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Exclusive economic zone
Not to be confused with Special economic zone.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ), as prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from the coast of the state in question. It is also referred to as a maritime continental margin and, in colloquial usage, may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]
The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue (distinguished from international waters in light blue)
Definition
Sea areas in international rights (top down view)
Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline.[3] The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[4] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[5]
A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[6] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.
Origin
The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.
Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[7]
It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.
Disputes
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2020)
De facto territories in the Spratly Islands
The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.
Potential disputes
Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[29]
Resolved disputes
Transboundary stocks
See also: Highly migratory species
Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[38] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[39]
By country
Algeria
Algeria on 17 April 2018 established an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018.[40][41] The permanent mission of Spain to the United Nations on 27 July 2018 declared its disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the government of Spain indicated its willingness to enter into negotiations with the government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones,[42] The same was done by the Italian mission on 28 November 2018.[43] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.
On 25 November 2018, the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explaining that the Algerian government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian government wished to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution[44]
20 June 2019 a communication from Algeria addressed to the Italian embassy[45] and the Spanish embassy in Algiers[46] to show their eligibility in her exclusive economic zone.
Argentina
Argentina's exclusive economic zones, including its territorial claims (the Falklands and South Georgia etc. plus its Antarctic claim)
Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of Argentina reaches 3,849,756 km2. The recognized Argentine EEZ area is 1,159,063 km2.
Australia
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Australia
Australia's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim
Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[47][48] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.
The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[49][50] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[51] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[50]
RegionEEZ Area (km2)[50]
Mainland Australia (5 States and 3 Territories of the Australian Federation), Tasmania, and other minor islands6,048,681
Macquarie Island471,837
 Christmas Island463,371
 Norfolk Island428,618
Heard Island and McDonald Islands410,722
 Cocos Islands325,021
Australian Antarctic Territory2,000,000[note 1]
Total8,148,250
Brazil
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Brazil
Brazil's exclusive economic zones
Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and the Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.
RegionEEZ Area (km2)[52]
Mainland Brazil (9 States of the Brazilian Federation)
2,570,917
Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands
468,599
Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago
413,636
Fernando de Noronha Islands
363,362
Total3,830,955
In 2004, Brazil submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[53]
Canada
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Canada
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters
Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[54] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic Archipelago.
Chile
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim
Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island, and the Juan Fernández Islands.
RegionEEZ Area (km2)[55]Land Area (km2)Total
Mainland Chile1,975,760755,7572,731,517
Easter Island720,412164720,576
Juan Fernández Islands502,524100502,624
Desventuradas Islands449,8365449,841
Total3,648,532755,9214,404,453
China
Exclusive economic zone claimed by the People's Republic of China:
  China's undisputed EEZ –
877,019 km2 [citation needed]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan – 1,148,485 km2 [56]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by other countries – 210,926 km2
Total: 2,236,430 km2 [57]
The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account adjacent powers' claims.
Croatia
Croatia's exclusive economic zone(dark blue) and Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone
Area: 59,032 km2
Cyprus
See also: Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute
Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)
The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[58] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[59][60]
Denmark
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark
The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.
RegionEEZ & TW Area (km2)[61]Land areaTotal
 Denmark
105 98942 506149 083
 Faroe Islands
260 9951 399262 394
 Greenland
2,184,2542,166,0864,350,340
Total2,551,2382,210,5794,761,817
Ecuador
Ecuador's exclusive economic zone
Area: 1,077,231 km2
France
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of France
Exclusive economic zones of France, including its Antarctic territorial claim
Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11.7 million  km2.[62] The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.
Germany
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Germany
Greece
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Greece
Exclusive economic zone of Greece
Greece has claimed an EEZ of 505,572 km2 (195,202 sq mi) as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[63][64] Turkey doesn't recognize a legal continental shelf and EEZ around the Greek islands. As of 2020, Greece has signed EEZ agreements with Italy and Egypt.[65][66]
India
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of India
India's exclusive economic zones
EEZArea (km2)
Mainland India (9 States and 2 Union Territories of the Indian Federation) and Lakshadweep1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands663,629 km2
Total2,305,143 km2
India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[67]
Indonesia
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Indonesia
Indonesia's exclusive economic zone
Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.[68] It has the 2nd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.
Israel
In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.
Japan
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Japan
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with the Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others
Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi).[69] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores.
EEZ Areas of Japan
RegionEEZ Area (km2)EEZ Area (sq mi)
Ryukyu Islands1,394,676538,487
Pacific Ocean (Japan)1,162,334448,780
Nanpō Islands862,782333,122
Sea of Japan630,721243,523
Minami-Tori-shima428,875165,590
Sea of Okhotsk23591
Daitō Islands4417
Senkaku Islands72.7
Total[70]4,479,6741,729,612
Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (China, Russia, South Korea, and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[71][72][73] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account the claims of adjacent jurisdications.
Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.
Malaysia
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Malaysia
Mexico
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Mexico
Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[74] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.
New Zealand
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of New Zealand
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)
New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[75][76] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[77] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and the Ross Dependency).
North Korea
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of North Korea
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[78] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[79] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[80]
In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korea Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[81] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[82]
In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal​-shaped.​[83] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[84] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[83]
Norway
Norway's exclusive economic zones, including the dependency of Bouvet Island
Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819,620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[85]
In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[86]
RegionEEZ and Territorial
Waters Area (km2)
Land Area (km2)Total (km2)
Mainland Norway1,273,482323,8021,597,284
Svalbard402,57461,002463,576
Jan Mayen273,118373273,491
Bouvet Island436,00449436,053
Total2,385,178385,2262,770,404
Peru
Peru's exclusive economic zone
Area: 906,454 km2
Philippines
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of the Philippines
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue
The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[87]
Poland
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Poland
The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[88]
Portugal
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Portugal
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[89]
Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:
Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over an additional 2.15 million square kilometres of the adjacent continental shelf in May 2009,[90] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.
Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[91] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[92]
Romania
Area: 23,627 km2
Russia
Russia's exclusive economic zone
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Russia
4th largest
Senegal
Senegal's exclusive economic zone
Area: 158,861 km2
Somalia
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Somalia
Somalia's exclusive economic zone
Area: 825,052 km2
South Africa
South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone
South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[63]
South Korea
See also: Syngman Rhee Line
South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan
Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2
Spain
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Spain
Spain's exclusive economic zone
Area: 1,039,233 km2
Thailand
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Thailand
United Kingdom
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of the United Kingdom
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[94]
UK, Ireland, Iceland & Faroes EEZ
The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom,[95] the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.
The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.
The EEZ areas of the United Kingdom, Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories (in decreasing size)[63]
TerritoryEEZ Area (km2)EEZ Area (sq mi)Notes
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands1,449,532559,667Disputed with Argentina.
 Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands836,108322,823
 United Kingdom773,676298,718Including the Isle of Man.
 Tristan da Cunha754,720291,400Including Gough Island.
 British Indian Ocean Territory638,568246,552Disputed with
 Mauritius.
 Falkland Islands550,872212,693Disputed with Argentina.
 Bermuda450,370173,890
 Saint Helena444,916171,783
 Ascension Island441,658170,525
 Turks and Caicos Islands154,06859,486
 Cayman Islands119,13745,999
 Anguilla92,17835,590
 British Virgin Islands80,11730,933
Channel Islands11,6584,501Including
 Guernsey and Jersey.
 Montserrat7,5822,927
 Gibraltar426164Disputed with
 Spain.
 Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia00No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island are claimed by the
 Republic of Cyprus[96] and
 Northern Cyprus.[97]
Total6,805,5862,627,651
A part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.
United States
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of the United States
Exclusive Economic Zone map
The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.
The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size)[98]
TerritoryEEZ Area (km2)EEZ Area (sq mi)Notes
 Alaska
3,770,0211,455,613A non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.
 HawaiiNorthwestern Islands1,579,538609,863Including Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
U.S. East Coast915,763353,578The mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
 HawaiiSoutheastern Islands895,346345,695These islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
U.S. West Coast825,549318,746The mainland coastal states of the Western United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of California, Oregon, Washington.
 Northern Mariana Islands749,268289,294An organized unincorporated​Commonwealth of the United States.
U.S. Gulf Coast707,832273,295The mainland coastal states of the Southern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Gulf Coast of Florida
 Johnston Atoll442,635170,902A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Howland and Baker Islands434,921167,924Including Howland Island and Baker Island, both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 Wake Island
407,241157,237A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 American Samoa404,391156,136The only inhabited unorganized​unincorporated​territory of the United States.
Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef352,300136,000Both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Jarvis Island316,665122,265A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
 Guam221,50485,523An organized unincorporated​territory of the United States.
 Puerto Rico
177,68568,605An organized unincorporated​Commonwealth of the United States.
 U.S. Virgin Islands
33,74413,029An organized unincorporated​territory of the United States.
Navassa IslandN/A[note 2]N/A[note 2]A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Total11,351,0004,383,000
Note, the totals in the table actually add up to 12,234,403 square km and 4,723,705 square miles.
Vietnam
Main article: Exclusive economic zone of Vietnam
Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.
Vietnam claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1,395,096 km2 (538,650 sq mi) with 200 nautical miles (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) from its shores.[102][103]
Excluding all disputed waters, Vietnam has an undisputed exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi).[citation needed] This figure does not include the claimed EEZ areas of the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. Vietnam has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.
Rankings by area
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean
This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.
RankCountryEEZ km2[63]Shelf km2EEZ+TIA km2
1
 France[note 3]
11,691,000730,74512,366,417
2 United States[note 4]11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3 Australia[note 5]8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4
 Russia
7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5United Kingdom[note 6]6,805,586872,8917,048,486
6
 Indonesia
6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7 Canada5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8
 Japan
4,479,388214,9764,857,318
9New Zealand[note 7]4,420,565[75][76][104]272,898[75][76][104]4,688,285[105][106]
10
 Brazil
3,830,955774,56312,345,832
11
 Chile
3,681,989252,9474,431,381
12 Kiribati3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13 Mexico3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15
Denmark[note 8]
2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16
 Papua New Guinea
2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17
 Norway[note 9]
2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18
 India
2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4111,990,711
 Cook Islands[note 10]1,960,0271,2131,960,267
20
 Portugal[note 11]
1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21 Philippines1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23
 South Africa
1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24 Seychelles1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25
 Mauritius
1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26 Fiji1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27
 Madagascar
1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28 Argentina1,159,063856,3463,939,463[107]
29
 Ecuador
1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30
 Spain
1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31
 Maldives
923,32234,538923,622
32
 Peru
906,45482,0002,191,670
33
 China
877,019231,34010,473,980
34
 Somalia
825,05255,8951,462,709
35
 Colombia
808,15853,6911,949,906
36 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
37
 Iceland
751,345108,015854,345
38 Tuvalu749,7903,575749,816
39 Vanuatu663,25111,483675,440
40 Tonga659,5588,517660,305
41 Bahamas654,715106,323668,658
42 Palau603,9782,837604,437
43
 Mozambique
578,98694,2121,380,576
44
 Morocco
575,230115,1571,287,780
45 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
46
 Namibia
564,74886,6981,388,864
47
 Yemen
552,66959,2291,080,637
48
 Italy
541,915116,834843,251
49 Oman533,18059,071842,680
50
 Myanmar
532,775220,3321,209,353
51 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
52
 Angola
518,43348,0921,765,133
53
 Greece*
505,57281,451637,529
54
 South Korea
475,469342,522575,469
55
 Venezuela
471,50798,5001,387,950
56
 Turkey*
462,00056,0931,045,216
57
 Vietnam
417,663365,198748,875
58 Ireland410,310139,935480,583
59 Libya351,58964,7632,111,129
60 Cuba350,75161,525460,637
61
 Panama
335,64653,404411,163
62 Malaysia334,671323,412665,474
 Niue[note 10]316,584284316,844
63 Nauru308,48041308,501
64
 Equatorial Guinea
303,5097,820331,560
65
 Thailand
299,397230,063812,517
66
 Pakistan
290,00051,3831,117,911
67
 Egypt
263,45161,5911,265,451
68 Jamaica258,1379,802269,128
69
 Dominican Republic
255,89810,738304,569
70 Liberia249,73417,715361,103
71 Honduras249,54268,718362,034
72
 Tanzania
241,88825,6111,186,975
73
 Ghana
235,34922,502473,888
74
 Saudi Arabia
228,633107,2492,378,323
75 Nigeria217,31342,2851,141,081
76
 Sierra Leone
215,61128,625287,351
77
 Gabon
202,79035,020470,458
78
 Barbados
186,898426187,328
79
 Côte d'Ivoire
176,25410,175498,717
80 Iran168,718118,6931,797,468
81
 Mauritania
165,33831,6621,190,858
82 Comoros163,7521,526165,987
83 Sweden160,885154,604602,255
84
 Senegal
158,86123,092355,583
85
Netherlands[note 12]
154,01177,246192,345
86
 Ukraine
147,31879,142750,818
87
 Uruguay
142,16675,327318,381
88 Guyana137,76550,578352,734
89 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
90 Samoa127,9502,087130,781
91
 Suriname
127,77253,631291,592
92 Haiti126,7606,683154,510
93
 Algeria
126,3539,9852,508,094
94 Nicaragua123,88170,874254,254
95 Guinea-Bissau123,72539,339159,850
96 Bangladesh118,81366,438230,390
97
 Kenya
116,94211,073697,309
98 Guatemala114,17014,422223,059
99 North Korea113,888[108][109]50,337[108][109]234,428[110]
100
 Antigua and Barbuda
110,0894,128110,531
101
 Tunisia
101,85767,126265,467
102
 Cyprus*
98,7074,042107,958
103 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
104 Finland[note 13]87,17185,109425,590
105
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
83,23143,016119,419
106 Eritrea77,72861,817195,328
107 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
108 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
109 Sudan68,14819,8271,954,216
110
 Cambodia
62,51562,515243,550
111
 Guinea
59,42644,755305,283
112 Croatia59,03250,277115,626
113 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
114 Germany57,48557,485414,599
115
 Malta
54,8235,30155,139
116
 Estonia
36,99236,99282,219
117
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
36,3021,56136,691
118 Belize35,35113,17858,317
119 Bulgaria34,30710,426145,186
120
 Benin
33,2212,721145,843
121 Qatar31,59031,59043,176
122
 Republic of the Congo
31,0177,982373,017
123 Poland29,79729,797342,482
124 Dominica28,98565929,736
125 Latvia28,45227,77293,011
126 Grenada27,4262,23727,770
127 Israel26,3523,74548,424
128 Romania23,62719,303262,018
129 Gambia23,1125,58134,407
130 Georgia21,9463,24391,646
131 Lebanon19,5161,06729,968
132 Cameroon16,54711,420491,989
133 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
134 Albania13,6916,97942,439
135 Togo12,0451,26568,830
136 Kuwait11,02611,02628,844
137 Syria10,5031,085195,683
138 Bahrain10,22510,22510,975
139 Brunei10,0908,50915,855
140 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
141 Montenegro7,7453,89621,557
142 Djibouti7,4593,18730,659
143 Lithuania7,0317,03172,331
144 Belgium3,4473,44733,975
145 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
146 Singapore1,0671,0671,772
147 Iraq771771439,088
148 Monaco2882290
149 Palestine2562566,276
150 Slovenia22022020,493
151 Jordan1665989,508
152 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
 Kazakhstan2,724,900
 Mongolia1,564,100
 Chad1,284,000
 Niger1,267,000
 Mali1,240,192
 Ethiopia1,104,300
 Bolivia1,098,581
 Zambia752,612
 Afghanistan652,090
 Central African Republic622,984
 South Sudan619,745
 Botswana582,000
 Turkmenistan488,100
 Uzbekistan447,400
 Paraguay406,752
 Zimbabwe390,757
 Burkina Faso274,222
 Uganda241,038
 Laos236,800
 Belarus207,600
 Kyrgyzstan199,951
   Nepal147,181
 Tajikistan143,100
 Malawi118,484
 Hungary93,028
 Azerbaijan86,600
 Austria83,871
 Czech Republic78,867
 Serbia77,474
 Slovakia49,035
  Switzerland41,284
 Bhutan38,394
 Moldova33,846
 Lesotho30,355
 Armenia29,743
 Burundi27,834
 Rwanda26,338
 North Macedonia25,713
 Eswatini17,364
 Kosovo[a]10,887
 Luxembourg2,586
 Andorra468
 Liechtenstein160
 San Marino61
  Vatican City0.44
Total United Nations137,926,51525,149,113274,891,722
*self-claimed
See also
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Notes
  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
  2. ^ a b The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island[99][100] even though the U.S. federal government did claim an EEZ area for this disputed territory.[101]
  3. ^ Comprising Metropolitan France and Overseas France.
  4. ^ Including Palmyra Atoll and 12 unincorporated territories of the United States. The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island.
  5. ^ Including 6 Australian external territories.
  6. ^ Comprising the United Kingdom, 3 Crown dependencies and 12 British Overseas Territories. The source does not provide any data for the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  7. ^ Comprising New Zealand proper and Tokelau. The Cook Islands and Niue are listed separately due to their full treaty-making capacities within the United Nations System.
  8. ^ Comprising Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland.
  9. ^ Including Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard.
  10. ^ a b A part of the Realm of New Zealand, listed separately due to its full treaty-making capacity within the United Nations System.
  11. ^ Comprising Continental Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira.
  12. ^ Comprising the European Netherlands and the Dutch Caribbean.
  13. ^ Including the Åland Islands.
a.
^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently (this note self-updates) recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
References
^ See:​[15]​[16]​[17]​[18]​[19]​[20]​[21]​[22]​[23]​[24]​[25]
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  4. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  5. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  7. ^ The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  8. ^ "Turkey sends non-paper to EU, warning to stay away from Cyprus EEZ". KeepTalkingGreece. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
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  10. ^ "Wess Mitchell sends clear message to Turkey over Cyprus". Kathimerini. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
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  13. ^ "Athens, Paris, Moscow and Cairo urge Ankara not to violate Cyprus' sovereignty". Kathimerini. 9 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Saudi Arabia: 'We support our ally Cyprus against Turkey's activities in Mediterranean'". Middle East Monitor. 13 September 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
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  41. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to March 20, 2018 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the Algerian coast"(PDF).
  42. ^ "Letter from Spain to the Secretary-General of 27 July 2018" (PDF).
  43. ^ "Letter from Italy to the Secretary-General of November 28 2018" (PDF).
  44. ^ "oral note of the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs response to the Spanish protest" (PDF).
  45. ^ "Communication from Algeria addressed to Italy dated 20 June 2019" (PDF).
  46. ^ "Communication from Algeria addressed to Spain dated 20 June 2019" (PDF).
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  48. ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions Archived 5 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  49. ^ UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Archived 25 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  50. ^ a b c "Oceans and Seas". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  51. ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  52. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Mainland Brazil 2,570,917 km2, Fernando de Noronha Islands 363,362 km2, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago 413,636 km2, and the Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands 468,599 km2
  53. ^ "UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission" (PDF).
  54. ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature Archived 21 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Mainland Chile 1,975,760 km2, the Desventuradas Islands 449,836 km2, Easter Island 720,412 km2, the Juan Fernández, Felix and Ambrosio Islands 502,524 km2
  56. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Taiwan – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  57. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of China – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  58. ^ Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών – About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
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  62. ^ "UKNDA DISCUSSION PAPER" (PDF).
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  70. ^ Including areas recommended by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf "CLCS".
  71. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (main islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  72. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (Daitō Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  73. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Japan (Ogasawara Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  74. ^ "Geographic location".
  75. ^ a b c EEZ and shelf areas of New Zealand (mainland) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  76. ^ a b c EEZ and shelf areas of New Zealand (Kermadec Islands) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
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  79. ^ Kim 2017, p. 20.
  80. ^ Kim 2017, pp. 20, 71–72.
  81. ^ Kim 2017, p. 77.
  82. ^ Kotch & Abbey 2003, p. 179.
  83. ^ a b Van Dyke 2009, p. 42.
  84. ^ Kim 2017, p. 51.
  85. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  86. ^ UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension Archived 11 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  87. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of the Philippines – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  88. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International. "404"(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
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  90. ^ Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Retrieved 3 July 2011
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  96. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of the Republic of Cyprus – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  97. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Northern Cyprus – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
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  102. ^ EEZ and shelf areas of Vietnam – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
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  106. ^ "FAO Country Profiles:Tokelau". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  107. ^ If the claimed Argentine Antarctica and its associated EEZ area are included, the total internal area of Argentina plus its EEZ area reaches 6,581,500 km2.
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  109. ^ a b EEZ and shelf areas of North Korea (Sea of Japan) – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
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Works cited:
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