The Ennahda Movement
: حركة النهضة
French: Mouvement Ennahdha
), also known as Renaissance Party
or simply Ennahda
, is a self-defined "Muslim democratic
political party in Tunisia. Founded as "The Movement of Islamic Tendency" in 1981,
Ennahda was inspired by the Abul A'la Maududi
and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
it has also been called by Robert F. Worth "the mildest and most democratic Islamist
party in history". Rached Ghannouchi
is the movement's founder and has remained its president for 38 years without interruption.
In 2018, lawyers and politicians accused Ennahda of forming a secret organisation that has infiltrated security forces and the judiciary. They also claimed the party was behind the 2013 assassinations of Chokri Belaid
and Mohamed Brahmi
, two progressive
political leaders of the leftist Popular Front
electoral alliance. Ennahda denied the accusations and accused the Popular Front of slandering and distorting Ennahda. It said that the Popular Front was exploiting the two assassination cases and using blood as an excuse to reach the government after failing to do so through democratic means.
Succeeding a group known as Islamic Action
, the party was founded under the name of "The Movement of Islamic Tendency" (French: Mouvement de la Tendance Islamique
: حركة الاتجاه الإسلامي
Ḥarakatu l-Ittijāhu l-Islāmī
) in 1981.
After the Tunisian bread riots
in January 1984 the government suspected the MTI of involvement in the disturbances, and arrested many of its supporters. The MTI leaders had encouraged their followers to join in the riots, but the government produced no proof that they had organized them. The persecution of the MTI enhanced its reputation as an organization committed to helping the people.
In 1989, it changed its name to Ḥarakat Ennahḍha
The party has been described as one of many parties/movements in Muslim states "that grew up alongside the Iranian revolution
and it was originally inspired by the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood
The group supported the 1979 takeover
of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, claiming that "It was not an embassy, but a spy centre".
Their influence in 1984 was such that, according to Robin Wright, a British journalist living in Tunisia, stated that the Islamic Tendency was "the single most threatening opposition force in Tunis. One word from the fundamentalists will close down the campus or start a demonstration."
The group, or some of its members, were also responsible for the bombing of some tourist hotels in the 1980s.
Although traditionally shaped by the thinking of Islamist
thinkers Sayyid Qutb
, the party began to be described as "moderate Islamist" in the 1980s when it advocated democracy and a "Tunisian" form of Islamism
recognizing political pluralism and a "dialogue" with the West. Its main leader Rached Ghannouchi, has been criticized for calling for jihad against Israel
and "openly threatened U.S. interests, supported Iraq against the United States and campaigned against the Arab-Israeli peace process".
Others described him as "widely considered ... a moderate who believes that Islam and democracy are compatible".
In the 1989 elections, President Ben Ali banned the party from participating but allowed some members to run as independents. These received between 10% and 17% of the vote nationally according to official figures of the regime,
and despite what some observers thought was "widespread fraud".
Allegedly surprised by Ennahda's popularity,
two years later Ben Ali banned the movement and jailing 25,000 activists. Ennahda activists attacked the ruling party headquarters, killing one person and splashing acid in the faces of several others.
Many Ennahda members went into exile.
Ennahda's newspaper Al-Fajr
was banned in Tunisia and its editor, Hamadi Jebali, was sentenced to sixteen years imprisonment in 1992 for membership in the un-authorized organisation and for "aggression with the intention of changing the nature of the state". The Arabic language television station El Zaytouna
is believed to be connected with Ennahda. The party was strongly repressed in the late 1980s and early 1990s and almost completely absent from Tunisia from 1992 until the post-revolutionary period.
"Tens of thousands" of Islamists were imprisoned or exiled during this time.
Tunisian Revolution and the rise to power
Return to Tunisia's political scene
In the wake of the Tunisian Revolution
, a few thousand
people welcomed Rached Ghannouchi on his return to Tunis. The party was described as moving "quickly to carve out a place" in the Tunisian political scene, "taking part in demonstrations and meeting with the prime minister."
Earlier Ghannouchi announced that the party had "signed a shared statement of principles with the other Tunisian opposition groups". The New York Times
reported mixed predictions among Tunisians for the party's success, with some believing the party would enjoy support in the inland part of Tunisia, but others saying Tunisia was too secular for the Ennahda Party to gain broad support.
On 22 January 2011, in an interview with Al Jazeera TV, Rached Ghannouchi confirmed that he is against an Islamic Caliphate, and supports democracy instead, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir
, (whom Ghannouchi accuses of exporting a distorted understanding of Islam).
Members of the Ennahda Party, 2011
The party was legalised on 1 March 2011.
A March 2011 opinion poll found the Ennahda Party ranked first among political parties in Tunisia with 29%, followed by the Progressive Democratic Party
at 12.3% and the Ettajdid Movement
It was also found that 61.4% of Tunisians "ignore political parties in the country."
This success has caused some secularists to endorse the postponing of elections, and "frightening many secularists and women who fear for their place in the new Tunisia."
Ennahda's leaders have been described as "highly sensitive to the fears among other Tunisians and in the West about Islamist movements", conscious of the bloody Algerian Civil War
between Islamists and the government and the divisions in Palestine between Hamas and secularists.
On 18 May spokesman Samir Dilou
stated again in an interview: "We do not want a theocracy. We want a democratic state, that is characterised by the idea of liberty. The people are to decide themselves how they live. ... We are not an Islamist party, we are an Islamic party, that also gets its bearings by the principles of the Quran." Moreover, he named Turkey a model, regarding the relation of state and religion, and compared the party's Islamic democratic
ideology to Christian democracy
in Italy and Germany.
A foreign journalist attending Ennahda rallies in Tunisia noted enthusiasm for the Palestinian cause and the slogan "no to American military bases, no to foreign interventions."
On a press conference in June 2011 the Ennahda Party presented itself as modern and democratic and introduced a female member who wore a headscarf and a member who didn't, and announced the launching of a youth wing. Süddeutsche Zeitung
noted that, unlike leftist parties of Tunisia, the moderately Islamist party is not against a market economy.
2011 Constituent Assembly election
Ahead of the Constituent Assembly election
on 23 October 2011, the party conducted a costly electoral campaign, extensively providing potential voters, especially from the lower class, with promotional gifts, meals for the end of Ramadan
feasts, and sponsoring events.
Therefore, it has been accused of receiving considerable financial contributions from abroad, namely from the Arab states of the Gulf
On 23 October 2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly election
, the first free election in the country's history with a turn out of 51.1% of all eligible voters,
the Ennahda Party won 37.04% of the vote (more than the next four biggest vote-getters combined) and 89 of the 217 seats,
making it by far the strongest party in the legislature.
According to scholar Noah Feldman
, rather than being a "puzzling disappointment for the forces of democracy", the Ennahda victory is a natural outcome of inevitable differences between revolution's leaders and the fact that "Tunisians see Islam as a defining feature of their personal and political identities." Rached Ghannouchi, the party's leader was one of the few "voices of resistance to the regime in the last 20 years."
2011–2014 Troika government
This section needs expansion
with: major events 2011–2014. You can help by adding to it
. (November 2014)
Ennahda was part of the Troika
government, along with Ettakatol
, and CPR
The government was criticized for mediocre economic performance, not stimulating the tourism industry, poor relations with Tunisia's biggest trading partner France. In particular it was criticized for not monitoring and controlling radical Islamists (such as Ansar al-Sharia
) who were blamed for, among other things, attempting to Islamise the country, the 2012 ransacking and burning of the American embassy, and the assassination of two leftist politicians Chokri Belaid
(in February 2013) and Mohamed Brahmi
(in July 2013). An anti-Islamist backlash led to the 2013–14 Tunisian political crisis
The Troika government faced many challenges domestically and regionally including reviving an economy that had contracted by 1.9% after the Revolution,
rising unemployment, managing the influx of over a million Libyan refugees due to the Libyan war,
and a wave of social protests. The rise of Salafism also posed a growing security threat. The Troika government reasserted state control over 80 percent of the mosques that had been taken over by extremists in the chaotic period immediately after the revolution.
On 19 February 2013, following the assassination of Chokri Belaid
and ensuing protests, Prime Minister Hamadi Jebali resigned from his office,
a move which was deemed unprecedented by analysts.
The move followed his attempt to form a technocratic
government. Ennahda, however, rejected his resignation insisting on a government of politicians and Jebali formally resigned after a meeting with President Moncef Marzouki saying it was in the best interests of the country. He said: "I promised if my initiative did not succeed I would resign as head of the government, and this is what I am doing following my meeting with the president. Today there is a great disappointment among the people and we must regain their trust and this resignation is a first step."
Party leader Rached Ghannouchi
then suggested a government of politicians and technocrats, while Jebali suggested that if he was tasked with forming a new government it would have to include non-partisan ministers and a variety of political representation that would lead to a new election.
Unnamed opposition figures welcomed the resignation. The same day, Standard & Poor's
downgraded Tunisia's credit rating.
However, the IMF
said that it was still in talks for a US$1.78 billion loan to the country.
On 14 March 2013, Ali Larayedh
was elected as Ennahda's new Secretary General and officially took over as Tunisia's new Prime Minister.
Ennahda ceded control of key ministries to technocrats, including foreign affairs, defence and the interior. Ennahda made up 28% of the government, down from 40% in the previous coalition, with independents forming 48% of the new cabinet.
After stabilization of the political situation, the assassination of Mohamed Brahmi
, member of the Assembly, in July 2013, led to turmoil and political deadlock. Following a National Dialogue
and recognizing the continued need for national unity, on 5 October a "road map" was signed,
and in January 2014, Ennahda, CPR and Ettakattol stepped down and handed power to a caretaker technocratic government, led by Mehdi Jomaa
, to prepare and organize the second democratic elections. Ghanouchi worked with secularist leader Beji Caid Essebsi
to forge a compromise agreement, both were heavily criticized by their party rank and file and Ghanouchi received agreement from the Ennahda shura council after threatening to resign.
Outside observers called it a "model transition".
In January 2014, after the new Tunisian Constitution was adopted by popular vote, Ennahda came second in the October 2014 parliamentary election
with 27.79% of the popular vote and formed a coalition government with the larger secularist party Nidaa Tounes
Ennahda did not put forward or endorse any candidate for the November 2014 presidential election
Ghanouchi "hinted broadly" that he personally supported Beji Caid Essebsi,
(who won with over 55% of the vote).
During its first ten years of existence, presidency of Ennahda changed very often, while its leading figure Rached Ghannouchi
was jailed until 1984 and then again in 1987. After going to exile he remained the party's "intellectual leader".
In November 1991 he also took back the formal presidency.
Following is a list of all former presidents of the party:
- June–July 1981: Abderraouf Bouabi
- July–October 1981: Fadhel Beldi
- October 1981 – August 1984: Hamadi Jebali
- November 1984 – August 1987: Rached Ghannouchi
- August 1987 – April 1988: Salah Karker
- April–October 1988: Jamel Aoui
- October 1988 – March 1991: Sadok Chourou
- March 1991: Mohamed Kaloui
- March 1991: Mohamed Akrout
- April–June 1991: Mohamed Ben Salem
- June–September 1991: Habib Ellouze
- October 1991: Noureddine Arbaoui
- October –November 1991: Walid Bennani
- since November 1991: Rached Ghannouchi
In the wake of the compromise worked out by Ghanouchi and Beji Caid Essebsi
, the party (or at least its leader), has been complimented for it willingness to compromise,
protecting Tunisia's democracy and civil peace from Egyptian style violence. However some Islamists see the party as having lost an opportunity to reverse the "social framework" of secularism in the country.
The party is generally described as socially centrist with mild support for economic liberalism and has been compared to European Christian democrats
However, liberals accuse its leaders of "doublespeak
" in this regard.
The party wishes to revise the strong secular, Arab nationalist
, and socialist
principles that predominate among the other parties, and instead allow Islam
into public life and be more accommodating to other viewpoints such as closer relations with the West and greater economic freedom. The party currently rejects radical Islamism
as a form of governance appropriate for Tunisia, nevertheless Islam remains an important feature of the party;
in a debate with a secular opponent Ghannouchi stated, "Why are we put in the same place as a model that is far from our thought, like the Taliban or the Saudi model, while there are other successful Islamic models that are close to us, like the Turkish, the Malaysian, and the Indonesian models; models that combine Islam and modernity?"
Political scientist Riadh Sidaoui explains that the Ennahda leader models his approach on the moderate Islamism
; he says: "The leadership was forced into exile in London for a long time [because of harassment by Tunisian police] and understood about the need to have a balanced outlook... No one wants a repeat of the 1991 Algerian scenario."
On 13 November 2011, the party's secretary-general Hamadi Jebali
held a joint rally in Sousse
together with a parliamentary deputy of the Palestinian Hamas
party. Jebali referred to the occasion as "a divine moment in a new state, and in, hopefully, a 6th caliphate," and that "the liberation of Tunisia will, God willing, bring about the liberation of Jerusalem." While the tone was said do be sharply in contrast to official statements of the party,
Jebali was appointed Prime Minister of Tunisia
a mere month later.
When in January 2012, Hamas leadership arrived for another visit to Tunisia, people at the airport were heard shouting "Kill the Jews." Tunisian Jews said Ennahda leadership was slow to condemn the shouting.
of the Tunisian Pole Democratique Moderniste
political bloc complained to a foreign journalist that Ennahda appears "soft" on television, "but in the mosques, it is completely different. Some of them are calling for jihad
The general manager of Al Arabiya
wrote an editorial expressing the opinion that Ennahda is fundamentally a conservative Islamist party with a moderate leadership.
Ennahda has been described as a mixed bag with moderate top layers and a base defined by "a distinctly fundamentalist tilt".
Although the party has expressed support for women's rights and equality of civil rights between men and women, the party chose to place only two women at first position out of 33 regional lists for the Tunisian Constituent Assembly
. Ghannouchi noted that women have not held any de facto leadership positions under Ben Ali's governments and that it is a "reality" that only a few women are currently suited to leadership posts.
The party is more moderate in urbanized areas such as Tunis
, where secular and socially liberal beliefs predominate. However, Ennahda's compromises and abandoning of political Islam
has made their core supporters lose faith in them.
Perhaps as a result, in 2018, the party declared that it would vote down a bill that would end gender discrimination
and implement inheritance
equality between men and women,
justifying its position because the bill proposed by the Tunisian president Beji Caid Essebsi
is against the Quran
and the beliefs of Tunisian people. The position sparked outrage among Tunisian progressives
and liberals who accused the party of lying about its embrace of democracy, and turning back to its Islamic radical origins.
According to a 2020 study, members of parliament in the Ennahda movement who had lived abroad in secular democracies had more liberal voting records than their counterparts who had only lived in Tunisia.
The party and its leaders have taken very hostile positions against homosexuality.
In 2012, Samir Dilou
, then minister of human rights and leader of Ennahda, said the LGBT people have no right to free speech
, and they should respect the religion
and heritage of Tunisia
, he also said that homosexuality is a sexual perversion and that it's a mental illness
said that it was deeply disappointed by the comments of Dilou, especially that he's responsible for the respect of human rights
The presidential candidate of Ennahda in 2019
, Abdelfattah Mourou
, stated that homosexuality is a personal choice and that we must respected individual freedoms, but at the same time he said that he announced his support for the continue of criminalization of homosexuality in Tunisia
, where sodomy is criminalized by 3 years of imprisonment
In 2021, Fathi Layouni
, Ennahda mayor of Le Kram
, declared to a local radio station that the natural place for homosexuals is either prisons or psychiatric hospitals
and that they are forbidden from entering his city, he also demanded the closure of the Association Shams
, which is a Tunisian organization for LGBT rights.
- ^ "Ennahda feiert sich als Wahlsieger: Tunesien hat den Islam gewählt – Politik". Stern.De. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- ^ Kaminski, Matthew (26 October 2011). "On the Campaign Trail With Islamist Democrats". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ "Ennahda leader Ghannouchi: 'We are Muslim democrats, not Islamists'". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ^ Agence France-Presse. "Erdogan tells Tunisians that Islam and democracy can work". Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- ^ "The word حركة — movement — is the official term used by this political party". Ennahdha. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- ^ "Ennahda is "Leaving" Political Islam". Wilson Center. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ^ "Muslim Democrats? Tunisia's Delicate Experiment". Foreign Policy Blogs. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ^ "Ennahda leader Ghannouchi: 'We are Muslim democrats, not Islamists'". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- ^ a b Teyeb, Mourad (27 January 2011), "What role for the Islamists?", Al-Ahram Weekly, archived from the original on 19 January 2012, retrieved 6 November 2011
- ^ a b c Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, Simon and Schuster, (2001), p.194
- ^ a b Lewis, Aidan (25 October 2011). "Profile: Tunisia's Ennahda Party". BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 198. ISBN 9780374710712. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ "Tunisia's Islamists to form party". Al Jazeera. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- ^ a b c Decree of 23 Nov. 2011 about the Final Results of the National Constituent Assembly Elections (in Arabic), 2011, archived from the original on 18 November 2011
- ^ a b c Feldman, Noah (30 October 2011). "Islamists' Victory in Tunisia a Win for Democracy: Noah Feldman". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- ^ a b c d e Tunisia's New Ennahda Marc Lynch 29 June 2011
- ^ Bay, Austin. "Tunisia and its Islamists: The Revolution, Phase Two". Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- ^ Totten, Michael. "No to America and No to Radical Islam". Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- ^ a b Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 199–204. ISBN 9780374710712. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ Prime Minister Larayedh Announces Resignation, Tunisia Live, 9 January 2014, archived from the original on 20 January 2014, retrieved 27 January 2014
- ^ a b "Tunisia's main Islamist party to stay out of presidential election". Reuters. 8 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- ^ "Tunisia: Ennahda denies formation of secret organisation and condemns attempts to link it to terrorism". Middle East Monitor. 5 October 2018.
- ^ Tunisian PM candidate: face of moderate Islam, Al Arabiya, 26 October 2011, archived from the original on 29 October 2011, retrieved 6 November 2011
- ^ Gana, Nouri (2013). The Making of the Tunisian Revolution: Contexts, Architects, Prospects. Oxford University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7486-9103-6. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- ^ Roy, Oliver; Sfeir, Antoine (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. Columbia University Press. pp. 354–5.
- ^ The New York Times, 9 January 1984
- ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, Simon and Schuster, (2001), p.194. author interview 29 November 1984
- ^ a b c In a Worried Corner of Tunis Joshua Hammer NYRoB 27 October 2011. Joshua Hammer. (text behind paywall)
- ^ Merley, Steven (13 October 2014). "Tunisian Muslim Brotherhood Leader Speaks in Washington; Rachid Ghannouchi Has Long History of Extremism And Support For Terrorism". Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- ^ "Rachid Ghannouchi". Global Muslim Brotherhood Daily Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- ^ a b c d "Factbox: Who is Tunisia's Islamist leader Rachid Ghannouchi?". Reuters. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- ^ Leveau, Rémy, 'La Tunisie du Président Ben Ali: Equilibre interne et environnement arabe,' Maghreb-Machrek No. 124 (1989), p10
- ^ Rajaa Basly. "The Future of al-Nahda in Tunisia". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ "Rached Ghannouchi de retour à Tunis après 20 ans d'exil : un accueil exceptionnel". Leaders. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- ^ As Tunisians Cheer Egypt, Islamist Leader Returns Archived 14 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, NPR, 30 January 2011
- ^ a b David Kirkpatrick; Kareem Fahim (18 January 2011). "More Officials Quit in Tunisia Amid Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- ^ "Rached Ghannouchi against Islamic Caliphate and against Hizb ut-Tahrir but supports democracy". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016.
- ^ "Tunisia's Islamist group legalized after 30 years". Al Arabiya. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- ^ a b "Tunisia: Political Parties, Unknown to 61% of Tunisians". ANSAMED.info. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ "The Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy Holds a Discussion on "What Kind of Democracy for the New Tunisia: Islamic or Secular?"". BNET CBS Business Network. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ "Washington ready to play soft Islam card". Maghreb Confidential. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ ""We do not want a theocracy" (Wir wollen keinen Gottesstaat)". Deutschlandradio Kultur (in German). 18 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ Chimelli, Rudolph (4 June 2011). "Cosmopolitan Islamists (Weltoffene Islamisten)". Süddeutsche Zeitung (German). Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ a b Kirkpatrick, David D. (22 October 2011). "Financing Questions Shadow Tunisian Vote, First of Arab Spring". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- ^ Gerges, Fawaz (June 2012). "The Many Voices of Political Islam" (PDF). The Majalla. 1573: 14–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- ^ "Tunisia coalition agrees top government posts". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- ^ Ayari, Sadok (22 November 2011). "Mustapha Ben Jaafar Elected President of the Constituent Assembly". Tunisia Live. Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- ^ Mzioudet, Houda (14 December 2011). "Ennahda's Jebali Appointed as Tunisian Prime Minister". Tunisia Live. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- ^ "Tunisia coalition agrees top government posts". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- ^ "EUR-Lex – 52013SC0498 – EN – EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- ^ Gall, Carlotta (9 September 2014). "Libyan Refugees Stream to Tunisia for Care, and Tell of a Home That Is Torn Apart". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- ^ Abdessalem, Rafik (August 2015). "Al-Monitor Questions" (PDF).
- ^ "Tunisia: Prime Minister Hamadi Jebali resigns after the failure of his firm apolitical". lexmpress. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- ^ a b c Luck, Taylor (30 August 2016). "How one Tunisian party is separating Islam from politics". The Christian Science Monitor. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- ^ a b "Tunisia PM resigns after cabinet initiative fails to form a technocratic government". India Today. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- ^ Angelique Chrisafis and agencies (20 February 2013). "Tunisian PM resigns sparking credit rating downgrade". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- ^ "IMF says still in touch with Tunisia on loan". Reuters. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- ^ Samti, Farah (22 February 2013). "Ali Larayedh Tunisia's New Prime Minister". Tunisia Alive. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- ^ "Tunisia PM Ali Larayedh unveils new government". BBC News. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- ^ Ameur, Naim. "Tunisia's Ambitious Roadmap". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 205, 207. ISBN 9780374710712. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ Markey, Patrick; El Yaakoubi, Aziz (9 January 2014). "Tunisian premier resigns for caretaker government, protests hit south". Reuters. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 219. ISBN 9780374710712. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ "Rached Ghannouchi: un si long règne". Sami Ben Abdallah Blogueur de Tunisie. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ a b Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. pp. 220–1. ISBN 9780374710712. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ Osman, Tarek (2016). "4". Islamism: What it Means for the Middle East and the World. Yale University Press. p. 240. ISBN 9780300197723. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- ^ "Tunisian Women Demonstrate to Protect Their Rights". Fox News. 2 November 2011.
- ^ "Ennahda and the Separation of Politics from Religion". Fanack.com. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- ^ From Arab Spring to post-Islamist summer thehindu.com 12 October 2011
- ^ Bradley, Simon (26 October 2011). "Moderate Islamists set for Tunisian victory". swissinfo.ch.
- ^ Benoit-Lavelle, Mischa (15 November 2011). "Hamas Representative Addresses Tunisian Political Rally". tunisia-live.net. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- ^ Shirayanagi, Kouichi (11 January 2012). "Tunisian Jewish Community Horrified, Demanding Quick Government Response in Aftermath of Haniyeh Visit". tunisia-live.net. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- ^ "Ghannouchi, alcohol and the bikini". Alarabiya.net. 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ Prince, Rob (21 February 2012). "Tunisia at a Crossroads". FPIF. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (20 October 2011). "Tunisia's women fear veil over Islamist intentions in first vote of Arab spring". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- ^ "Tunisia: Ennahda Rejects Inheritance Equality". Human Rights Watch. 6 September 2018.
- ^ Grewal, Sharan (2020). "From Islamists to Muslim Democrats: The Case of Tunisia's Ennahda". American Political Science Review. 114 (2): 519–535. doi:10.1017/S0003055419000819. ISSN 0003-0554.
- ^ http://www.slateafrique.com/83041/tunisie-ministre-droits-de-lhomme-homophobie
- ^ http://www.kapitalis.com/politique/8528-amnesty-international-invite-samir-dilou-a-revenir-sur-ses-propos-sur-lhomosexualite.html
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ennahda
Last edited on 20 April 2021, at 13:54
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.