El Mahalla El Kubra consists of two words: El Mahalla
in Arabic means "district
" or "encampment",
El Kubra means "great"
. Hence the title collectively means "The Great Encampment
It's a rough translation of a Coptic Egyptian name ϯϣⲁⲓⲣⲓ "cohabitation"
but the second part of it – "El Kubra" may come from the Hellenistic
name of the same settlement – "Theodosiou Nixis
: ⲑⲉⲟⲇⲱⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲝⲓⲥ, where ⲛⲓⲝⲓⲥ is most likely a Greek
transcription of Coptic ⲛⲓϣϯ – "great").
El Mahalla El Kubra was known as "Theodosiou
: ⲑⲉⲟⲇⲱⲥⲓⲟⲩ) or "Theodosiou Nixis
: ⲑⲉⲟⲇⲱⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲝⲓⲥ, where ⲛⲓⲝⲓⲥ is most likely a Greek transcription of Coptic ⲛⲓϣϯ – "great") (which might refer to Hibiscus cannabinus
) in Ptolematic and Roman Egypt, meanwhile it was known as "ϯϣⲁⲓⲣⲓ" in Coptic records.
Mamluk Egypt & Egypt Eyalet
President Gamal Abd El Nasser
waves to crowds in El Mahalla El Kubra as he departs the city, 1959
Protesters took to the street on April 7, 2008, as part of the 6 April movement
Over 15,000 protesters clashed with police in El Mahalla in 2006, following the publication of a cartoon mocking Islam in Denmark.
Later in 2006 textile workers struck to protest market reforms, demanding better living conditions.
Beginning in April 2008 the city held mass demonstrations protesting the election results of President Hosni Mubarak, claiming election fraud and demanding better wages. Security forces were ordered to crack down on the dissidents, and in May they killed two or three in the city and injured dozens.
Images of protesters in Mahalla overturning billboards of Mubarak were viewed by some Egyptians as a turning point in Egyptian politics, according to The Washington Post
. The Observer
has written that protests in El Mahalla from 2006 to 2011 spearheaded larger political changes throughout Egypt.
group established by 28-year-old engineer Ahmad Maher to support striking textile workers in El Mahalla gained 70,000 followers and helped organize support for the strikers nationally.
In 2011, protests in Mahalla contributed to the collapse of the Mubarak dictatorship.
2012 protests and declaration of autonomy
On 15 July 2012, 25,000 workers from El Mahalla El Kubra's Misr Spinning and Weaving Company went on strike, demanding increased profit sharing, better retirement benefits and a replacement of the management.
The Misr workers were joined by workers from seven other textile factories in the region, and strikes also broke out among doctors and health workers, university workers, and ceramics workers in other parts of Egypt.
Clashes between protesters supporting or opposing the Muslim Brotherhood
on November 28 left over 100 people injured.
On December 7, the city declared itself autonomous from Egypt,
as workers and students, declaring themselves independent from the "Muslim Brotherhood State", cut rail lines and blocked entrances to the city.
Protesters stormed the city council and announced their intentions to replace it with a revolutionary council.
Buildings and structures
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- ^ "Crum Coptic Dictionary - CoptOT Public". coptot.manuscriptroom.com. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
- ^ Daressy, G. (1894). "Les Grandes Villes d'Égypte a l'Époque Copte". Revue Archéologique. 25: 196–215. ISSN 0035-0737. JSTOR 41729502.
- ^ "المحلة الكبرى". nfa-eg.org (in Arabic).
- ^ Bilesfky, Dan (11 February 2006). "Danish Cartoon Editor on Indefinite Leave". The New York Times.
- ^ a b c d Stern, Johannes (8 December 2012). "Protests spread throughout Egypt against Islamist dictatorship". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ a b Knickmeyer, Ellen (18 May 2008). "Fledgling Rebellion on Facebook Is Struck Down by Force in Egypt". Washington Post.
- ^ a b Shenker, Jack (23 January 2011). "Egypt's frustrated young wait for their lives to begin, and dream of revolution". The Observer (England).
- ^ Verma, Sonia (27 January 2011). "How Egypt got here: A brutal beating and a penchant for Facebook has protesters eager to brave the streets". The Globe and Mail.
- ^ a b Stern, Johannes (18 July 2012). "Egyptian workers mount mass strikes against US-backed junta". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ "Clashes Spread Beyond Cairo". Washington Post. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ Bakr, Sara (7 December 2012). "Mahalla announces autonomy". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ "Climate: Mahalla al Kubra - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
Last edited on 14 March 2021, at 19:01
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