Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
The Eastern Province
: المنطقة الشرقية
), also known as the Eastern Region
, and officially the Emirate of the Eastern Province
is the easternmost of the 13 provinces of Saudi Arabia
. It is the largest province by area and the third most populous after the Riyadh Province
and the Makkah Province
. In 2017, the population was 4,900,325.
Of these, 3,140,362 were Saudi citizens and 1,759,963 were foreign nationals
The province accounts for 15.05% of the entire population of Saudi Arabia
and is named for its geographical location relative to the rest of the kingdom.
More than a third of the population is concentrated in the Dammam metropolitan area
. With an estimated population of 1.25 million as of 2019, Dammam
, the capital of the province, is the sixth most populous city in the kingdom. The incumbent governor of the province is Prince Saud bin Nayef Al Saud
. Other populous cities in the province include Hofuf
, Mubarraz, Hafr al-Batin
The region is extremely popular among tourists for its beaches on the Persian Gulf
and proximity to the other countries of the eastern Arab world
, such as the United Arab Emirates
, with the latter being linked to the province via the 25 km (15 mi) long King Fahd Causeway
. The region also shares a border with Oman
. The province is bordered to the west, from north to south, by the provinces of the Northern Borders
The Eastern Province encompasses the entire east coast of Saudi Arabia and acts as a major platform for most of the kingdom's oil production and exports. Oil
was first found in the country in the Eastern Province, at the Prosperity Well site (formerly known as Dammam No.7). The Ghawar oil field
, located in the Ahsa Governorate
, measuring 8,400 sq.km. (3,240 sq.mi.) is the largest oil field in the world,
and accounts for roughly a third of the kingdom's oil production. The Safaniya oil field
, located off the coast of the province, is the largest offshore oil field
in the world. The Jubail Industrial City, part of the city of Jubail
, the fifth most populous in the province, is the largest industrial city in the world.
The region was home to the Dilmun
civilization which was an ancient Semitic
in Eastern Arabia
. Founded in the late 4th millennium BC and lasting until approximately 538 BC it is regarded as one of the oldest civilizations in the world.
Dilmun was an important and prosperous trading centre for millennia with well-developed and long-standing trading, commercial and cultural ties with nearby Mesopotamia
in particular and the Indus Valley Civilisation
. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia
, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout Island
on the coast.
The Rub' al-Khali
or Empty Quarter, comprises more than a third of the Eastern Province
Approximately two-thirds of the province is desert, comprising, from south to north, the Rub' al Khali
deserts, with the Rub' al-Khali alone making up more than half of the area of the province. Areas such as Hafr al-Batin
and the Ahsa Oasis
have become important sites for desert farming
due to the advancements made during the Green Revolution
in farming and irrigation techniques.
The Eastern Province was home to the Dilmun civilization for several millennia which was an important trading center from the late fourth millennium BC
to 800 BC.
At the height of its power, Dilmun controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes.
Dilmun was very prosperous during the first 300 years of the second millennium.
The Dilmun civilization was the centre of commercial activities linking traditional agriculture of the land—then utterly fertile due to artesian wells that have dried since, and due to a much wetter climate—with maritime trade between diverse regions such as the Meluhha
(suspected to be Indus Valley Civilisation), Magan
), and Mesopotamia
The Dilmun civilization is mentioned first in Sumerian cuneiform
clay tablets dated to the late third millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna
, in the city of Uruk
. One of the earliest inscriptions mentioning Dilmun is that of king Ur-Nanshe
(c. 2300 BC) found in a door-socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him wood as tribute from foreign lands."
The great commercial and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound to the point where Dilmun was a central figure to the Sumerian creation myth.
Dilmun was described in the saga of Enki and Ninhursag as pre-existing in paradisiacal state, where predators don't kill, pain and diseases are absent, and people do not get old.
Likewise the Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden
Dilmun's commercial power began to decline between 1000 BC and 800 BC because piracy flourished in the Persian Gulf. The most recent reference to Dilmun came during the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Neo-Babylonian administrative records, dated 567 BC, stated that Dilmun was controlled by the king of Babylon. The name of Dilmun fell from use after the collapse of Babylon
in 538 BC.
During the Abbasid Caliphate
, the region was taken over by the Qarmatians
, a Shi'ite
group of the Isma'ili
branch, around 899 AD. The Qarmatians attacked Makkah
and held the Black Stone
to ransom in Ahsa in 920 AD. The region was ruled by the Qaramatians until 976 AD, when after losing to the Abbasids, they were reduced to the status of a local power. After Bahrain and Qatif seceded from Qarmatian rule around 1058 AD, they retreated to the Ahsa Oasis
, to which Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni
laid siege and invaded in 1076 AD, ending the rule of Qarmatians in Ahsa and founding the Uyunid Emirate
Not much is known of the Uyunids, except that they were the descendants of the Banu Abdul Qays
tribe. They were involved in several internal disputes, causing the emirate to become unstable and eventually leading to the rise of the Bedouin Usfurids. The Usfurids saw a short period of stability. After overthrowing their former allies, the Uyunids, they had an uneasy relationship with the Persian rulers of Hormuz, who took control of the former Uyunid cities of Qatif and Bahrain around 1320 AD. This eventually led to the fall of the Usfurids. The region was mostly overlooked until the 1500s, when the Jabrids
took over around 1507 AD, but they too fell due to internal conflicts in or around the 1540s.
In 1551 AD, the Ottomans invaded the region during their first war with the Safavids
, and kept it under their control until 1671.
After several years of unrest between the Ottomans, Saudis and Rashidis, the Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
, also known as the Third Saudi State, under Ibn Saud
, took the entire Arabian Peninsula
from Ottoman and Rashidi
control. Most of the Eastern Province came under the Hasa region, and as such, the emirate has been under Saudi control since 1902. In 1923, the Dawasir
moved into the area which is now Khobar
, and later spread into Dammam
, and they are credited with the foundation of the two cities.
According to the Population Characteristics Surveys conducted by the General Authority for Statistics
, the Eastern Province had a population of 4,900,325 as of December 2017,
of which 3,140,362 were Saudis and 1,759,963 were foreign nationals. The Eastern Province is the third most populous province in Saudi Arabia, after Makkah
. With an estimated population of 1,225,000 as of 2019,
Dammam is the most populous city in the province and the sixth most populous city in the country. The governorate with the largest population is the Ahsa Governorate
. It is also the largest governorate in terms of land area. The province had the lowest dependency ratio
in the kingdom at around 36%, as of 2016.
The sex ratio
for Saudis was 109 males per 100 females and 150 males per 100 females for non-Saudis, yielding a common sex ratio of 151 males per 100 females.
1% of children in the province were orphans.
Censuses in Saudi Arabia do not collect or report data regarding religion. Sunni Islam
is the predominant religion overall in the country. Shias
form a majority in some parts of the Eastern Province, particularly in Qatif
From 1,264,687 male residents who were above the age of 10, 88.78%, representing 1,122,738 persons had some form of formal education
, while 141,949 were illiterate
As for females, from the 1,161,677 residents above the age of 10, 80.77% or 938,233 persons were formally educated, while 223,444 were illiterate.
44.42% of residential units in the Eastern Province are apartments and 96.29% of residential units are made of concrete
was not reported.
3.51% of the province's Saudi residents, who were above the age of 15, reported some form of disability
in 2016, with visual impairment
being the most common form of disability and 42,052 persons suffering from some form of visual impairment.
58,000 persons reported severe or extreme disability.
285,754 Saudi residents above the age of 15 reported that they were regularly smoking
, with 254,233 reporting daily smoking and 31,521 reporting intermittent
Governors of the Eastern Province
Dammam Well No. 7, the first well to produce commercial quantities of oil in Saudi Arabia
The economy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is largely dependent on oil. As such, the Eastern Province, being the province with most of Saudi Arabia's oil reserves enjoys a high economic position. Saudi Aramco
, the state-owned
oil company of Saudi Arabia and an organization of major significance in the petroleum industry
, is based in Dhahran
in Greater Dammam
. It became the fifth company in the world to reach a market capitalization
of $1 trillion ($1,000,000,000,000) on December 11, 2019. After going public the same day in what is considered the largest public offering
ever as of December 2019, the next day, on December 12, 2019, the company reached a market cap of $2 trillion, becoming the first and only company in the world to break the record.
The kingdom's main oil and gas fields are located in the Eastern Province with sites such as the Ghawar Field
, the largest onshore oil field
in the world and the Safaniya oil field
, the largest offshore oil
field in the world. Petroleum is refined in various refineries spread across the kingdom and shipped to dozens of countries from port cities such as Ra's Tanura
. The East–West pipeline enables efficient transport of oil from the eastern oil fields and refineries to the western refineries and ports, such as Rabigh
Saudi Arabia's largest agricultural product, dates, also forms a large part of the province's economy. Every year thousands of tonnes of dates are harvested from the date palms in the giant oasis of Ahsa
to be sold in and around the kingdom.
Dammam's King Fahd International Airport
, operating since October 1999,
the largest airport in the world in terms of land area, serves as the primary hub for the entirety of the Eastern Province.
Located 30 km northwest of the city, the airport is well connected by air to 43 destinations in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe, provided by 37 airlines. Other airports in the province include Ahsa International Airport
and Qaisumah-Hafr Al Batin Airport
. Saudi Aramco has a separate terminal at the King Fahd International Airport for their employees and aircraft with scheduled flights to Shaybah
, Jeddah and other sites where the company is active.
Built in the 1940s, the King Abdulaziz Sea Port
, located on the coast of the Persian Gulf
, is the second largest and second busiest port in Saudi Arabia
, after the Jeddah Islamic Port
in Jeddah. It is also the largest port in the Persian Gulf. The port is equipped with 9 ports with 214 platforms.
The port receives more than 15,000 ships carrying more than 13 million containers or 532 million tons of cargo annually.
Highway 95 (Route 5M) connects Khafji
on the Kuwaiti
border in the north to the Ramlah border station on the Omani
border in the south via Jubail
, Ra's Tanura
, the Dammam metropolitan area
, the Salwa border station on the Qatari
border and the Batha' border station with the United Arab Emirates
. Highway 40 (Route 80M) connects Bahrain
via the 25 km (15 mi) King Fahd Causeway
over the Persian Gulf
and onward to Jeddah
on the Red Sea
. Highways 605, 610, 613, 614, 615, 617 and 619, known locally by other popular names, connect the Greater Dammam area to Ra's Tanura, Jubail, the King Fahd International Airport, Abqaiq
The Saudi Arabian railways are managed by two separate organizations, the Saudi Railways Organization
and Saudi Railway Company
. The lines in the Eastern Province, two lines, one passenger, which runs from Dammam to Riyadh via Abqaiq an Hofuf, and the other freight, which runs directly from Dammam to Riyadh, are managed by the Saudi Railways Organization (SRO).
A plan to build a metro
in Dammam was also in the works, but its current status is unknown.
The Eastern Province's capital city of Dammam has special status. Like the other 12 regional capitals, Dammam is not included within any governorate but is instead simply known as the City of Dammam, in Arabic, the word أمانة
) is used and the city is headed by a mayor
). The Ahsa Governorate
, which includes the traditional oasis of Ahsa
and the Rub' al Khali
desert, which comprises more than half of the governorate itself, is the largest governorate in Saudi Arabia in terms of area.
List of governorates
Governorates of the Eastern Province with 2010 Census populations
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Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 00:28
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