"Royal house" redirects here. For royal residences, see Palace
) is a sequence of rulers from the same family
usually in the context of a feudal
system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics
. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house
" and "clan
", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan
, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.
The Qing dynasty
was the final imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ended in 1912, with a brief restoration
of many nations and civilizations
, such as Ancient Egypt
(3100–30 BC) and Imperial China
(221 BC–AD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era
during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts
of that period (e.g., "a Ming-dynasty
vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (e.g., "a Ming vase").
Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally
, such as under the Frankish Salic law
. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law
and convention have maintained dynasties de jure
through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor
will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II
, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands
, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau
through three successive queens regnant
. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire
in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov
was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna
. This also happened in the case of Queen Maria II of Portugal
, who married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
, but whose descendants remained members of the House of Braganza
, per Portuguese law. In Limpopo Province
of South Africa
determined descent matrilineally
, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system—that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.
The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.
The word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia
, which comes from Greek dynastéia
), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself.
It was the abstract noun of dynástēs
the agent noun of dynamis
), "power" or "ability",
), "to be able".
A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed
to a throne
. For example, King Edward VIII
ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor
following his abdication.
In historical and monarchist
references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
and his morganatic
wife, their son Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg
, was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg
dynast. Even since the abolition
of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.
Comparatively, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover
, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom
, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to reclaim the former royal dukedom
). He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772
until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013
took effect on 26 March 2015.
Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco
in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701
remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the British throne.
That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Roman Catholic.
, King Taejo of Joseon, ruled Korea from 1392 to 1398 as the first king of Joseon
, of the Hova dynasty, was queen regnant of Madagascar from 1828 to 1861.
, King Gongmin of Goryeo, ruled Korea from 1351 to 1374 as king of Goryeo
Extant dynasties ruling sovereign monarchies
Political dynasties in republics and constitutional monarchies
are a different concept in which political power passes within a family because of the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.
Some political dynasties in republics:
Influential and wealthy families
- ^ Existing sovereign entities ruled by non-dynastic monarchs include:
- ^ The founder of a dynasty need not necessarily equate to the first monarch of a particular realm. For example, while William I was the dynastic founder of the House of Orange-Nassau which currently rules over the Kingdom of the Netherlands, he was never a monarch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- ^ Not to be confused with dynastic seat.
- ^ The House of Windsor is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in AD 1917.
- ^ A sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state is known as a Commonwealth realm.
- ^ George V was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1917.
- ^ Including:
- ^ The Barbadian monarchy is planned to be abolished by November 2021. In consequence, the House of Windsor will cease to be the ruling dynasty of Barbados.
The Realm of New Zealand consists of:
- ^ Including: The crown dependencies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man are neither part of the United Kingdom nor British overseas territories.
- ^ The House of Belgium is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Belgium" in AD 1920.
- ^ Albert I was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1920.
- ^ Claimed by the royal house, but the historicity is questionable.
- ^ The House of Norodom is a branch of the Varman dynasty.
- ^ The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
- ^ Including:
- ^ The Imperial House of Japan, or the Yamato dynasty, is the world's oldest continuous dynasty. The dynasty has produced an unbroken succession of Japanese monarchs since the legendary founding year of 660 BC.
- ^ Most historians regard Emperor Jimmu to have been a mythical ruler. Emperor Ōjin, traditionally considered the 15th emperor, is the first who is generally thought to have existed, while Emperor Kinmei, the 29th emperor according to traditional historiography, is the first monarch for whom verifiable regnal dates can be assigned.
- ^ The House of Hashim is descended from Banu Qatada, which was a branch of the House of Ali.
- ^ The House of Luxembourg-Nassau is descended from the House of Nassau-Weilburg, which is a branch of the House of Nassau and the House of Bourbon-Parma.
- ^ The Bendahara dynasty is the ruling dynasty of Pahang Darul Makmur and Terengganu. The Sultan of Pahang is the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
- ^ The throne of Malaysia rotates among the nine constituent monarchies of Malaysia, each ruled by a dynasty. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers.
- ^ The House of Orange-Nassau is a branch of the House of Nassau. Additionally, Willem-Alexander is also linked to the House of Lippe through Beatrix of the Netherlands.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of:
- ^ The House of Borbón-Anjou is a branch of the House of Bourbon.
- ^ The House of Nahyan is the ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Emir of Abu Dhabi is the incumbent President of the United Arab Emirates.
- ^ The President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council. The office has been held by the Emir of Abu Dhabi since the formation of the United Arab Emirates in AD 1971.
Look up dynasty
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
- ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "house, n.¹ and int, 10. b." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2011.
- ^ Thomson, David (1961). "The Institutions of Monarchy". Europe Since Napoleon. New York: Knopf. pp. 79–80. The basic idea of monarchy was the idea that hereditary right gave the best title to political power...The dangers of disputed succession were best avoided by hereditary succession: ruling families had a natural interest in passing on to their descendants enhanced power and prestige...Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, were alike infatuated with the idea of strengthening their power, centralizing government in their own hands as against local and feudal privileges, and so acquiring more absolute authority in the state. Moreover, the very dynastic rivalries and conflicts between these eighteenth-century monarchs drove them to look for ever more efficient methods of government
- ^ Liddell, Henry George & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυναστεία". Hosted by Tufts University's Perseus Project.
- ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυνάστης".
- ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δύναμις".
- ^ Liddell & al. "δύναμαι".
- ^ a b Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
- ^ "Monaco royal taken seriously ill". BBC News. London. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- ^ "Barbados to remove Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and declare republic". The Independent. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- ^ "Barbados ready to dismiss Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state". The Washington Post. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 06:14
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