are the focus of European ethnology
, the field of anthropology
related to the various indigenous groups
that reside in the nations of Europe
. Groups may be defined by common genetic ancestry, common language, or both. According to the German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa
co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct indigenous peoples of Europe
, of which 33 form the ethnic majority
population in at least one sovereign state
, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities
. The total number of national or linguistic minority
populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.
are the most populous among Europeans, with a population over 134 million.
There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group
" and "nationality
". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group
and ethno-linguistic group
, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.
Distribution of major languages of Europe
Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million (as of 2010), close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages
, these being;
- Romance, including Aromanian, Arpitan, Catalan, Corsican, French and other Langues d'oïl, Friulian, Galician, Istro-Romanian, Italian, Ladino, Megleno-Romanian, Occitan, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sardinian and Spanish.
- Germanic, including Danish, Dutch, English, Faroese, Frisian, German, Icelandic, Limburgish, Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Scots, Swedish, and Yiddish.Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations.
- Slavic, including Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Russian, Rusyn, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Sorbian and Ukrainian.
Three stand-alone Indo-European
languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language families;
In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European
languages of Europe, including;
- Baltic, including Latvian, Lithuanian, Samogitian and Latgalian.
- Celtic languages, including Breton, Cornish, Irish, Manx, Welsh, and Scottish Gaelic.
- Iranic, mainly Ossetian in the Caucasus, as well as Kurdish in Anatolia.
- Indo-Aryan is represented by the Romani language spoken by Roma people of eastern Europe, and is at root related to the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indian subcontinent.
Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families
on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:
- Uralic languages, including Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Komi, Livonian, Mari, Mordvin, Sámi, Samoyedic, and Udmurt.
- Turkic languages, including Azeri, Bashkir, Chuvash, Gagauz, Kazakh, Nogai, Tatar, and Turkish.
- Semitic languages, including: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (spoken in parts of eastern Turkey and the Caucasus by Assyrian Christians), Hebrew (spoken by some Jewish populations), and Maltese. Arabic is spoken by some migrant communities from the Middle East and North Africa.
- Kartvelian languages (also known as South Caucasian languages), including Georgian, Laz, Mingrelian, Svan, and Zan.
- Northwest Caucasian languages, including Abkhaz, Abaza, Adyghe, Circassian, Kabardian, and Ubykh.
- Northeast Caucasian languages, including Avar, Chechen, Dargin, Ingush, Lak, and Lezgian.
- Language isolates: Basque, spoken in the Basque regions of Spain and France, is an isolate language, the only one in Europe, and is believed to be unrelated to any other language, living or extinct.
- Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk, spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia.
- Aegean: the Greek tribes, Pelasgians, and Anatolians.
- Balkans: the Illyrians (List of ancient tribes in Illyria), Dacians, and Thracians.
- Italian peninsula: the Camunni, Rhaetians, Lepontii, Adriatic Veneti, Gauls, Ligurians, Etruscans, Italic peoples and Greek and Phoenician colonies in its neighboring Italian islands.
- Western/Central Europe: the Celts (list of peoples of Gaul, List of Celtic tribes), Rhaetians and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii and Balts.
- Iberian peninsula: the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberians, Celts, Celtiberians, Lusitani, Basques, Aquitani, Turdetani, Occitans) and Greek and Phoenician coastal Mediterranean colonies.
- Sardinia and Corsica: the ancient Sardinians and Corsicans (also known as Nuragic and Torrean peoples), comprising the Corsi, Balares, Ilienses tribes and Phoenician colonies.
- British Isles: the Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts/Priteni.
- Northern Europe: the Baltic Finns, Germanic peoples (list of Germanic peoples) and Normans.
- Sicily: the Italic Sicels and Morgetes, the Sicani, Elymians and Greek and Phoenician colonies.
- Eastern Europe: the Veneti (Early Slavs), Scythians and Sarmatians.
- Armenian Highlands/Anatolia: the Armenians.
Map showing the distribution of Slavic
tribes between the 7th-9th centuries AD.
Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:
- Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean (including regions in Spain, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus and the Aegean), from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic War in 146 BC.
- Assyrian conquest of Cyprus, Southern Caucasus (including parts of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) and Cilicia during the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC).
- Iranian influence: Achaemenid control of Thrace (512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians (possible Iranians), Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes.
- The Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe (Gaul) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews in Europe).
- The Hunnic Empire (5th century AD), converged with the Barbarian invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire.
- The Slavic migrations (6th century AD), and the subsequent split into Eastern Slavs, Western Slavs and Southern Slavs.
- Avar Khaganate (c.560s–800).
- The Bulgars (or Proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs.
- The Magyars (Hungarians), an Uralic-speaking people, and the Turkic Pechenegs and Khazars, arrived in Europe in about the 8th century (see Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin).
- The Arabs conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily (establishing the Emirate of Sicily in 831, from which they would be expelled in 1224), some places along the coast of southern Italy, Malta, Greek Empire and most of Iberia (founding a polity known as Al-Andalus in 711, ruled also by Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and the Almohads, from whose domain they would be expelled in 1492).
- Exodus of Maghreb Christians.
- The western Kipchaks known as Cumans entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century.
- The Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars.
- The Romani people arrived during the Late Middle Ages.
- The Mongol Kalmyks arrived in Kalmykia in the 17th century.
History of European ethnography
The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism
, and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist
and Nazi propaganda
, so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide
The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski
, who emphasized the importance of fieldwork.
The emergence of population genetics
further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe
found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east–west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the indigenous Basques
from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."
The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.
The member states of the Council of Europe
in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states had signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France
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. You can help by adding to it
. (June 2021)
Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have migrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago. However, the vast majority arrived more recently, mostly in the 20th and 21st centuries. Often, they come from former colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish empires.
- Western Asians
- Turks: There were 10 million Turks living in Western Europe and the Balkans in 1997 (excluding Northern Cyprus and Turkey). By 2010 there was up to 15 million Turks living in the European Union (i.e. excluding Turkish communities in Turkey as well as several Balkan countries and former USSR countries which are not in the EU). According to Dr Araks Pashayan 10 million "Euro-Turks" alone were living in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Belgium in 2012. In addition, there is 500,000 Turks in the UK (2011 estimate), 500,000 in Austria (2011 estimate) 150,000 in Sweden, 120,000 in Switzerland, 70,000 in Denmark (2008 estimate), as well as growing communities in Italy, Lichtenstein, Finland and Spain. In addition, over one million Turks were living in the Balkans in 2019 (especially in Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Romania), and approximately 400,000 Meskhetian Turks were living in the Eastern European regions of the Post-Soviet states (i.e. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) in 2014.
- Jews: approx. 2.0 million, mostly in France, the UK, Russia and Germany. They are descended from the Israelites of the Middle East (Southwest Asia), originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
- Ashkenazi Jews: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived from Israel via southern Europe in the Roman era and settled in France and Germany towards the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust wiped out the vast majority during World War II and forced most to flee, with many of them going to Israel.
- Sephardi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France. They arrived via Spain and Portugal in the pre-Roman and Roman eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries.
- Mizrahi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France, via Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East.
- Italqim: approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy, since the 2nd century BC.
- Romaniotes: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece, with communities dating at least from the 1st century AD.
- Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. They arrived in Crimea in the Middle Ages.
- Assyrians: mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well as in Russia, Armenia, Denmark and Great Britain (see Assyrian diaspora). Assyrians have been present in Eastern Turkey since the Bronze Age (circa 2000 BCE).
- Kurds: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and Turkey.
- Iraqi diaspora: mostly in the UK, Germany and Sweden, and can be of varying ethnic origin, including Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Shabaks, Mandeans, Turks, Kawliya and Yezidis.
- Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.
- Syrian diaspora: Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden and can be of varying ethnic origin, including; Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Arameans, Turks, Mhallami and Yezidis.
- North Africans (North African Arabs, Egyptian Copts, and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The bulk of North African migrants are Moroccans, although France also has a large number of Algerians, and others may be from Egypt (including Copts), Libya and Tunisia.
- Horn Africans (Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans, Djiboutians, and the Northern Sudanese): approx. 700,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy. Majority arrived to Europe as refugees. Proportionally few live in Italy despite former colonial ties, most live in the Nordic countries.
- Sub-Saharan Africans (many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, Afro-Latinos and others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK and France, with smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and elsewhere.
- Latin Americans: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain and to a lesser extent Italy and the UK. See also Latin American Britons (80,000 Latin American born in 2001).
- Brazilians: around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each, and 50,000 in Germany (mainly German-Brazilians).
- Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany and the Netherlands.
- Venezuelans: around 520,000 mostly in Spain (200,000), Portugal (100,000), France (30,000), Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000), Italy (5,000) and the Netherlands (1,000).
- South Asians: approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany and France.
- Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely), dispersed throughout Europe but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans area, they are of ancestral South Asian and European descent, originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
- Indians: approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Italy, in Germany and smaller numbers in Ireland.
- Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy, but also in Norway and Sweden.
- Bangladeshi residing in Europe estimated at over 500,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy.
- Sri Lankans: approx. 200,000, mainly in the UK and in Italy.
- Nepalese: approx. 50,000 in the UK.
- Afghans, about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s.
- Southeast Asians
- Filipinos: above 1 million, mostly in Italy, the UK, France, Germany, and Spain.
- Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands, Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese in France and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France, together with Burmese, Malaysian, Singaporean, Timorese and Laotian migrants. See also Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic.
- East Asians
- Chinese: approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands.
- Japanese: mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf, Germany.
- Koreans: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France and Germany. See also Koryo-saram.
- Mongolians in Germany.
- North Americans
- European diaspora – Australians, New Zealanders, South Africans (mostly White South Africans of Afrikaner and British descent), and white Namibians, Zimbabweans, Kenyans, Malawians and Zambians mainly in the UK, together with white Angolans and Mozambicans, mainly of Portuguese descent.
- Pacific Islanders: A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian origin in mainland France, Fijians in the United Kingdom from Fiji and Māori in the United Kingdom of the Māori people of New Zealand, a small number of Tongans and Samoans, also in the United Kingdom.
- Amerindians and Inuit, a scant few in the European continent of American Indian ancestry (often Latin Americans in Spain, France and the UK; Inuit in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with local European women.
Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy
of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth
from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents
, the descendants of Shem
and those of Ham
. Identification of Europeans as "Japhetites
" is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages
The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus, with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus.From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi, and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarincgi. The whole of Europe was subdivided into these tribes.
The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations.
European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".
Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.
Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe.
One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:
- A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity, the Renaissance and its Humanism, the political thinking of the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution, and the developments of Modernity, including all types of socialism;
- A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism during the "Great Divergence";
- A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty of the individual;
- A plurality of states with different political orders, which are condemned to live together in one way or another;
- Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.
Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations".
The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world
. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary
principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon
The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas
, and Australasia
, and is not restricted to Europe.
Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results
Since the High Middle Ages
, most of Europe has been dominated by Christianity
. There are three major denominations: Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
, with Protestantism
restricted mostly to Northern Europe
, and Orthodoxy to East
and South Slavic
, and Georgia
. The Armenian Apostolic Church
, part of the Oriental Church
, is also in Europe – another branch of Christianity (world's oldest National Church). Catholicism
, while typically centered in Western Europe
, also has a very significant following in Central Europe
(especially among the Germanic
, Western Slavic
peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland
(with some in Great Britain).
Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians
Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer
, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union
, accounting for 72% of the EU
As of 2010 Catholics
were the largest Christian
group in Europe
, accounting for more than 48% of European Christians. The second-largest Christian group in Europe were the Orthodox
, who made up 32% of European Christians. About 19% of European Christians were part of the Protestant
is the largest Christian country in Europe by population, followed by Germany
has some tradition in the Balkans
and the Caucasus
due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire
in the 16th to 19th centuries, as well as earlier though discontinued long-term presence in much of Iberia
as well as Sicily
account for the majority of the populations in Albania
, Northern Cyprus
(controlled by Turks
), and Bosnia and Herzegovina
. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe. Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities
in Europe, including the Tatars
of the Middle Volga
and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens
and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe
have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum
, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%),
while the total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).
has a long history in Europe
, but is a small minority religion, with France
(1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is composed primarily of two groups
, the Ashkenazi
and the Sephardi
. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century
, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal
at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant
where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the Balkans since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust
and emigration (including Aliyah
, as well as emigration to America
) in the 20th century. The Jewish population of Europe in 2010 was estimated to be approximately 1.4 million (0.2% of European population) or 10% of the world's Jewish population.
In the 21st century, France
has the largest Jewish population
followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia and Ukraine.
In modern times, significant secularization
since the 20th century, notably in secularist France
, Estonia and the Czech Republic. Currently, distribution of theism
in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic and Estonia. The 2005 Eurobarometer
found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God. According to a Pew Research Center
Survey in 2012 the Religiously Unaffiliated
) make up about 18.2% of the European
population in 2010.
According to the same Survey the Religiously Unaffiliated make up the majority of the population in only two European countries: Czech Republic (76%) and Estonia (60%).
" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union
as a result of the gradual process of European integration
taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War
, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE
following the 1990s Paris Charter
has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s.
From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union
even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan
implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national
European ethnic groups by sovereign state
Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one[a]
These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Armenia and Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium, or even the marginal majority in Bosnia and Herzegovina
is a multiethnic state
in which no group forms a majority.
has original text related to this article:
- ^ Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the Albanians (in Albania and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo). Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages, French and German, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch. Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians, Czechs/Slovaks and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.
- ^ Including the European portions of Russia, not including Turkey and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Vatican City, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.
- ^ Percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
- ^ Located in Asia, but sometimes considered part of Europe because of cultural ties, see boundaries of Europe.
- ^ a b c d e Non-European ethnic group
- ^ a b c d Transcontinental country, see boundaries of Europe.
- ^ Percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity.
- ^ partially recognized state, see international recognition of Kosovo.
- ^ a b c There is an ongoing controversy in Moldova over whether Moldovans' self-identification constitute a subgroup of Romanians or a separate ethnic group.
- ^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one parent who is born in Norway.
- ^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami. Therefore, exact numbers are not possible.
- ^ Excluding Kosovo
- ^ Ethnicity group introduced with the ten-year United Kingdom census of 2011 by the Office for National Statistics, a non-ministerial department since 1 April 2008
- ^ Since 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could identify themselves as White Irish or White British though no separate White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White British. In the census of Northern Ireland, White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.
- ^ a b Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen, Braumüller, ISBN 3700314221 (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) ISBN 3211353070. Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate Sibylle (2002). Minderheitenrechte in Europa. ISBN 9783700314226. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- ^ "Russian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
- ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii–xx.
- ^ Total population of Yiddish estimated at 1.5 million as of 1991, of which c. 40% in the Ukraine. Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Eastern Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015), Western Yiddish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ^ Bustamante, Carlos D.; Cucca, Francesco (8 May 2014). "Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe". PLOS Genetics. 10 (5): e1004353. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004353. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4014435. PMID 24809476.
- ^ Wilson, J. F. (2001). "Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (9): 5078–5083. Bibcode:2001PNAS...98.5078W. doi:10.1073/pnas.071036898. PMC 33166. PMID 11287634.
- ^ Günther, Torsten; et al. (2015). "Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (38): 11917–11922. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11211917G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1509851112. PMC 4586848. PMID 26351665.
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