Gerund - Wikipedia
  (Redirected from English gerund)
Not to be confused with the Gerundive.
A gerund (/
, -
/[1] abbreviated ger) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages; most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun. In English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiable by an adverb and being able to take a direct object. The term "-ing form" is often used in English to refer to the gerund specifically. Traditional grammar makes a distinction within -ing forms between present participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.
Traditional use
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The Latin gerund, in a restricted set of syntactic contexts, denotes the sense of the verb in isolation after certain prepositions, and in certain uses of the genitive, dative, and ablative cases. It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as object. To express such concepts, the construction with the adjectivalgerundive is preferred. By contrast, the term gerund has been used in the grammatical description of other languages to label verbal nouns used in a wide range of syntactic contexts and with a full range of clause elements.
Thus, English grammar uses gerund to mean an -ing form used in non-finite clauses such as playing on computers. This is not a normal use for a Latin gerund. Moreover, the clause may function within a sentence as subject or object, which is impossible for a Latin gerund.
The contrast with the Latin gerund is also clear when the clause consists of a single word.
Latin never uses the gerund in this way, since the infinitive is available.[2]
Traditional English grammar distinguishes non-finite clauses used as above from adverbial use, adjective-like modification of nouns, and use in finite progressive (continuous) forms
In these uses playing is traditionally labelled a participle.
Traditional grammar also distinguishes -ing forms with exclusively noun properties as in
I work in that buildingcontrast "gerund"I like building things
That is a good paintingcontrast "gerund"I like painting pictures
Her writing is goodcontrast "gerund"I like writing novels
The objection to the term gerund in English grammar is that -ing forms are frequently used in ways that do not conform to the clear-cut three-way distinction made by traditional grammar into gerunds, participles and nouns[how?].
Latin gerund
Further information: Latin syntax § The gerund, and Latin conjugation § Gerund
The Latin gerund is a form of the verb. It is composed of:
For example,
laud--a--nd--um, -ī, -ōFirst conjugationlaudandum'the act of praising'
mon--e--nd--um, -ī, -ōSecond conjugationmonendum'the act of warning'
leg--e--nd--um, -ī, -ōThird conjugationlegendum'the act of reading'
capi--e--nd--um, -ī, -ōThird conjugationcapiendum'the act of taking'
audi--e--nd--um, -ī, -ōFourth conjugationaudiendum'the act of hearing'
Related gerundive forms are composed in a similar way with adjectival inflexional endings.
The four inflections are used for a limited range of grammatical functions[3]
NominativeSubjectno exampleinfinitive used
AccusativeObjectno exampleinfinitive used
After prepositioncanes alere ad venandum[4]'to rear dogs for hunting'after ad, in, ob and occasionally other prepositions
GenitiveModifying abstract nounpugnandi tempus'time for (lit. of) fighting'nouns include occasio, tempus, causa, gratia
DativeExpressing purposeauscultando operam dare'apply effort to listening'after verbs e.g. studeo, operam dare and adjectives e.g. natus, optimus
AblativeInstrumentalpugnando cepimus'we took by fighting'became undistinguishable from participle use, thus providing the gerundio forms in Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, which are used instead of forms derived from Latin present participles
These functions could be fulfilled by other abstract nouns derived from verbs such as vẽnãtiõ 'hunting'. Gerunds are distinct in two ways.
  1. Every Latin verb can regularly form a gerund
  2. A gerund may function syntactically in the same way as a finite verb. Typically the gerund of a finite verb may be followed by a direct object e.g. ad discernendum vocis verbis figuras 'for discerning figures of speech', hominem investigando opera dabo 'I will devote effort to investigating the man'.
However, this was a rare construction. Writers generally preferred the gerundive construction e.g. res evertendae reipublicae 'matters concerning the overthrow of the state' (literally 'of the state being overthrown').
When people first wrote grammars of languages such as English, and based them on works of Latin grammar, they adopted the term gerund to label non-finite verb forms with these two properties.
Gerunds in various languages
Meanings of the term gerund as used in relation to various languages are listed below.
Grammars of French written in English may use the forms gerundive and present participle.
In the earliest stages of the West Germanic languages, the infinitive was inflected after a preposition. These dative and, more rarely, genitive case forms are sometimes called gerundium or gerund or West Germanic gerund.[6][7]
In other languages, it may refer to almost any non-finite verb form; however, it most often refers to an action noun, by analogy with its use as applied to Latin.
Gerunds in English
In traditional grammars of English, the term gerund labels an important use of the form of the verb ending in -ing (for details of its formation and spelling, see English verbs). Other important uses are termed participle (used adjectivally or adverbially), and as a pure verbal noun.
An -ing form is termed gerund when it behaves as a verb within a clause (so that it may be modified by an adverb or have an object); but the resulting clause as a whole (sometimes consisting of only one word, the gerund itself) functions as a noun within the larger sentence.
For example, consider the sentence "Eating this cake is easy." Here, the gerund is the verb eating, which takes an object this cake. The entire clause eating this cake is then used as a noun, which in this case serves as the subject of the larger sentence.
An item such as eating this cake in the foregoing example is an example of a non-finite verb phrase; however, because phrases of this type do not require a subject, it is also a complete clause. (Traditionally, such an item would be referred to as a phrase, but in modern linguistics it has become common to call it a clause.) A gerund clause such as this is one of the types of non-finite clause. The structure may be represented as follows:
STRUCTURE OF SENTENCEEating this cakeiseasy
(no subject)VerbObject
Non-finite verb forms ending in -ing, whether termed gerund or participle may be marked like finite forms as Continuous or Non-continuous, Perfect or Non-perfect, Active or Passive. Thus, traditional grammars have represented the gerund as having four forms – two for the active voice and two for the passive:[16]
Present or ContinuousLovingBeing loved
PerfectHaving lovedHaving been loved
The same forms are available when the term participle is used.
Examples of use
The following sentences illustrate some uses of gerund clauses, showing how such a clause serves as a noun within the larger sentence. In some cases, the clause consists of just the gerund (although in many such cases the word could equally be analyzed as a pure verbal noun).
Using gerunds of the appropriate auxiliary verbs, one can form gerund clauses that express perfect aspect and passive voice:
For more detail on when it is appropriate to use a gerund, see Verb patterns classified as gerund use below, and also §§ Uses of English verb forms​ and Gerund.
Distinction from other uses of the -ing form
In traditional grammars, gerunds are distinguished from other uses of a verb's -ing form: the present participle (which is a non-finite verb form like the gerund, but is adjectival or adverbial in function), and the pure verbal noun or deverbal noun.
The distinction between gerund and present participles is not recognised in modern reference grammars, since many uses are ambiguous.[17][18]
Roles of "gerund" clauses in a sentence
Non finite -ing clauses may have the following roles in a sentence:[19]
ASubjectEating cakes is pleasant.
BExtraposed subjectIt can be pleasant eating cakes.
CSubject ComplementWhat I'm looking forward to is eating cakes
DDirect objectI can't stop eating cakes.
EPrepositional objectI dreamt of eating cakes.
FAdverbialHe walks the streets eating cakes.
GPart of noun phraseIt's a picture of a man eating cakes.
HPart of adjective phraseThey are all busy eating cakes.
IComplement of prepositionShe takes pleasure in eating cakes.
In traditional grammars, the term gerund is not used for roles F, G, and H.
1. John suggested asking Bill.
STRUCTURE OF SENTENCEJohnsuggestedasking BillRole D object — traditionally asking is a "gerund"
(no subject)VerbObject

2. I heard John asking Bill.
STRUCTURE OF SENTENCEIheardJohn asking BillRole G adverbial — traditionally asking is a "participle"

3. Playing football is enjoyable
STRUCTURE OF SENTENCEPlaying footballisenjoyableRole A subject — traditionally playing is a "gerund"
(no subject)VerbObject

4. Her playing of the Bach fugues was inspiring.
of the Bach
STRUCTURE OF NOUN PHRASEHerplayingof the Bach fuguesNoun phrase, not clause — playing is a verbal noun
(also termed deverbal noun)
For more details and examples, see -ing: uses.
"Gerund" clauses with a specified subject
In traditional grammars, a grammatical subject has been defined in such a way that it occurs only in finite clauses, where it is liable to "agree" with the "number" of the finite verb form. Nevertheless, non-finite clauses imply a "doer" of the verb, even if that doer is indefinite "someone or something". For example,
Often the "doer" is clearly signalled
However, the "doer" may not be indefinite or already expressed in the sentence. Rather it must be overtly specified, typically in a position immediately before the non-finite verb
The "doer" expression is not the grammatical subject of a finite clause, so objective them is used rather than subjective they.
Traditional grammarians may object to the term subject for these "doers". And prescriptive grammarians go further, objecting to the use of forms more appropriate to the subjects (or objects) of finite clauses. The argument is that this results in two noun expressions with no grammatical connection. They prefer to express the "doer" by a possessive form, such as used with ordinary nouns:
Nonetheless, the possessive construction with -ing clauses is very rare in present-day English. Works of fiction show a moderate frequency, but the construction is highly infrequent in other types of text.[20]
Prescriptivists do not object when the non-finite clause modifies a noun phrase
I saw the cat licking the cream.
The sense of the cat as notional subject of licking is disregarded. Rather they see the cat as exclusively the object of I saw The modifying phrase licking the cream is therefore described as a participle use.
Henry Fowler claims that the use of a non-possessive noun to precede a gerund arose as a result of confusion with the above usage with a participle, and should thus be called fused participle[21] or geriple.[22]
It has been argued that if the prescriptive rule is followed, the difference between the two forms may be used to make a slight distinction in meaning:
However, Quirk et al. show that the range of senses of -ing forms with possessive and non-possessive subjects is far more diverse and nuanced:[23]
The painting of Brown is as skilful as that of Gainsborough.a. 'Brown's mode of painting'
b. 'Brown's action of painting'
Brown's deft painting of his daughter is a delight to watch.'It is a delight to watch while Brown deftly paints his daughter.'
Brown's deftly painting his daughter is a delight to watch.a. 'It is a delight to watch Brown's deft action of painting.'
b. 'It is a delight to watch while Brown deftly paints.'
I dislike Brown's painting his daughter.a. "I dislike the fact that Brown paints his daughter.'
b. 'I dislike the way Brown paints his daughter.'
I dislike Brown painting his daughter.'I dislike the fact that Brown paints his daughter (when she ought to be at school).'
I watched Brown painting his daughter.a. 'I watched Brown as he painted his daughter.'
b. 'I watched the process of Brown('s) painting his daughter.'
Brown deftly painting his daughter is a delight to watch.a. 'It is a delight to watch Brown's deft action of painting his daughter'
b. 'It is a delight to watch while Brown deftly paints his daughter.'
These sentence exemplify a spectrum of senses from more noun-like to more verb--like. At the extremes of the spectrum they place
at the noun end (where possessive Brown's unmistakably expresses ownership) :
Noun phraseMeaning
some paintings of Brown'sa. 'some paintings that Brown owns'
b. 'some paintings painted by Brown'
Brown's paintings of his daughtersa. paintings depicted his daughter and painted by him'
b. 'paintings depicting his daughter and painted by somebody else but owned by him'

and at the verb end (where Brown's would clearly be impossible):
Painting his daughter, Brown noticed his hand was shaking.'while he was painting'
Brown painting his daughter that day, I decided to go for a walk.'since Brown was painting his daughter'
The man painting the girl is Brown.'who is painting'
The silently painting man is Brown.'who is silently painting'
Brown is painting his daughter.
In some cases, particularly with a non-personal subject, the use of the possessive before a gerund may be considered redundant even in quite a formal register. For example, "There is no chance of the snow falling" (rather than the prescriptively correct "There is no chance of the snow's falling").
Verb patterns classified as "gerund" use
The term gerund describes certain uses of -ing clauses as 'complementation' of individual English verbs, that is to say the choice of class that are allowable after that word.
The principal choices of clauses are
Clause typeExampleSubject of clausePossessivePassive equivalent
1. finiteI remember that she came.overt grammatical subject sheimpossibleThat she came is remembered.— more frequent: It is remembered that she came.
2. bare infinitiveI saw her come.her acts as object of saw and subject of comeimpossiblenot possible
3a. to-infinitive without subjectShe remembered to come.notional subject 'understood' as identical to shen.a.not possible
3b. to-infinitive with subjectI reminded her to come.her acts as object of reminded and subject of to comeimpossibleShe was reminded to come.
4a. -ing without subjectI remember seeing her come.notional subject 'understood' as identical to In.a.rare but possible: Seeing her come is remembered.
4b. -ing with subjectI remember her coming.her acts as object of remember and subject of comingpossiblerare but possible: Her coming is remembered.
5a . -ing without subjectShe kept coming.notional subject 'understood' as identical to shen.a.not possible
5b. -ing with subjectWe kept her coming.her acts as object of kept and subject of comingimpossibleShe was kept coming.
6a. -ing without subjectShe ended up coming.notional subject 'understood' as identical to shen.a.not possible
6b. -ing without subjectShe wasted time coming.notional subject 'understood' as identical to shen.a.Her time was wasted coming.
The variant * We kept Jane's coming is not grammatically acceptable.
The variant I remember Jane's coming is acceptable — indeed required by prescriptive grammarians
Verbs followed by "gerund" pattern
Historically, the -ing suffix was attached to a limited number of verbs to form abstract nouns, which were used as the object of verbs such as like. The use was extended in various ways: the suffix became attachable to all verbs; the nouns acquired verb-like characteristics; the range of verbs allowed to introduce the form spread by analogy first to other verbs expressing emotion, then by analogy to other semantic groups of verbs associated with abstract noun objects; finally the use spread from verbs taking one-word objects to other semantically related groups verbs.[25]
The present-day result of these developments is that the verbs followed by -ing forms tend to fall into semantic classes. The following groups have been derived from analysis of the commonest verbs in the COBUILD data bank:[26]
Pattern 4a: I remember seeing her come
adore, appreciate, (cannot|) bear, (not) begrudge, detest, dislike, (cannot) endure, enjoy, hate, like, loathe, love, (not) mind, mind, prefer, relish, resent, (cannot) stand, (cannot) stomach, (not) tolerate, take to
dread, (not) face. fancy, favour, fear, look forward to
anticipate, consider, contemplate, debate, envisage, fantasise, imagine, intend, visualise
forget, miss, recall, recollect, regret, remember, (cannot) remember
acknowledge, admit, advise, advocate, debate, deny, describe, forbid, mention, prohibit, propose, recommend, report, suggest, urge
allow, entail, involve, justify, mean, necessitate, permit, preclude, prevent, save
defer, delay, postpone, put off
deserve, need, require, want
chance, risk
discourage, encourage, endure, mime, practise, get away with, go into. go towards, go without, play at
Pattern 5a: She kept coming
In addition, the COBUILD team identifies four groups of verbs followed by -ing forms that are hard to class as objects. In the verb + -ing object construction the action or state expressed by the verb can be separated from the action or state expressed by the -ing form. In the following groups, the senses are inseparable, jointly expressing a single complex action or state. Some grammarians do not recognise all these patterns as gerund use.[27]
begin, cease, come, commence, continue, finish, get, go, (not) go, keep, quit, resume, start, stop, burst out, carry on, fall about, fall to, give over, give up, go about, go around/round, go on, keep on, leave off, take to
avoid, (not) bother, escape, evade, forbear, omit, (cannot) resist, shun, hold off
chance, risk, try
come, go
Pattern 4b: I remember her coming
Verbs with this pattern do not normally allow the 'subject' of the -ing clause to be used in an equivalent passive construction such as *She is remembered coming.
The COBUILD Guide analyses her coming as the single object of I remember.
Many of the verbs that allow pattern 4a (without object) also allow this pattern.
anticipate, envisage, appreciate, (cannot) bear, (not) begrudge, contemplate, dislike, dread, envisage, fear, forget, hate, (will not) have, imagine, like, (not) mind, picture, recall, recollect, remember, (not) remember, resent, see, stand, tolerate, visualise, want, put up with
'REPORT' GROUP (subset of the above 'RECOMMEND' GROUP)
describe, mention, report
'ENTAIL' GROUP (subset of the above 'INVOLVE' GROUP)
entail, involve, justify, mean, necessitate
'STOP' GROUP (subset of the above 'START' AND 'STOP' GROUP)
avoid, preclude, prevent, prohibit, resist, save, stop
'RISK' GROUP (identical with above)
chance, risk
Pattern 5b: We kept her coming
In contrast to Pattern 4b, these verbs allow the 'subject' of the -ing clauses to be used in an equivalent passive construction such as She was kept coming.
The COBUILD guide analyses her coming as a string of two objects of We kept:– (1)her and (2)coming.
catch, feel, find, hear, notice, observe, photograph (usually passive), picture (usually passive), see, show, watch
bring, have, keep, leave, send, set
Pattern 6a: She ended up coming
These verbs refer to starting, spending or ending time.
The following -ing form is an adverbial, traditionally classed as a participle rather than a gerund.
die, end up, finish up, hang around, start off, wind up
Pattern 6b: She wasted time coming
These verbs also relate to time (and, by extension, money). The object generally expresses this concept.
However, the object of busy or occupy must be a reflexive pronoun e.g. She busied herself coming.
The following -ing form is an adverbial, generally classed as a participle rather than a gerund.
begin, busy, end, finish, kill, occupy, pass, spend, start, take, waste
Verbs followed by either "gerund" or to-infinitive pattern
Like the -ing suffix, the to-infinitive spread historically from a narrow original use, a prepositional phrase referring to future time. Like the -ing form it spread to all English verbs and to form non-finite clauses. Like the -ing form, it spread by analogy to use with words of similar meaning.
A number of verbs now belong in more than one class in their choice of 'complementation'.
Patterns 4a and 3a: I remember seeing her come and She remembered to come
Verbs in both 'START' AND 'STOP' (-ing) GROUP and 'BEGIN' ('to+infinitive) GROUPS
begin, cease, come, commence, continue, get, start,
Also go on — with different meanings
She went on singing — 'She continued singing'
She went on to sing — 'Afterwards, she sang'
She went on at me to sing — 'She nagged me to sing' (i.e. that I should sing)
Superficially, stop appears to be used in the 3a (to-infinitive) pattern
She stopped to sing — 'She stopped in order to sing'
However, the phrase to sing is quite separate and separable
She stopped for a moment to sing
She stopped what she was doing to sing
And the phrase may be used in all manner of sentences
She travelled to Paris to sing
She abandoned her husband and her children to sing
Verbs in both 'DREAD' AND LOOK FORWARD TO' (-ing) GROUP and 'HOPE' ('to+infinitive) GROUPS
dread, fear
Verb in both 'CONSIDER' (-ing) GROUP and 'HOPE' ('to+infinitive) GROUPS
Verb in both 'REMEMBER' (-ing) GROUP and 'MANAGE' ('to+infinitive) GROUPS
remember — with different meanings
I remembered going —'I remembered that I had previously gone'
I remembered to go —'I remembered that I had to go, so I did go'
Verbs in both 'NEED' (-ing) GROUP and 'NEED' ('to+infinitive) GROUPS
deserve, need
Patterns 4a, 4b, 3a and 3b: I remember coming, She remembered to come, I remember her coming and I reminded her to come
Verbs in both 'LIKE AND DISLIKE' (-ing) and WITH OBJECT (to-infinitive) GROUPS
hate, like, love, prefer
Unlike other Pattern 3b verbs, the object is indivisible
He hates his wife to stand out in a crowd does not mean He hates his wife
With would there is often a difference of meaning
I like living in Ambridge — 'I live in Ambridge, and I like it'
I would like to live in Ambridge — 'I don't live in Ambridge, but I have a desire to live there in the future'
I would like living in Ambridge — 'I don't live in Ambridge, but if I ever did live there, I would enjoy it'
There is an apparent similarity between
I like boxing — 'I box and I enjoy it'
I like boxing — 'I watch other people boxing and I enjoy it'
However, only the former meaning is possible with an extended non-finite clause
I like boxing with an experienced opponent — 'I like it when I box with an experienced opponent'
Patterns 4a and 3b: I remember coming and I reminded her to come
Verbs in both 'RECOMMEND' (-ing) and 'TELL' or 'NAG' AND 'COAX'(to-infinitive) GROUPS
advise, forbid, recommend, urge
These verbs do not admit -ing Pattern 4b with a word serving as object of the RECOMMEND verb. However they can be used with a possessive 'subject' of the -ing form.
I advised leaving — 'I advised somebody (unidentified) that we (or the person or people we have in mind) should leave'
I advised him to leave — 'I advised him that he should leave' but not *I advised him leaving
I advised his leaving — 'I advised somebody (unidentified) that he should leave
Verbs in both 'CONSIDER' (-ing) and 'BELIEVE' or 'EXPECT' (to-infinitive) GROUPS
consider, intend
Patterns 4b and 3b: I remember her coming and I reminded her to come
Verbs in both the 'SEE ' (-ing) and 'OBSERVE' (to-infinitive) GROUPS
hear, see, observe
The to-infinitive pattern occurs in passive clauses e.g. She was seen to come.
Corresponding active clauses use the bare infinitive pattern, e.g., We saw her come.
Verbs in both the 'SEE ' (-ing) and 'BELIEVE' (to-infinitive) GROUPS
feel, find, show (usually passive)
Verb in both the 'ENTAIL' subgroup (-ing) and the 'EXPECT' (to-infinitive) GROUPS
mean — with different meanings
That means her going tomorrow — 'In that case she'll go tomorrow'
We mean her to go tomorrow — 'We intend that she'll go tomorrow'
She's meant to be here tomorrow — 'It is intended that she'll be here tomorrow'
She's meant to be here now — 'It was intended that she should be here now, but she isn't'
Patterns 5a and 3a: She kept coming and She remembered to come
Verb in both the 'TRY' (-ing) and 'TRY' (to-infinitive) GROUPS
try — with different meanings
She tried leaving — 'She left in order to see what might happen (or how she might feel)'
She tried to leave — 'She attempted to leave'
Verbs followed by either "gerund" or bare infinitive pattern
Patterns 4b and 2: I remember her coming and I saw her come
Verb in both the 'SEE ' (-ing) and 'SEE' (bare infinitive) GROUPS
feel. hear, notice, see,watch
These patterns are sometimes used to express different meanings
I saw him leaving — 'I saw him as he was leaving'
I saw him leave — 'I saw him as he left'
Borrowings of English -ing forms in other languages
English verb forms ending in -ing are sometimes borrowed into other languages. In some cases, they become pseudo-anglicisms, taking on new meanings or uses not found in English. For instance, camping means "campsite" in many languages, while parking often means a car park. Both these words are treated as nouns, with none of the features of the gerund in English. For more details and examples, see -ing words in other languages.
See also
  1. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  2. ^ Palmer, L.R. , 1954, The Latin Language, London. Faber and Faber.
  3. ^ Palmer, L.R. , 1954, The Latin Language, London. Faber and Faber.
  4. ^ Terence, Andria 57.
  5. ^ Palmer 1954
  6. ^ Prokosch, E. 1939. A Comparative Germanic Grammar. Philadelphia. Linguistic Society of America for Yale University.
  7. ^ Harbert, Wayne. 2007 The Germanic Language. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052101511-1
  8. ^ "Merriam-Websterdefinition"​. WordNet 1.7.1. Retrieved 2014-03-19. A noun formed from a verb (such as the '-ing' form of an English verb when used as a noun).
  9. ^ Ergin, Muharrem. Üniversiteler İçin Türk Dili. s. 310. İstanbul: Bayrak Yayım, 2009.
  10. ^ Using Russian: A Guide to Contemporary Usage, By Derek Offord, page xxiii
  11. ^ Oxford Essential Russian Dictionary, OUP Oxford, 13 May 2010, page 46
  12. ^​
  13. ^ Улучшим наш русский! Часть 1, By Дел Филлипс, Наталья Волкова, page 171
  14. ^Деепричастие/ru/en/
  15. ^​
  16. ^ F T Wood, 1961, Nesfield's English Grammar, Composition and Usage, MacMillan and Company Ltd., p 78 "
  17. ^ Quirk, Raymond, Sidney Greembaum, Geoffrey Leech and Jan Scartvik, 1985, A Comprehensive Grammar of Contemporary English, Longman, London ISBN 0582517346, pp 1290-1293
  18. ^ Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521431468. pp 1220-1222
  19. ^ Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finnegan, 1999, Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Harlowe, Perason Education Limited. pp 201-202.
  20. ^ Biber et al p. 750
  21. ^ H. W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 1926
  22. ^ Penguin guide to plain English, Harry Blamires (Penguin Books Ltd., 2000) ISBN 978-0-14-051430-8 pp. 144–146
  23. ^ Quirk et al pp. 1290–1291
  24. ^ Collins COBUILD Grammar Patterns 1: Verbs. 1996. London. Harper Collins. ISBN 0003750620. p 61
  25. ^ Los, Bettelou. A Historical Syntax of English. 2015, Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press. pp 129-138
  26. ^ COBUILD (1996) pp 83-86
  27. ^ COBUILD (1996) pp 81-82
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