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Eurostar (satellite bus)
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Eurostar is a satellite bus made by Airbus Defence and Space (formerly Astrium, and before 1994, British Aerospace, and Matra Marconi Space (the former Marconi Space having been merged with Matra's former "Matra Espace" division) which has been used for a series of spacecraft providing telecommunications services in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). More than 70 Eurostar satellites have been ordered to date, of which more than 55 have been successfully launched since October 1990 and have proven highly reliable in operational service. In December 2013, the Eurostar satellites accumulated 500 years of successful operations in orbit.[1] The Eurostar spacecraft series is designed for a variety of telecommunications needs including fixed services and broadcast, mobile services, broadband and secured communications.
Development
Eurostar was designed in the mid 1980s jointly by Matra Marconi Space and BAe (now integrated within Airbus Defence and Space) to Inmarsat specifications,[2] for a market which at the time had a design envelope of 1.8-2.5 Tons on the proposed launch vehicles (STS PAM D2 and Ariane 4). Satellite payload power was from 1300 to 2600 W. This was the first commercial satellite to have a digital avionics system modular in concept. With this system architecture, all key satellite parameters are in software, which permits mission specific requirements to be implemented without hardware changes. The initial satellite structure and configuration designed to early requirements had significant growth potential, which subsequently allowed the payload capability (mass and power) to be more than quadrupled between 1987 and 1992, with a minimum of re qualification. Airbus DS has since developed further the product line in a staged process which mainly increases the satellite power and propulsion capability and real estate for accommodation of equipment and antennas. The overall configuration of Eurostar satellites has essentially not changed in 20 years through the successive generations Eurostar E1000, E2000, E2000+ and E3000. They have just become larger, more powerful, with implementation costs reduced through longer orbit manoeuvring lifetime, and more efficient and powerful payloads. Nowadays the Eurostar E3000 series has been considerably enhanced and updated with the latest technologies, still maintaining the basic proven configuration. A new version E3000e introduced in 2014 uses electric propulsion for orbit raising.
Range
Eurostar E1000
The original Eurostar E1000 satellite was designed for the Inmarsat-2 fleet requirements by an international team led by Matra Marconi Space and British Aerospace Space Systems (BAe Dynamics), the former of which would ultimately acquire BAe Dynamics to eventually become Astrium and eventually merge with Airbus Military to form the present Airbus Defence and Space. Three-axis stabilized, and designed for a 10-year service life, the Inmarsat-2 had 4 (+2) L-band transponders and 1 (+1) C-Band transponders. The satellite featured a launch mass of 1.31 t (2,900 lb), however, the satellite bus was designed to weigh up to 2.5 t (5,500 lb) to accommodate future customer requirements. Subsequently, the spacecraft also came with different payload power options ranging from 1300 W to 3000 W. This degree of customization was the result of a highly modular design that would carry over onto the upgraded variants.[3][4]
A total of four satellites based on the E1000 bus have been built and launched, all of which were for Inmarsat.
Eurostar E2000/E2000+
The Eurostar E2000, which debuted with France Telecom as the launch customer in December 1991, was a larger and more capable upgrade of the E1000. It was developed from a set of requirements by the French Space Agency (CNES) and the French Ministry of Armed Forces via the Directorate-General for Armaments (DGA). The DGA had decided to repartner with CNES in order to add X-Band capabilities to the mission to enable the creation of their Syracuse II military ground-based telecommunications network, and to replace and enhance the role of the Syracuse I systems aboard the aging Telecom-1 fleet. The first of the satellites to be launched would be the Telecom 2A. Each of the four Telecom-2 satellites in the constellation had 10 x C-Band transponders, 14 x Ku-Band transponders and 5 x X-Band transponders. Despite the increase in capabilities, the E2000 bus used for Telecom-2 was only slightly heavier than the E1000, with an on-orbit mass of 1.38 t (3,000 lb) and a dry weight of 700 kilograms (1,500 lb), however, like its predecessor, was also designed to accommodate larger payloads with a total launch mass of up to 2.5 t (5,500 lb), should the customer require it. The E2000’s operational/maneuverability life varied by customer, but ranged from 7 to 10 years. The E2000’s main power comes from two swivelling solar arrays, with later models capable of producing up to 3600W per array, or 6200 W total with an optional array spanning 22 m (72 ft).[5][4]
The E2000+ satellite bus offered a series of significant upgrades, in addition to being slightly larger than the E2000. Upgrades included:[4]
The first E2000+ customer was Eutelsat's Hot Bird 2. At least 23 E2000 and E2000+ satellite busses were built, with a total of 22 launches.
Eurostar E3000 & Eurostar Neo
The Eurostar E3000 satellite bus was first launched in 2004[6] with Eutesat's Eutelsat W3A payload. Building upon the idea of modularity, the satellite itself can be built with several modules to serve different missions, all based around a common service module, communications module with 1,2, or 3 floors, a chemical or chemical-electric propulsion module, and scalable payload power options. Satellite power can be up to 16 kW (16,000 W) stored in either NiH2 or Lithium-Ion batteries. The solar array's wingspan is also scalable, and capable of deploying to be up to 45 m (148 ft) wide. The spacecraft's maximum launch mass has increased to 6.4 t (14,000 lb), while its telecommunications payload capacity has been increased to up to 120 installed high-power amplifiers/transponders. In 2018, Airbus D&S launched the first E3000e - a modified E3000 with all-electric propulsion, removing the standard propulsion module and over 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) of excess mass with it. SES-12 for SES S.A. was the first customer for the E3000e in June 2018. At least 48 x E3000 and E3000e satellite busses had been built and launched by the end of 2018.
An improved model based on the E3000e called the Eurostar Neo was announced in 2017, and offers electric, hybrid, or chemical propulsion, in addition to a scalable power range of 7 kW to 25 kW. As of 2020, a total of 84 Eurostar satellites had been ordered, with 6 E3000e satellites already in operation.[7]
Modularity
The Eurostar satellite structures are modular with a separate Service-Propulsion module and Communications module.[citation needed]
Satellite orders
Eurostar-1000
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Inmarsat-2 F1InternationalInmarsatCommunications4 L-band, 1 C-band30 October 1990Delta II 6925Retired
Inmarsat-2 F2InternationalInmarsatCommunications4 L-band, 1 C-band8 March 1991Delta II 6925Retired
Inmarsat-2 F3InternationalInmarsatCommunications4 L-band, 1 C-band16 December 1991Ariane-44LRetired
Inmarsat-2 F2InternationalInmarsatCommunications4 L-band, 1 C-band15 April 1992Ariane-44LRetired
Eurostar-2000
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Hispasat 1ASpainHispasatCommunications & military communications12 Ku-band, 3 X-band10 September 1992Ariane-44LRetired
Hispasat 1BSpainHispasatCommunications & military communications12 Ku-band, 3 X-band22 July 1993Ariane-44LActive
Nilesat 101EgyptNilesatTelevision broadcasting12 Ku-band28 April 1998Ariane-44PRetired
Nilesat 102EgyptNilesatTelevision broadcasting12 Ku-band28 April 1998Ariane-44PRetired
Orion 1United StatesOrion Network SystemsTelevision broadcasting & satellite internet34 Ku-band28 April 1998Atlas IIAKnown as Telstar 11Retired
Telecom 2AFranceFrance TelecomCommunications & military communications10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band16 December 1991Ariane-44LRetired
Telecom 2BFranceFrance TelecomCommunications & military communications10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band15 April 1992Ariane-44LRetired
Telecom 2CFranceFrance TelecomCommunications & military communications10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band6 December 1995Ariane-44LRetired
Telecom 2DFranceFrance TelecomCommunications & military communications10 C-band, 11 Ku-band, 5 X-band8 August 1996Ariane-44LRetired
Eurostar-2000+
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
AfriStarUnited States1worldspaceCommunications3 L-band28 October 1998Ariane-44LKnown as Spectrum 1Retired
AsiaStarUnited States1worldspaceCommunications3 L-band21 March 2000Ariane 5GKnown as Spectrum 2Active
Arabsat 4ASaudi ArabiaArabsatCommunications24 C-band, 16 Ku-band28 February 2006Proton-MKnown as Badr 1Launch failure
Arabsat 4BSaudi ArabiaArabsatCommunications28 Ku-band8 November 2006Proton-MKnown as Badr 4Active
Arabsat 4ARSaudi ArabiaArabsatCommunications24 C-band, 20 Ku-band7 July 2008Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Badr 6Active
Astra 2BLuxembourgSES S.A.Communications30 Ku-band14 September 2000Ariane 5GRetired
Eutelsat W1InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting & satellite internet28 Ku-band6 September 2000Ariane-44PKnown as Eutelsat 4ARetired
Hotbird 2InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting20 Ku-band21 November 1996Atlas IIAKnown as Eutelsat 48ARetired
Hotbird 3InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting20 Ku-band2 September 1997Ariane-44LPKnown as Eutelsat W75/ABS 1BActive
Hotbird 4InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting20 Ku-band27 February 1998Ariane-44PKnown as Eutelsat 16BRetired
Hotbird 5InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting20 Ku-band9 October 1998Atlas IIAKnown as Eutelsat 4BRetired
Hotbird 7InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting40 Ku-band11 December 2002Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Eutelsat 4BLaunch failure
ST-1Singapore, TaiwanSingtelTelevision broadcasting16 Ku-band, 14 C-band25 August 1998Ariane-44PRetired
Eurostar-3000
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
ANASIS-IISouth KoreaADDMilitary communications20 July 2020Falcon 9Known as Koreasat 116Active
Amazonas 2SpainHispasatCommunications54 Ku-band, 10 C-band20 July 2020Ariane 5 ECAActive
Arabsat-5ASaudi ArabiaArabsatTelevision broadcasting & satellite internet16 C-band, 24 Ku-band26 June 2010Ariane 5 ECAActive
Arabsat-5BSaudi ArabiaArabsatTelevision broadcasting & satellite internet56 Ku-band, 56 Ka-band3 June 2010Proton-MKnown as Badr 5Active
Arabsat-5CSaudi ArabiaArabsatCommunications26 C-band, 12 Ka-band21 September 2011Ariane 5 ECAActive
Arabsat-6BSaudi ArabiaArabsatCommunications24 Ku-band, 27 Ka-band10 November 2015Ariane 5 ECAActive
Astra 1MLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting & satellite internet32 Ku-band5 November 2008Proton-MActive
Astra 1NLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting55 Ku-band6 August 2011Ariane 5 ECAActive
Astra 1NLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting55 Ku-band6 August 2011Ariane 5 ECAActive
Astra 2ELuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting60 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band29 September 2013Proton-MKnown as Eutelsat 28EActive
Astra 2FLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting60 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band28 September 2012Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Eutelsat 28FActive
Astra 2GLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting62 Ku-band, 4 Ka-band27 December 2014Proton-MKnown as Eutelsat 28GActive
Astra 3BLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting52 Ku-band, 4 Ka-band21 May 2010Ariane 5 ECAActive
Astra 5BLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting40 Ku-band, 3 Ka-band, L-band22 March 2014Ariane 5 ECAActive
AT&T T-16United StatesDirecTVTelevision broadcasting30 Ku-band, 24 Ka-band, 18 Reverse band20 June 2019Ariane 5 ECAActive
Atlantic Bird 7InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting56 Ku-band24 September 2011Zenit-3SLKnown as Eutelsat 7 West AActive
DirecTV 15United StatesDirecTVTelevision broadcasting30 Ku-band, 24 Ka-band, 18 Reverse band27 May 2015Ariane 5 ECAActive
EchoStar 105 / SES 11Luxembourg, United StatesSES S.A., EchoStarTelevision broadcasting24 Ku-band, 24 C-band11 October 2017Falcon 9Active
Ekspress AM4RussiaRSCCCommunications30 C-band, 2 Ka-band, 3 L-band17 August 2011Proton-MLaunch failure
Ekspress AM4RRussiaRSCCCommunications30 C-band, 2 Ka-band, 3 L-band15 May 2014Proton-MLaunch failure
Ekspress AM7RussiaRSCCCommunications24 C-band, 36 Ku-band, 2 L-band18 March 2015Proton-MActive
Ekspress-AMU1RussiaRSCCCommunications70 Ku-band, 70 Ka-band24 December 2015Proton-MActive
Eutelsat 3BInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting & satellite internet51 C-band, 51 Ku band, 51 Ka-band26 May 2014Zenit-3SLActive
Eutelsat 9B / EDRS AInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting & satellite relay66 Ku-band, EDRS payload29 January 2016Proton-MActive
Eutelsat 70BInternationalEutelsatCommunications48 Ku-band3 December 2012Zenit-3SLActive
Hotbird 8InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band4 August 2006Proton-MKnown as Hotbird 13BActive
Hotbird 9InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band20 December 2008Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Hotbird 13CActive
Hotbird 10InternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting64 Ku-band, 64 Ka-band12 February 2009Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Eutelsat 33EActive
Intelsat 10-02InternationalIntelsatCommunications45 C-band, 16 Ku-band16 June 2004Proton-MKnown as Thor 10-02Active
Intelsat 32eInternationalIntelsatTelevision broadcasting81 Ku-band, 21 Ka-band14 February 2017Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Sky-Brasil 1Active
KA-SATInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcastingKa-band26 December 2010Proton-MKnown as Eutelsat KA-SAT 9AActive
MEASAT-3bMalaysiaMEASAT Satellite SystemsCommunications48 Ku-band11 September 2014Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Jabiru 2Active
MEASAT-3dMalaysiaMEASAT Satellite SystemsTelevision broadcasting & satellite internetC-band, Ku-band, L-band2021Ariane 5 ECAAwaiting launch
SES-6LuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting38 C-band, 36 Ku-band3 June 2013Proton-MActive
SES-10LuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcasting50 Ku-band30 March 2017Falcon 9Active
Telstar 12VUnited StatesTelesatCommunications52 Ku-band24 November 2015H-IIA 204Active
Tiba 1EgyptGovernment of EgyptCommunicationsKa-band26 November 2019Ariane 5 ECAActive
Yahsat 1AUnited Arab EmiratesAl YahCommunications14 C-band, 25 Ku-band, 21 Ka-band22 April 2011Ariane 5 ECAKnown as Al Yah 1Active
Yahsat 1BUnited Arab EmiratesAl YahCommunications25 Ka-band, 21 secure Ka-band23 April 2012Proton-MKnown as Al Yah 2Active
Eurostar-3000EOR
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Eutelsat 172BInternationalEutelsatCommunications14 C-band, 36 Ku-band1 June 2017Ariane 5 ECAActive
Inmarsat-6 F1InternationalInmarsatCommunicationsL-band, Ka-band2021H-IIA 204Known as GX 6AAwaiting launch
Inmarsat-6 F2InternationalInmarsatCommunicationsL-band, Ka-bandKnown as GX 6BAwaiting launch
SES-12LuxembourgSES S.A.Communications68 Ku-band, 8 Ka-band4 June 2018Falcon 9Active
SES-14 / GOLDLuxembourgSES S.A.Television broadcastingC-band, Ku-band, GOLD25 January 2018Ariane 5 ECAActive
Syracuse 4BFranceDGAMilitary communicationsX-band, Ka-band2021Ariane 5 ECAAwaiting launch
Türksat 5ATurkeyTürksatCommunicationsKu-band8 January 2021Falcon 9Active
Türksat 5BTurkeyTürksatCommunicationsKu-band, Ka-band2021Falcon 9Awaiting launch
Eurostar-3000GM
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Inmarsat-4 F1InternationalInmarsatMobile communicationsL-band11 March 2005Atlas V 431Active
Inmarsat-4 F2InternationalInmarsatMobile communicationsL-band8 November 2005Zenit-3SLActive
Inmarsat-4 F3InternationalInmarsatMobile communicationsL-band18 August 2008Proton-MActive
SatKomHan 1IndonesiaMinistry of Defense (Indonesia)Military communicationsL-band, MSS2021Awaiting launch
Eurostar-3000S
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Amazonas 1SpainHispasatTelevision broadcasting36 Ku-band, 27 C-band4 August 2004Proton-MRetired
Anik F1CanadaTelesatCommunications24 C-band, 32 Ku-band8 September 2005Proton-MActive
Anik F3CanadaTelesatCommunications24 C-band, 32 Ku-band, 2 Ka-band9 April 2007Proton-MActive
Eutelsat W3AInternationalEutelsatCommunications38 Ku-band, 2 Ka-band15 March 2004Proton-MKnown as Eutelsat 7AActive
Nimiq-4CanadaTelesatCommunications32 Ku-band, 8 Ka-band19 September 2008Proton-MActive
Skynet 5AUnited KingdomMinistry of Defence (United Kingdom)Military communications11 March 2007Ariane 5 ECAActive
Skynet 5BUnited KingdomMinistry of Defence (United Kingdom)Military communications14 November 2007Ariane 5 ECAActive
Skynet 5CUnited KingdomMinistry of Defence (United Kingdom)Military communications12 June 2008Ariane 5 ECAActive
Skynet 5DUnited KingdomMinistry of Defence (United Kingdom)Military communications19 December 2012Ariane 5 ECAActive
AstroBus-G
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
ChollianSouth KoreaKARIMeteorology26 June 2010Ariane 5 ECAKnown as GEO-Kompsat 1Active
Eurostar-Neo
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Arabsat 7BSaudi ArabiaArabsatComunicationsC-band, Ku-band, TELEO2023Known as Badr 8Awaiting launch
Eutelsat 36DInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting70 Ku-band2024Awaiting launch
Hotbird 13FInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting80 Ku-band2021Ariane 64Awaiting launch
Hotbird 13GInternationalEutelsatTelevision broadcasting80 Ku-band2021Ariane 64Awaiting launch
Skynet 6AUnited KingdomMinistry of Defence (United Kingdom)Military communications2025Awaiting launch
Spainsat NG ISpainHispasatMilitary communicationsX-band, Ka-band, UHF2025Awaiting launch
Spainsat NG IISpainHispasatMilitary communicationsX-band, Ka-band, UHF202xAwaiting launch
Thuraya 4United Arab EmiratesThurayaMobile communicationsL-band2024Awaiting launch
Thuraya 5United Arab EmiratesThurayaMobile communicationsL-band202xAwaiting launch
OneSat
SatelliteCountryOperatorTypeCoverageLaunch date (GMT)RocketChangesStatus
Inmarsat-7 F1InternationalInmarsatCommunicationsKa-band2023Known as GX7Awaiting launch
Inmarsat-7 F2InternationalInmarsatCommunicationsKa-band202xKnown as GX8Awaiting launch
Inmarsat-7 F3InternationalInmarsatCommunicationsKa-band202xKnown as GX9Awaiting launch
Intelsat TBDInternationalIntelsatCommunicationsReconfigurable multiband2023Awaiting launch
Intelsat TBDInternationalIntelsatCommunicationsReconfigurable multiband2023Awaiting launch
Optus 11AustraliaOptusCommunicationsKu-band2023Awaiting launch
Superbird-9JapanSKY Perfect JSATCommunicationsKa-band, Ku-band2024Awaiting launch
References
  1. ^ Astrium celebrates 500 years of successful Eurostar satellite operation in orbit, UKspace, 27.12.2013 [1]
  2. ^ Eurostar E3000 Three-Year Flight Experience and Perspective, Jean-François Poussin and Gerard Berger, EADS Astrium, Toulouse, AIAA-2007-3124, 25th AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Seoul, South Korea, Apr. 10-13, 2007 [2][permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Inmarsat-2 F1, 2, 3, 4". space.skyrocket.de. 2017-12-11. Archived from the original on 2020-10-08. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  4. ^ a b c Breton, D.; Rossignol, A. (2006-01-27), "HAL Archives", Eurostar E3000 Satellite On-Board Software Development of a product line towards multiple system needs (PDF), Toulouse, France: HAL Archives and EAD Astrium, p. 3, retrieved 2020-10-09
  5. ^ "La deuxième génération Telecom" [The second generation Telecom] (in French). Eurespace. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  6. ^ "Eurostar 3000". www.astronautix.com. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  7. ^ "Eurostar". Airbus Defence & Space. Archived from the original on 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 18:08
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