This article is about the cultivar of wheat. For the Turkish döner wrap, see dürüm
), also called pasta wheat
or macaroni wheat
or Triticum turgidum
is a tetraploid
species of wheat
It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat
, although it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production.
It was developed by artificial selection
of the domesticated emmer
wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East
around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing
Like emmer, durum wheat is awned
(with bristles). It is the predominant wheat that grows in the Middle East.
means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. This refers to the resistance of the grain to milling, in particular of the starchy endosperm
, implying dough made from its flour is weak or "soft". This makes durum favorable for semolina
and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid
wheats like common bread wheats
. Despite its high protein
content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough
through the formation of a gluten
network. Durum contains 27% extractable wet gluten, about 3% higher than in common wheat (T. aestivum
Commercially produced dry pasta
, or pasta asciutta, is made almost exclusively from durum semolina
Most home made fresh pastas (pasta fresca), such as orecchiette
, also use durum wheat or a combination of soft and hard wheats.
Husked but unground, or coarsely ground, it is used to produce the semolina
in the couscous
of North Africa and the Levant
. It is also used for Levantine
dishes such as tabbouleh
and the bulgur
. In North African cuisine
and Levantine cuisine
, it forms the basis of many soups
, gruels, stuffings, puddings
When ground as fine as flour
, it is used for making bread
. In the Middle East
, it is used for flat round breads
, and in Europe and elsewhere, it can be used for pizza
is a Middle Eastern
dish made from small, boiled balls of durum wheat.
The Israeli variant of couscous involves larger pearls of durum called ptitim
The use of wheat to produce pasta was described as early as the 10th century by Ibn Wahshīya
. The North Africans called the product itrīya
, from which Italian
sources derived the term tria
in the case of Spanish sources) during the 15th century.
Most of the durum grown today is amber durum, the grains of which are amber-colored due to the extra carotenoid pigments and are larger than those of other types of wheat. Durum has a yellow endosperm
, which gives pasta its color When durum is milled
, the endosperm is ground into a granular product called semolina
. Semolina made from durum is used for premium pastas
. Notably semolina is also one of the only flours that is purposely oxidized for flavor and color. There is also a red durum, used mostly for livestock feed
The cultivation of durum generates greater yield than other wheats in areas of low precipitation
(3–5 dm). Good yields can be obtained by irrigation
, but this is rarely done. In the first half of the 20th century, the crop was widely grown in Russia
Durum is one of the most important food crops in West Asia
. Although the variety of the wheat there is diverse, it is not extensively grown there, and thus must be imported.
West amber durum produced in Canada
is used mostly as semolina/pasta, but some is also exported to Italy
for bread production.
In the Middle East and North Africa, local bread-making accounts for half the consumption of durum. Some flour is even imported. On the other hand, many countries in Europe produce durum in commercially significant quantities.
In India durum accounts for roughly 5% of total wheat production in the country, and is used to make products such as rava
Production of wheat 2017/2018
Processing and protein content
Durum wheat is subject to four processes: cleaning, tempering, milling and purifying. First, durum wheat is cleaned to remove foreign material and shrunken and broken kernels. Then it is tempered to a moisture content, toughening the seed coat for efficient separation of bran and endosperm. Durum milling is a complex procedure involving repetitive grinding
. Proper purifying results in maximum semolina yield and the least amount of bran powder
To produce bread, durum wheat is ground into flour. The flour is mixed with water to produce dough
. The quantities mixed vary, depending on the acidity
of the mixture. The dough is mixed with yeast
and lukewarm water, and then fermented
The quality of the bread produced depends on the viscoelastic
properties of gluten, the protein
content and protein composition.
Containing about 12% total protein in defatted
flour compared to 11% in common wheat, durum wheat yields 27% extractable, wet gluten compared to 24% in common wheat.
- ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ "Triticum durum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original(xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- ^ "Triticum durum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- ^ "Wheat". Archived from the original on 2014-03-30.
- ^ "Global durum wheat use trending upward". world-grain.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- ^ "Triticum (genus)". Biodiversity explorer. Archived from the original on 2008-10-10.
- ^ a b c d Zilić S, Barać M, Pešić M, Dodig D, Ignjatović-Micić D (2011). "Characterization of proteins from grain of different bread and durum wheat genotypes". Int J Mol Sci. 12 (9): 5878–94. doi:10.3390/ijms12095878. PMC 3189758. PMID 22016634.
- ^ Kubaláková, Marie; et al. (June 2005), "Chromosome Sorting in Tetraploid Wheat and Its Potential for Genome Analysis", Genetics, NIH, 170 (2): 823–9, doi:10.1534/genetics.104.039180, PMC 1450420, PMID 15802508.
- ^ Sicignano, A.; Di Monaco, R.; Masi, P.; Cavella, S. (2015). "From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95 (13): 2579–2587. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7176. PMID 25783568.
- ^ a b Watson 2008, pp. 20–3.
- ^ Shulman, Martha Rose (23 February 2009b). "Couscous: Just Don't Call It Pasta". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- ^ Abby Callard (22 March 2010). "Newly Obsessed With Israeli Couscous". Smithsonian Magazine Online. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- ^ a b Matz 1999, pp. 23–5.
- ^ "Indias durum production a poor cousin in wheat basket". Financial Express. Delhi. 31 October 2005.
- ^ "World wheat production by country 2017/2018 | Statista". Statista. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
- ^ Tovoli F, Masi C, Guidetti E, Negrini G, Paterini P, Bolondi L (Mar 16, 2015). "Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders". World J Clin Cases. 3 (3): 275–84. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i3.275. PMC 4360499. PMID 25789300.
- Brown, AHD; Marshall, DR; Frankel, OH; Williams, JT; International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, eds. (1989), The Use of Plant Genetic Resources, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-34584-7
- Bushuk, W; Rasper, Vladimir F (Aug 1994), Wheat: Production, Properties and Quality, Springer, ISBN 978-0-7514-0181-3
- Donnelly, Brendan J; Ponte, Joseph G Jr (2000), "Pasta: raw materials & processing", in Kulp, Karel; Ponte, Joseph G Jr (eds.), Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology, Food science & technology — Marcel Dekker, 99 (2nd, rev & exp ed.), New York: CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-8247-8294-8
- Matz, Samuel A (1999) , Bakery technology and engineering (3rd ill ed.), Springer, ISBN 978-0-442-30855-1
- Watson, Andrew (October 2008) , Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100, Studies in Islamic Civilization, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-06883-3
- Wishart, David J (2004), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska Press
Last edited on 16 April 2021, at 18:54
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.