was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan
between 1947 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh
. Its land borders were with India
, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal
. East Pakistanis were popularly known as "Pakistani Bengalis"; to distinguish this region from India's state West Bengal
(which is also known as "Indian Bengal"), East Pakistan was known as "Pakistani Bengal".
Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
. The economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan, even though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialisation in East Pakistan. The Kaptai Dam
was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery
was established in Chittagong
was declared as the second capital
of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament. The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn
to design the national assembly complex in Dacca.
One Unit and Islamic Republic
East Pakistan was a key part of SEATO
In 1955, Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra
implemented the One Unit
scheme which merged the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan while East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan.
Pakistan ended its dominion status and adopted a republican constitution
in 1956, which proclaimed an Islamic republic. The populist leader H. S. Suhrawardy of East Pakistan was appointed prime minister of Pakistan. As soon as he became the prime minister, Suhrawardy initiated legal work reviving the joint electorate system. There was strong opposition and resentment to the joint electorate system in West Pakistan. The Muslim League had taken the cause to the public and began calling for the implementation of a separate electorate system. In contrast to West Pakistan, the joint electorate was highly popular in East Pakistan. The tug of war with the Muslim League to establish the appropriate electorate caused problems for his government.
The constitutionally obliged National Finance Commission Program (NFC Program) was immediately suspended by Prime Minister Suhrawardy despite the reserves of the four provinces of West Pakistan in 1956. Suhrawardy advocated for the USSR-based Five-Year Plans to centralise the national economy. In this view, East Pakistan's economy would be quickly centralised and all major economic planning would be shifted to West Pakistan.
Efforts leading to centralising the economy were met with great resistance in West Pakistan when the elite monopolist and the business community angrily refused to oblige to his policies. The business community in Karachi began its political struggle to undermine any attempts of financial distribution of the US$10 million ICA aid to the better part of East Pakistan and to set up a consolidated national shipping corporation. In the financial cities of West Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, and Peshawar, there were series of major labour strikes against the economic policies of Suhrawardy supported by the elite business community and the private sector.
Furthermore, in order to divert attention from the controversial One Unit Program, Prime Minister Suhrawardy tried to end the crises by calling a small group of investors to set up a small businesses in the country. Despite many initiatives and holding off the NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy's political position and image deteriorated in the four provinces in West Pakistan. Many nationalist leaders and activists of the Muslim League were dismayed with the suspension of the constitutionally obliged NFC Program. His critics and Muslim League leaders observed that with the suspension of NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy tried to give more financial allocations, aids, grants, and opportunities to East Pakistan than West Pakistan, including West Pakistan's four provinces. During the last days of his Prime ministerial years, Suhrawardy tried to remove the economic disparity between the Eastern and Western wings of the country but to no avail. He also tried unsuccessfully to alleviate the food shortage in the country.
Suhrawardy strengthened relations with the United States by reinforcing Pakistani membership in the Central Treaty Organization
and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Suhrawardy also promoted relations with the People’s Republic of China
. His contribution in formulating the 1956 constitution of Pakistan was substantial as he played a vital role in incorporating provisions for civil liberties and universal adult franchise in line with his adherence to the parliamentary form of liberal democracy.
Era of Ayub Khan
, seen here visiting Chittagong in 1961, was Pakistan's Queen until 1956.
In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza
enacted martial law as part of a military coup
by the Pakistan Army
's chief Ayub Khan
. Roughly after two weeks, President Mirza's relations with Pakistan Armed Forces deteriorated leading Army Commander General Ayub Khan relieving the president from his presidency and forcefully exiling President Mirza to the United Kingdom. General Ayub Khan justified his actions after appearing on national radio declaring that: "the armed forces and the people demanded a clean break with the past...". Until 1962, the martial law continued while Field Marshal Ayub Khan purged a number of politicians and civil servants from the government and replaced them with military officers. Ayub called his regime a "revolution to clean up the mess of black marketing and corruption". Khan replaced Mirza as president and became the country’s strongman
for eleven years. Martial law continued until 1962 when the government of Field Marshal Ayub Khan commissioned a constitutional bench under Chief Justice of Pakistan Muhammad Shahabuddin, composed of ten senior justices, each five from East Pakistan and five from West Pakistan. On 6 May 1961, the commission sent its draft to President Ayub Khan. He thoroughly examined the draft while consulting with his cabinet.
In January 1962, the cabinet finally approved the text of the new constitution
, promulgated by President Ayub Khan on 1 March 1962, which came into effect on 8 June 1962. Under the 1962 constitution, Pakistan became a presidential republic
. Universal suffrage
was abolished in favour of a system dubbed 'Basic Democracy'. Under the system, an electoral college
would be responsible for electing the president and national assembly. The 1962 constitution created a gubernatorial system in West and East Pakistan. Each province ran its own separate provincial gubernatorial governments. The constitution defined a division of powers between the central government and the provinces. Fatima Jinnah
received strong support in East Pakistan during her failed bid to unseat Ayub Khan in the 1965 presidential election
Dacca was declared as the second capital
of Pakistan in 1962. It was designated as the legislative capital and Louis Kahn
was tasked with designing a national assembly complex. Dacca's population increased in the 1960s. Seven natural gas fields were tapped in the province. The petroleum industry developed as the Eastern Refinery was established in the port city of Chittagong.
- The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sense based on the Lahore Resolution, and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a Legislature directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise.
- The federal government should deal with only two subjects: Defence and Foreign Affairs, and all other residual subjects should be vested in the federating states.
- Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should be introduced; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate Banking Reserve should be established and separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan.
- The power of taxation and revenue collection should be vested in the federating units and the federal centre would have no such power. The federation would be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures.
- There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries.
- East Pakistan should have a separate military or paramilitary force, and Navy headquarters should be in East Pakistan.
Surrender of Pakistan
When the federal general election was held, the Awami League emerged as the single largest party in the Pakistani parliament. The League won 167 out of 169 seats in East Pakistan, thereby crossing the half way mark of 150 in the 300-seat National Assembly of Pakistan
. In theory, this gave the League the right to form a government under the Westminster
tradition. But the League failed to win a single seat in West Pakistan, where the Pakistan Peoples Party emerged as the single largest party with 81 seats. The military junta
stalled the transfer of power and conducted prolonged negotiations with the League. A civil disobedience
movement erupted across East Pakistan demanding the convening of parliament. Rahman announced a struggle for independence from Pakistan during a speech on 7 March 1971. Between 7–26 March, East Pakistan was virtually under the popular control of the Awami League. On Pakistan's Republic Day on 23 March 1971, the first flag of Bangladesh
was hoisted in many East Pakistani households. The Pakistan Army launched a crackdown on 26 March, including Operation Searchlight
and the 1971 Dhaka University massacre
. This led to the Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence
Role of the Pakistani military
With Ayub Khan ousted from office in 1969, Commander of the Pakistani Army, General Yahya Khan
became the country's second ruling chief martial law administrator. Both Bhutto and Mujib
strongly disliked General Khan, but patiently endured him and his government as he had promised to hold an election in 1970. During this time, strong nationalistic sentiments in East Pakistan were perceived by the Pakistani Armed Forces and the central military government. Therefore, Khan and his military government wanted to divert the nationalistic threats and violence against non-East Pakistanis. The Eastern Command
was under constant pressure from the Awami League and requested an active-duty officer to control the command under such extreme pressure. The high flag rank
officers, junior officers, and many high command officers from Pakistan's Armed Forces were highly cautious about their appointment in East-Pakistan, and the assignment of governing East Pakistan and appointment of an officer was considered highly difficult for the Pakistan High Military Command.
East Pakistan's Armed Forces, under the military administrations
of Major-General Muzaffaruddin
and Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan
, used an excessive amount of show of military force to curb the uprising
in the province. With such action, the situation became highly critical and civil control over the province slipped away from the government. On 24 March, dissatisfied with the performance of his generals, Yahya Khan removed General Muzaffaruddin and General Yaqub Khan from office on 1 September 1969. The appointment of a military administrator was considered quite difficult and challenging with the crisis continually deteriorating. Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan
of the Pakistan Navy
, had previously served as political and military adviser of East Pakistan to former President Ayub Khan. Having such a strong background in administration, and being an expert on East Pakistan affairs, General Yahya Khan appointed Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan
as Martial Law Administrator
, with absolute authority in his command. He was relieved as naval chief and received an extension from the government.
The tense relations between East and West Pakistan reached a climax in 1970 when the Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
, (Mujib), won a landslide victory in the national elections in East Pakistan. The party won 160 of the 162 seats allotted to East Pakistan, and thus a majority of the 300 seats in the Parliament. This gave the Awami League the constitutional right to form a government without forming a coalition with any other party. Khan invited Mujib to Rawalpindi
to take the charge of the office, and negotiations took place between the military government and the Awami Party. Bhutto was shocked with the results and threatened his fellow Peoples Party
members if they attended the inaugural session at the National Assembly
, famously saying he would "break the legs" of any member of his party who dared enter and attend the session. However, fearing East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded Mujib to form a coalition government. After a secret meeting held in Larkana
, Mujib agreed to give Bhutto the office of the presidency with Mujib as prime minister. General Yahya Khan and his military government were kept unaware of these developments and under pressure from his own military government, refused to allow Rahman to become the prime minister of Pakistan. This increased agitation for greater autonomy in East Pakistan. The military police arrested Mujib and Bhutto and placed them in Adiala Jail
in Rawalpindi. The news spread like a fire in both East and West Pakistan, and the struggle for independence began in East Pakistan.
The senior high command officers in Pakistan Armed Forces, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, began to pressure General Yahya Khan to take armed action against Mujib and his party. Bhutto later distanced himself from Yahya Khan after he was arrested by Military Police along with Mujib. Soon after the arrests, a high-level meeting was chaired by Yahya Khan. During the meeting, high commanders of the Pakistan Armed Forces unanimously recommended an armed and violent military action. East Pakistan's Martial Law Administrator Admiral Ahsan
, Governor of East Pakistan, and Air Commodore Zafar Masud
, Air Officer Commanding
's only airbase, were the only officers to object to the plans. When it became obvious that military action in East Pakistan was inevitable, Admiral Ahsan resigned from his position as martial law administrator in protest, and immediately flew back to Karachi
, West Pakistan. Disheartened and isolated, Admiral Ahsan took early retirement from the Navy and quietly settled in Karachi. Once Operation Searchlight
and Operation Barisal
commenced, Air Marshal Masud flew to West Pakistan, and unlike Admiral Ahsan, tried to stop the violence in East Pakistan. When he failed in his attempts to meet General Yahya Khan, Masud too resigned from his position as AOC of Dacca airbase and took retirement from Air Force.
Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan was sent into East Pakistan in an emergency, following a major blow of the resignation of Vice Admiral Ahsan. General Yaqub temporarily assumed the control of the province, he was also made the corps-commander of Eastern Corps
. General Yaqub mobilised the entire major forces in East Pakistan.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman made a declaration of independence at Dacca
on 26 March 1971. All major Awami League leaders including elected leaders of the National Assembly and Provincial Assembly fled to neighbouring India and an exile government
was formed headed by Mujibur Rahman. While he was in Pakistan Prison, Syed Nazrul Islam was the acting president with Tazuddin Ahmed as the prime minister. The exile government took oath on 17 April 1971 at Mujib Nagar, within East Pakistan territory of Kustia district, and formally formed the government. Colonel MOG Osmani was appointed the Commander in Chief of Liberation Forces
and whole East Pakistan was divided into eleven sectors headed by eleven sector commanders. All sector commanders were Bengali officers who had defected from the Pakistan Army. This started the Bangladesh Liberation War
in which the freedom fighters
, joined in December 1971 by 400,000 Indian soldiers
, faced the Pakistani Armed Forces
of 365,000 plus Paramilitary
and collaborationist forces
. An additional approximately 25,000 ill-equipped civilian volunteers and police forces also sided with the Pakistan Armed Forces. Bloody guerrilla warfare
ensued in East Pakistan.
The Pakistan Armed Forces were unable to counter such threats. Poorly trained and inexperienced in guerrilla tactics, Pakistan Armed Forces and their assets were defeated by the Bangladesh Liberation Forces. In April 1971, Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan succeeded General Yaqub Khan as the Corps Commander. General Tikka Khan led the massive violent and massacre
campaigns in the region. He is held responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of Bengali people in East Pakistan, mostly civilians and unarmed peoples. For his role, General Tikka Khan gained the title of "Butcher of Bengal". General Khan faced an international reaction against Pakistan, and therefore, General Tikka was removed as Commander of the Eastern front. He installed a civilian administration under Abdul Motaleb Malik on 31 August 1971, which proved to be ineffective. However, during the meeting, with no high officers willing to assume the command of East Pakistan, Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi
volunteered for the command of East Pakistan. Inexperienced and the large magnitude of this assignment, the government sent Rear-Admiral Mohammad Shariff
as Flag Officer Commanding of Eastern Naval Command (Pakistan). Admiral Shariff served as the deputy of General Niazi when doing joint military operations. However, General Niazi proved to be a failure and ineffective ruler. Therefore, General Niazi and Air Commodore Inamul Haque Khan
, AOC, PAF Base Dacca, failed to launch any operation in East Pakistan against Indian or its allies. Except for Admiral Shariff who continued to press pressure on the Indian Navy until the end of the conflict. Admiral Shariff's effective plans made it nearly impossible for the Indian Navy to land its naval forces on the shores of East Pakistan. The Indian Navy was unable to land forces in East Pakistan and the Pakistan Navy was still offering resistance. The Indian Army
, entered East Pakistan from all three directions of the province. The Indian Navy then decided to wait near the Bay of Bengal until the Army reached the shore.
The Indian Air Force dismantled the capability of the Pakistan Air Force in East Pakistan. Air Commodore Inamul Haque Khan
, Dacca airbase's AOC, failed to offer any serious resistance to the actions of the Indian Air Force. For the most part of the war, the IAF enjoyed complete dominance in the skies over East Pakistan.
As of 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was separated from West Pakistan and became the newly independent state of Bangladesh
. The Eastern Command, civilian institutions, and paramilitary forces were disbanded.
In contrast to the desert and rugged mountainous terrain of West Pakistan, East Pakistan featured the world's largest delta
, 700 rivers, and tropical hilly jungles.
East Pakistan inherited 18 districts from British Bengal. In 1960, Lower Tippera was renamed Comilla. In 1969, two new districts were created with Tangail separated from Mymensingh and Patuakhali from Bakerganj. East Pakistan's districts are listed in the following.
East and West Pakistan
1971 documentary film about East Pakistan
President Ayub Khan (left) with Bengali industrialist Abul Kashem Khan
(right) in Chittagong
By the 1950s, East Bengal surpassed West Bengal in having the largest jute
industries in the world. The Adamjee Jute Mills
was the largest jute processing plant in history and its location in Narayanganj was nicknamed the Dundee of the East
. The Adamjees were descendants of Sir Haji Adamjee Dawood
, who made his fortune in British Burma
In 1965, Pakistan implemented the Kaptai Dam
hydroelectric project in the southeastern part of East Pakistan with American assistance. It was the sole hydroelectric dam in East Pakistan. The project was controversial for displacing over 40,000 indigenous people from the area.
The centrally located metropolis Dacca witnessed significant urban growth.
Economic discrimination and disparity
Although East Pakistan had a larger population, West Pakistan dominated the divided country politically and received more money from the common budget. According to the World Bank
, there was much economic discrimination against East Pakistan, including higher government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West, and the use of the East's foreign exchange surpluses to finance the West's imports.
The discrimination occurred despite the fact that East Pakistan generated a major share of Pakistan's exports.
The annual rate of growth of the gross domestic product per capita was 4.4% in West Pakistan versus 2.6% in East Pakistan from 1960 to 1965. Bengali politicians pushed for more autonomy, arguing that much of Pakistan's export earnings were generated in East Pakistan from the exportation of Bengali jute and tea. As late as 1960, approximately 70% of Pakistan's export earnings originated in East Pakistan, although this percentage declined as international demand for jute dwindled. By the mid-1960s, East Pakistan was accounting for less than 60% of the nation's export earnings, and by the time Bangladesh gained its independence in 1971, this percentage had dipped below 50%. In 1966, Mujib demanded that separate foreign exchange accounts be kept and that separate trade offices be opened overseas. By the mid-1960s, West Pakistan was benefiting from Ayub's "Decade of Progress" with its successful Green Revolution
in wheat and from the expansion of markets for West Pakistani textiles, while East Pakistan's standard of living remained at an abysmally low level. Bengalis were also upset that West Pakistan, the seat of the national government, received more foreign aid.
Economists in East Pakistan argued a "Two Economies Theory" within Pakistan itself, which was founded on the Two-Nation Theory with India. The so-called Two Economies Theory suggested that East and West Pakistan had different economic features which should not be regulated by a federal government in Islamabad.
Demographics and culture
The first Bangladeshi flag was hoisted on 23 March 1971 across East Pakistan, as a protest on Republic Day
East Pakistan was home to 55% of Pakistan's population. The largest ethnic group of the province were Bengalis
, who in turn were the largest ethnic group in Pakistan
. Bengali Muslims
formed the predominant majority, followed by Bengali Hindus
, Bengali Buddhists
and Bengali Christians
. East Pakistan also had many tribal groups, including the Chakmas, Marmas
. They largely followed the religions of Buddhism
and Hinduism. East Pakistan was home to immigrant Muslims from across the Indian subcontinent
, including West Bengal
, the Northwest Frontier Province
, the Punjab
. A small Armenian
minority resided in East Pakistan.
Among East Pakistan's newspapers, The Daily Ittefaq
was the leading Bengali language title; while Holiday
was a leading English title.
Religion in East Pakistan (1951 Census)
As per as 1951 census, East Pakistan have a population of 44,251,826 people, of which 34,029,654 followed Islam
, 9,757,527 people followed Hinduism
and 464,644 people followed other religions: Buddhism
Ethnic and linguistic discrimination
Bengalis were hugely under-represented in Pakistan's bureaucracy and military. In the federal government, only 15% of offices were occupied by East Pakistanis. Only 10% of the military were from East Pakistan. Cultural discrimination also prevailed, causing the eastern wing to forge a distinct political identity. There was a bias against Bengali culture
in state media, such as a ban on broadcasts of the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore
The Indo-East Pakistan border as shown by the U.S. Army
, c. 1960.
Since its unification with Pakistan, the East Pakistan Army
had consisted of only one infantry brigade made up of two battalions, the 1st East Bengal Regiment and the 1/14
or 3/8 Punjab Regiment in 1948. These two battalions boasted only five rifle companies between them (an infantry battalion normally had 5 companies).
This weak brigade was under the command of Brigadier Ayub Khan (acting Major-General – GOC
of 14th Army Division), together with the East Pakistan Rifles
, which was tasked with defending East Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
, and the Navy
had little presence in the region. Only one PAF combatant squadron, No. 14 Squadron Tail Choppers
, was active in East Pakistan. This combatant squadron was commanded by Air Force Major Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi
, who later became a four-star general. The East Pakistan military personnel were trained in combat diving, demolitions, and guerrilla/anti-guerrilla tactics by the advisers from the Special Service Group (Navy)
who were also charged with intelligence data collection and management cycle.
The East Pakistan Navy had only one active-duty combatant destroyer, the PNS Sylhet
; one submarine Ghazi
(which was repeatedly deployed in the West); four gunboats, inadequate to function in deep water. The joint special operations were managed and undertaken by the Naval Special Service Group (SSG(N)) who was assisted by the army, air force, and marines unit. The entire service, the Marines were deployed in East Pakistan, initially tasked with conducting exercises and combat operations in riverine
areas and at the near shoreline. The small directorate of Naval Intelligence
(while the headquarters and personnel, facilities, and directions were coordinated by West) had a vital role in directing special and reconnaissance missions, and intelligence gathering also was charged with taking reasonable actions to slow down the Indian threat. The armed forces of East Pakistan also consisted of the paramilitary organisation, the Razakars
from the intelligence unit of the ISI's
Covert Action Division (CAD).
Legacy in Pakistan
The trauma was extremely severe in Pakistan
when the news of secession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh
arrived – a psychological setback,
complete and humiliating defeat that shattered the prestige of Pakistan Armed Forces.
The governor and martial law administrator Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi
was defamed, his image was maligned and he was stripped of his honours.
The people of Pakistan
could not come to terms with the magnitude of defeat, and spontaneous demonstrations and mass protests erupted on the streets of major cities in (West) Pakistan.
General Yahya Khan
surrendered powers to Nurul Amin of Pakistan Muslim League
, the first and last Vice-President
and Prime minister of Pakistan
Prime Minister Amin invited then-President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
and the Pakistan Peoples Party
to take control of Pakistan
. In a color ceremony where, Bhutto gave a daring speech to the nation on national television
At the ceremony, Bhutto waved his fist in the air and pledged to his nation to never again allow the surrender of his country like what happened with East Pakistan. He launched and orchestrated the large-scale atomic bomb project
In memorial of East Pakistan, the East-Pakistan diaspora
in Pakistan established the East-Pakistan colony in Karachi, Sindh.
In accordance, the East-Pakistani diaspora also composed patriotic tributes to Pakistan after the war; songs such as Sohni Dharti
(lit. Beautiful land) and Jeevay, Jeevay Pakistan
(lit. long-live, long-live Pakistan), were composed by Bengali singer Shahnaz Rahmatullah
in the 1970s and 1980s.
According to William Langewiesche
, writing for The Atlantic
, "it may seem obvious that the loss of Bangladesh was a blessing"
— but it has never been seen that way in Pakistan.
In the book "Scoop! Inside Stories from the Partition to the Present
", Indian politician Kuldip Nayar
opined, "Losing East Pakistan and Bhutto's releasing of Mujib did not mean anything to Pakistan's policy – as if there was no liberation war."
Bhutto's policy, and even today, the policy of Pakistan
is that "she will continue to fight for the honour and integrity of Pakistan
- ^ "Special report: The Breakup of Pakistan 1969–1971".
- ^ "Birth of Bangladesh". Economic and Political Weekly. 51 (28). 5 June 2015.
- ^ Major Nasir Uddin, Juddhey Juddhey Swadhinata, pp49
- ^ Major Nasir Uddin, Juddhey Juddhey Swadhinata, pp47, pp51
- ^ (acting martial law administrator and governor as he was the GOC 14th Infantry Division)
- ^ a b c d e f Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. United Book Press. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1., Chapter 3, pp 87.
- ^ Ali, Tariq (1983). Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State. Penguin Books. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-14-02-2401-7. The defeat of the Pakistan army traumatized West Pakistan and considerably dented the prestige of the armed services ... The defeat suffered in Dacca and the break-up of the country traumatized the population from top to bottom.
- ^ a b c Langewiesche, William (November 2005). "The Wrath of Khan". The Atlantic. Retrieved 31 July 2016. Thirty-four years later it may seem obvious that the loss of Bangladesh was a blessing—but it is still not seen so today in Pakistan, and it was certainly not seen so at the time ... One month after the surrender of Pakistan's army in Bangladesh [Bhutto] called a secret meeting of about seventy Pakistani scientists ... He asked them for a nuclear bomb, and they responded enthusiastically.
- ^ Abbas Naqvi (17 December 2006). "Falling back". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2012. Few people in Karachi's Chittagong Colony can forget Dec 16, 1971 – the Fall of Dhaka
- ^ a b Nayar, Kuldip (1 October 2006). Scoop! : Inside Stories from Partition to the Present. United Kingdom: HarperCollins. pp. 213 pages. ISBN 978-8172236434.
Last edited on 18 June 2021, at 21:50
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