP for Dundee East
- ^ Joe Fitzpatrick, MSP for Dundee West
- ^ Graeme Dey, MSP for Angus South
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- ^ McCarthy 2007, p. 80; The progress of waterfront development can be seen in the maps of Wood 1821, Edward 1846 and Bartholomew 1912
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- ^ Tenants gone, soon multi too; Last of Menzieshill multis to be brought down this week; Four Dundee Hilltown multi-storey blocks to come down; Fate of Whitfield's Skarne blocks to be decided
- ^ Peel, Finlayson & McMahon 2007
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- ^ Jul 2006 Mean
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- ^ NCR Cash Advance
- ^ First Dundee computer next year
- ^ General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade 1969
- ^ Timex pulls the plug on Dundee plant; Scott 2002, pp. 163–165
- ^ "Michelin's Dundee factory closes gates for final time". BBC News. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
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- ^ "How Dundee became a computer games centre". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- ^ The Complete History of DMA Design
- ^ a b c d e Discover Dundee Retail
- ^ Law Hill War Memorial, Category B listing
- ^ Camperdown Dock, Category A listing
Victoria Dock with Pedestrian and Vehicular Swing Bridges, Category A listing
- ^ Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's Tower or the Steeple, Category A Listing
McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 52–54
- ^ Nethergate, City Churches, St Clement's, or Steeple Church, Category A Listing
Nethergate, City Churches, Old St Paul's and St David's, or South Church, Category A Listing
Nethergate, City Churches, St Mary's East, or Dundee Parish Church, Category A Listing
McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 52–54
- ^ 150 Nethergate, St Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Including Presbytery and Former Sea Wall to South, Category A Listing
McKean & Walker 1985, p. 57
- ^ Castle Hill, St Paul's Episcopal Cathedral, including steps and boundary wall, Category A Listing
McKean & Walker 1985, p. 57
- ^ HES: Wishart Arch (SM164)
McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 32–33
- ^ 70–73 (Inclusive Nos) High Street, Including Gardyne's Land, Gray's Close and Clock with Model of the Town House; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 18; Dragging a building into the 21st century; Gardyne's Land wins multiple awards
- ^ Meadowside and Barrack Street, The Howff, Category A listing; ; McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 50–51
- ^ Caird Park Mains Castle, Category A listing, McKean & Walker 1985, p. 120
- ^ Dudhope Castle, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, pp. 74–75
- ^ Claypotts Castle, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 103
- ^ Powrie, Old Powrie Castle, Including Adjoining Boundary Wall
- ^ Euclid Crescent High School, including Lodge, Gatepiers, Boundary wall and railings, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 47
- ^ Forfar Road, Morgan Academy, Main Block and Janitor's House with Terrace, Boundary Walls and Gatepiers, Category A listing; McKean & Walker 1985, p. 97
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- ^ Al-Maktoum Institute
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- ^ The Diocese of Dunkeld
- ^ Dundee Methodist Church
- ^ Trinity Baptist Church
- ^ Dundee Congregational Church
- ^ National Synod of Scotland, URC East Link
- ^ Assemblies of God Scotland
- ^ Salvation Army Dundee; Salvation Army Menzieshill
- ^ Williamson Unitarian Christian Church Dundee
- ^ Dundee Quaker Meeting
- ^ Jehovah's Witnesses – Dundee
- ^ Dundee Christadelphian Ecclesia
- ^ Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- ^ Dundee Islamic Society Central Mosque
- ^ UK Mosque Searcher: Mosques in Dundee
- ^ Gurudwaras in Scotland
- ^ Abrams 2009, pp. 65–94
- ^ Dundee Hebrew Congregation
- ^ Scotland's Jewish Community
- ^ International Jewish Cemetery Project – Scotland
- ^ Nilupul Foundation
- ^ Hindu Council UK
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- ^ Cox may be ambassador for Dundee
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- ^ Almost Famous
- ^ Snow Patrol
- ^ NME Interview with Placebo
- ^ Dundee Blues Bonanza
- ^ Contact numbers for BBC Scotland
- ^ Radio Tay's first day
- ^ European Cup History, Season 1962–1963
- ^ European Cup History, Season 1983–1984
- ^ UEFA Cup History, Season 1986–1987
- ^ Scottish Junior Football Clubs A–K
- ^ Dundee Stars join Elite
- ^ Dundee HSFP
- ^ Harris Academy
- ^ Morgan Academy
- ^ Panmure and Stobswell
- ^ "Dundee Volleyball Club".
- ^ new Olympia leisure centre
- ^ Scrimgeour 1968, pp. 278–283
- ^ Kerbside Recycling Box Scheme
- ^ Brown Bin Garden Waste Collection
- ^ Blue Bin Paper Collections
- ^ Recycling Centres; Recycling Points
- ^ Waste Aware Tayside
- ^ a b Policing in Dundee
- ^ Scottish Ambulance Service
- ^ Ambulance Stations in Scotland
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